Secure Digital abbreviated as SD, is a non-volatile memory card format developed by the SD Card Association for use in portable devices. The standard was introduced in August 1999 by joint efforts between SanDisk and Toshiba as an improvement over MultiMediaCards, has become the industry standard; the three companies formed SD-3C, LLC, a company that licenses and enforces intellectual property rights associated with SD memory cards and SD host and ancillary products. The companies formed the SD Association, a non-profit organization, in January 2000 to promote and create SD Card standards. SDA today has about 1,000 member companies; the SDA uses several trademarked logos owned and licensed by SD-3C to enforce compliance with its specifications and assure users of compatibility. In 1999, SanDisk and Toshiba agreed to develop and market the Secure Digital Memory Card; the card was derived from the MultiMediaCard and provided digital rights management based on the Secure Digital Music Initiative standard and for the time, a high memory density.
It was designed to compete with the Memory Stick, a DRM product that Sony had released the year before. Developers predicted; the trademarked SD logo was developed for the Super Density Disc, the unsuccessful Toshiba entry in the DVD format war. For this reason the D within the logo resembles an optical disc. At the 2000 Consumer Electronics Show trade show, the three companies announced the creation of the SD Association to promote SD cards; the SD Association, headquartered in San Ramon, United States, started with about 30 companies and today consists of about 1,000 product manufacturers that make interoperable memory cards and devices. Early samples of the SD Card became available in the first quarter of 2000, with production quantities of 32 and 64 MB cards available three months later; the miniSD form was introduced at March 2003 CeBIT by SanDisk Corporation which announced and demonstrated it. The SDA adopted the miniSD card in 2003 as a small form factor extension to the SD card standard.
While the new cards were designed for mobile phones, they are packaged with a miniSD adapter that provides compatibility with a standard SD memory card slot. In September 2006, SanDisk announced the 4 GB miniSDHC. Like the SD and SDHC, the miniSDHC card has the same form factor as the older miniSD card but the HC card requires HC support built into the host device. Devices that support miniSDHC work with miniSD and miniSDHC, but devices without specific support for miniSDHC work only with the older miniSD card. Since 2008, miniSD cards were no longer produced; the microSD removable miniaturized Secure Digital flash memory cards were named T-Flash or TF, abbreviations of TransFlash. TransFlash and microSD cards are functionally identical allowing either to operate in devices made for the other. SanDisk had conceived microSD when its chief technology officer and the chief technology officer of Motorola concluded that current memory cards were too large for mobile phones; the card was called T-Flash, but just before product launch, T-Mobile sent a cease-and-desist letter to SanDisk claiming that T-Mobile owned the trademark on T-, the name was changed to TransFlash.
At CTIA Wireless 2005, the SDA announced the small microSD form factor along with SDHC secure digital high capacity formatting in excess of 2 GB with a minimum sustained read and write speed of 17.6 Mbit/s. SanDisk induced the SDA to administer the microSD standard; the SDA approved the final microSD specification on July 13, 2005. MicroSD cards were available in capacities of 32, 64, 128 MB; the Motorola E398 was the first mobile phone to contain a TransFlash card. A few years their competitors began using microSD cards; the SDHC format, announced in January 2006, brought improvements such as 32 GB storage capacity and mandatory support for FAT32 filesystems. In April, the SDA released a detailed specification for the non-security related parts of the SD memory card standard and for the Secure Digital Input Output cards and the standard SD host controller. In January 2009, the SDA announced the SDXC family, which supports cards up to 2 TB and speeds up to 300 MB/s, it features mandatory support for the exFAT filesystem.
SDXC was announced at Consumer Electronics Show 2009. At the same show, SanDisk and Sony announced a comparable Memory Stick XC variant with the same 2 TB maximum as SDXC, Panasonic announced plans to produce 64 GB SDXC cards. On March 6, Pretec introduced the first SDXC card, a 32 GB card with a read/write speed of 400 Mbit/s, but only early in 2010 did compatible host devices come onto the market, including Sony's Handycam HDR-CX55V camcorder, Canon's EOS 550D Digital SLR camera, a USB card reader from Panasonic, an integrated SDXC card reader from JMicron. The earliest laptops to integrate SDXC card readers relied on a USB 2.0 bus, which does not have the bandwidth to support SDXC at full speed. In early 2010, commercial SDXC cards appeared from Toshiba and SanDisk. In early 2011, Centon Electronics, Inc. and Lexar began shipping SDXC cards rated at Speed Class 10. Pretec offered cards from 8 GB to 128 GB rated at Speed Class 16. In September 2011, SanDisk released a 64 GB microSDXC card. Kingmax released a comparable product in 2011.
