Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a large multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung. Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; the history of the company started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on 15 November 1886. One year Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines. Twenty years the first magneto for automobiles followed; the first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906, the company produced its 100,000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers. In 1910, the Feuerbach plant was built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913. In 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation. In 1926, Bosch started to produce windshield wipers, in 1927, injection pumps for diesel.
Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company presented its first car radio; as early as the end of 1933, negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began on relocating parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative plants in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH in Hildesheim. Both plants were used for armaments production; these "shadow factories" were built under great secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities. In 1937, Bosch AG became a limited