In April 2012, Panasonic introduced MicroP2 card format for professional video applications. The cards are full-size SDHC or SDXC UHS-II cards, rated at UHS Speed Class U1. An adapter allows MicroP
Social Democratic Party of Croatia
The Social Democratic Party of Croatia is a social-democratic political party and the largest party of the Croatian centre-left. The SDP is one of the two major political parties in Croatia, along with the centre-right Croatian Democratic Union; the SDP was formed in 1990 as the successor of the League of Communists of Croatia, Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, which had governed Croatia within the Yugoslav federation since World War II. The party first formed a coalition government headed by Ivica Račan. After losing the 2003 general election, the party remained in opposition for eight years. In the 2011 parliamentary election SDP won 61 out of 151 seats in the Croatian Parliament, managed to form the 12th Croatian Government under Zoran Milanović with its partners from the Kukuriku coalition. After SDP and its coalition partners failed to achieve an agreement on forming a new government following the 2015 general election, the party returned to the opposition. Former SDP member and presidential candidate Ivo Josipović served as the third President of Croatia from 2010 to 2015.
Another SDP member, Neven Mimica is the current European Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development at the European Commission. The SDP is a member of the Party of European Socialists, Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, Progressive Alliance, the Socialist International; the SDP was established on 3 November 1990 by the social democratic faction of the former League of Communists of Croatia, the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. SKH delegation led by Ivica Račan, along with their Slovenian counterparts, had abandoned the 14th congress of SKJ in January 1990 following a dispute with the Serbian delegation led by Slobodan Milošević over how SFR Yugoslavia should be reorganized. At the same time Croatia was preparing for its first multi-party election following the decision made by SKH in December 1989 which envisioned elections in April and May 1990. In February 1990 the SR Croatia parliament adopted amendments to the constitution which enabled a multi-party system.
That same month SKH had rebranded themselves as the "Party of Democratic Reform" and went on to run in the 1990 election as SKH-SDP, coming in second behind the Croatian Democratic Union with 26 percent of votes and a total of 107 seats in all three houses of parliament which had 351 seat. On 3 November 1990 the party was established in its current form, by dropping the initialism SKH from its name. In the August 1992 election, the first election held according to the new Constitution of Croatia, adopted on 22 December 1990, SDP won 5.52% of the popular vote and a total of 11 seats in the 138-seat parliament. In 1993 the party re-branded themselves again and changed their name to the "Social Democratic Party", the name they kept to this day. In 1990, a parallel Social Democratic Party of Croatia was founded, it was renamed to the Social Democrats of Croatia. Like most parties created at the time, it was opposed to the communist government and wanted Croatia to secede from Yugoslavia, yet it had the distinction of being one of the few to present itself as left-wing.
The party founders included many prominent intellectuals, including Antun Vujić and Miroslav Tuđman This party claimed that it was continuing tradition of the historical Social Democratic Party of Croatia, created in 1894 and merged in 1919 into the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. In the first Croatian parliamentary election, 1990, SDSH joined the centrist Coalition of People's Accord and fared badly, winning only 21 out of 351 seats. However, its position was strong enough to warrant ministerial posts in the national unity government of Franjo Gregurić, in power from July 1991 to August 1992. However, its two ministers Bosiljko Mišetić and Zvonimir Baletić defected to the conservative Croatian Democratic Union soon after their appointment. Before the 1992 parliamentary and presidential elections, SDSH was involved in bitter dispute with the SDP over its rebranding into the Social Democratic Party of Croatia. SDSH claimed; the election showed SDP to be much stronger party than SDSH. At the same time, SDSH leader Antun Vujić finished last in the 1992 presidential race, winning a meagre 0.7 percent of the vote.
This led to SDSH and SDP patching their differences and former being incorporated into the latter in April 1994. In the following 1995 election, SDP won 8.93 percent of the popular vote and a total of 10 seats in the parliament, coming in fourth behind the Croatian Democratic Union, Croatian Peasant Party and the Croatian Social Liberal Party. In August 1998 SDP and HSLS leaders Ivica Račan and Dražen Budiša signed a coalition agreement and proceeded to run together in the January 2000 parliamentary elections; the SDP-HSLS coalition won the election with 38.7 % of 71 out of 151 seats. SDP and HSLS formed a six-way centre-left coalition government along with the Croatian Peasant Party, the Liberal Party, Croatian People's Party, the Istrian Democratic Assembly. Račan, as the leader of the strongest party, became Prime Minister in the first Račan cabinet; this period was marred with constant disagreements among coalition members on various issues. The constitution was changed several times. Račan had offered the post of Speaker of Parliament to Budiša, but Budiša declined hoping to win the upcoming 2000 presidential election.
Succinate dehydrogenase or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. It is the only enzyme that participates in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. Histochemical analysis showing high succinate dehydrogenase in muscle demonstrates high mitochondrial content and high oxidative potential. In step 6 of the citric acid cycle, SQR catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate with the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol; this occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane by coupling the two reactions together. Mitochondrial and many bacterial monomer SQRs are composed of four subunits: two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic; the first two subunits, a flavoprotein and an iron-sulfur protein, are hydrophilic. SdhA contains a covalently attached flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor and the succinate binding site and SdhB contains three iron-sulfur clusters:, and.
The second two subunits are hydrophobic membrane anchor subunits, SdhC and SdhD. Human mitochondria contain two distinct isoforms of SdhA, these isoforms are found in Ascaris suum and Caenorhabditis elegans; the subunits form a membrane-bound cytochrome b complex with six transmembrane helices containing one heme b group and a ubiquinone-binding site. Two phospholipid molecules, one cardiolipin and one phosphatidylethanolamine, are found in the SdhC and SdhD subunits, they serve to occupy the hydrophobic space below the heme b. These subunits are displayed in the attached image. SdhA is green, SdhB is teal, SdhC is fuchsia, SdhD is yellow. Around SdhC and SdhD is a phospholipid membrane with the intermembrane space at the top of the image. Ubiquinone's binding site, image 4, is located in a gap composed of SdhB, SdhC, SdhD. Ubiquinone is stabilized by the side chains of His207 of subunit B, Ser27 and Arg31 of subunit C, Tyr83 of subunit D; the quinone ring is surrounded by Ile28 of subunit C and Pro160 of subunit B.
These residues, along with Il209, Trp163, Trp164 of subunit B, Ser27 of subunit C, form the hydrophobic environment of the quinone-binding pocket. SdhA provides the binding site for the oxidation of succinate; the side chains Thr254, His354, Arg399 of subunit A stabilize the molecule while FAD oxidizes and carries the electrons to the first of the iron-sulfur clusters. This can be seen in image 5; the succinate-binding site and ubiquinone-binding site are connected by a chain of redox centers including FAD and the iron-sulfur clusters. This chain extends over 40 Å through the enzyme monomer. All edge-to-edge distances between the centers are less than the suggested 14 Å limit for physiological electron transfer; this electron transfer is demonstrated in image 8. Little is known about the exact succinate oxidation mechanism. However, the crystal structure shows that FAD, Glu255, Arg286, His242 of subunit A are good candidates for the initial deprotonation step. Thereafter, there are two possible elimination mechanisms: E1cb.
In the E2 elimination, the mechanism is concerted. The basic residue or cofactor deprotonates the alpha carbon, FAD accepts the hydride from the beta carbon, oxidizing the bound succinate to fumarate—refer to image 6. In E1cb, an enolate intermediate is shown in image 7, before FAD accepts the hydride. Further research is required to determine which elimination mechanism succinate undergoes in Succinate Dehydrogenase. Oxidized fumarate, now loosely bound to the active site, is free to exit the protein. After the electrons are derived from succinate oxidation via FAD, they tunnel along the relay until they reach the cluster; these electrons are subsequently transferred to an awaiting ubiquinone molecule within the active site. The Iron-Sulfur electron tunneling system is shown in image 9; the O1 carbonyl oxygen of ubiquinone is oriented at the active site by hydrogen bond interactions with Tyr83 of subunit D. The presence of electrons in the iron sulphur cluster induces the movement of ubiquinone into a second orientation.
This facilitates a second hydrogen bond interaction between the O4 carbonyl group of ubiquinone and Ser27 of subunit C. Following the first single electron reduction step, a semiquinone radical species is formed; the second electron arrives from the cluster to provide full reduction of the ubiquinone to ubiquinol. This mechanism of the ubiquinone reduction is shown in image 8. Although the functionality of the heme in succinate dehydrogenase is still being researched, some studies have asserted that the first electron delivered to ubiquinone via may tunnel back and forth between the heme and the ubiquinone intermediate. In this way, the heme cofactor acts as an electron sink, its role is to prevent the interaction of the intermediate with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species. The heme group, relative to ubiquinone, is shown in image 4, it has been proposed that a gating mechanism may be in place to prevent the electrons from tunneling directly to the heme from the cluster. A potential candidate is residue His207, which lies directly between the heme.
His207 of subunit B is in direct proximity to the cluster, the bound ubiquinone, the heme. To reduce the quinone in SQR, two electrons as well as two protons are needed, it has been argued that a water molecule arrives at the active site and is coordinated by His207 of subunit B, Arg31 of subunit C, Asp82 of subunit D. The semiquinone species is protonated by protons deliv
Southern Kurdish is a Kurdish group of languages/dialects predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq. In Iran, it is spoken in the provinces of Ilam. In Iraq it is spoken in the region of Khanaqin, all the way to Pehle, it is the dialect of the populous Kurdish Kakayî-Kakavand tribe near Kirkuk and most Yarsani kurds in Kermanshah province. There are populous diasporas of Southern Kurdish-speakers found in the Alburz mountains. Native speakers use various different alphabets to write Southern Kurdish, the most common ones are extensions of the standard Kurdish alphabets; the extension consists of an extra vowel, "ۊ" for the Arabic-based Sorani script and "ü" for the Latin-based Kurmanji script. The subdialects of Southern Kurdish are: Kermanshahi is spoken in western Iran, in and around the city of Kermanshah. Feyli, referring to the Feyli tribe, it is spoken in eastern Iraq in the Khanaqin region of Diyala province near the Iranian border, in western Iran in Ilam province and parts of Kermanshah province, by the Feyli Kurds.
Mahaki is a sub-dialect. It is spoken by the tribe of Ali Sherwan in Ilam, by all Feyli Kurds in Baghdad, Mandali and Zorbatiah in Iraq, it shares many features with Sorani. Garrusi Bijari Malekshahi Sanjâbi referring to the language of Sanjâbi people, it is related Laki is spoken in the central Zagros region of Iran, in the provinces of Lorestan, Sahneh Darreh Shahr and Holeylan in Ilam Province, in much smaller numbers in the provinces of Qazvin and Khuzestan. Kalhori referring to Kalhor. Kermanshahi Kalhor Gorani Hawrami dialects Central Kurdish Northern Kurdish Laki dialect Kamandar Fattah, Les Dialectes kurdes méridionaux: étude linguistique et dialectologique. Louvain, Peeters, 2000, p. 55-62. Information regarding Southern Kurdish Kurdish Academy of Language describing Southern Kurdish Audio recordings of wordlists and narratives in Southern Kurdish, archived with Kaipuleohone southern Kurdish Wikipedia
Sydney Dental Hospital
Sydney Dental Hospital is a hospital in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated between Chalmers Street and Elizabeth Street opposite the entrance to Central Station. SDH provides specialist treatment to people referred statewide for Paediatric Dentistry, Periodontics, Oral Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Endodontics, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-facial Surgery and Implantology services; the Special Care Dental Unit provides care to those with chronic mental health conditions and the elderly. The Sydney Dental Hospital "The United Dental Hospital of Sydney" was founded in 1905 under the Dental Hospital Union Act of 1904. Located in George Street the State Government provided funds for the new hospital in Chalmers Street and the building was completed in 1912; the Sydney Dental Hospital celebrated serving the community for 110 years. The building that now houses the Sydney Dental Hospital was opened in 1940 for the dual purpose of providing modern and efficient treatment for the impoverished as well as a functional training ground for dental students at the University of Sydney.
Designed by the Sydney firm of Stephenson and Turner, it is an early and notable Australian example of the Streamline Moderne style. Official website
Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, the like displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can be at the top of the screen if there is text at the bottom of the screen. They can either be a form of written translation of a dialog in a foreign language, or a written rendering of the dialog in the same language, with or without added information to help viewers who are deaf or hard of hearing to follow the dialog, or people who cannot understand the spoken dialogue or who have accent recognition problems; the encoded method can either be pre-rendered with the video or separate as either a graphic or text to be rendered and overlaid by the receiver. The separate subtitles are used for DVD, Blu-ray and television teletext/Digital Video Broadcasting subtitling or EIA-608 captioning, which are hidden unless requested by the viewer from a menu or remote controller key or by selecting the relevant page or service, always carry additional sound representations for deaf and hard of hearing viewers.
Teletext subtitle language follows the original audio, except in multi-lingual countries where the broadcaster may provide subtitles in additional languages on other teletext pages. EIA-608 captions are similar, except that North American Spanish stations may provide captioning in Spanish on CC3. DVD and Blu-ray only differ in using run-length encoded graphics instead of text, as well as some HD DVB broadcasts. Sometimes at film festivals, subtitles may be shown on a separate display below the screen, thus saving the film-maker from creating a subtitled copy for just one showing. Television subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing is referred to as closed captioning in some countries. More exceptional uses include operas, such as Verdi's Aida, where sung lyrics in Italian are subtitled in English or in another local language outside the stage area on luminous screens for the audience to follow the storyline, or on a screen attached to the back of the chairs in front of the audience; the word subtitle is the prefix sub- followed by title.
In some cases, such as live opera, the dialog is displayed above the stage in what are referred to as surtitles. Today, professional subtitlers work with specialized computer software and hardware where the video is digitally stored on a hard disk, making each individual frame accessible. Besides creating the subtitles, the subtitler also tells the computer software the exact positions where each subtitle should appear and disappear. For cinema film, this task is traditionally done by separate technicians; the end result is a subtitle file containing the actual subtitles as well as position markers indicating where each subtitle should appear and disappear. These markers are based on timecode if it is a work for electronic media, or on film length if the subtitles are to be used for traditional cinema film; the finished subtitle file is used to add the subtitles to the picture, either: directly into the picture. Subtitles can be created by individuals using available subtitle-creation software like Subtitle Workshop for Windows, MovieCaptioner for Mac/Windows, Subtitle Composer for Linux, hardcode them onto a video file with programs such as VirtualDub in combination with VSFilter which could be used to show subtitles as softsubs in many software video players.
For multimedia-style Webcasting, check: SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. Some programs and online software allow automatic captions using speech-to-text features. For example, in YouTube, automatic captions are available in English, French, Italian, Korean, Portuguese and Spanish. If automatic captions are available for the language, they'll automatically be published on the video, using the YT Video Manager in the Creator Studio. Same-language captions, i.e. without translation, were intended as an aid for people who are deaf or hard of hearing. Internationally, there are several major studies which demonstrate that same-language captioning can have a major impact on literacy and reading growth across a broad range of reading abilities; this method of subtitling is used by national television broadcasters in China and in India such as Doordarshan. This idea was struck upon by Brij Kothari, who believed that SLS makes reading practice an incidental and subconscious part of popular TV entertainment, at a low per-person cost to shore up literacy rates in India.
Same language subtitling is the use of synchronized captioning of musical lyrics as a repeated reading activity. The basic reading activity involves students viewing a short subtitled presentation projected onscreen, while completing a response worksheet. To be effective, the subtitling should have high quality synchronization of audio and text, better yet, subtitling should change color in syllabic synchronization to audio model, the text should be at a level to challenge students' language abilities. Closed captioning is the American term for closed subtitles intended for people who are deaf or hard of hearing; these are a transcription rather than a translation, cont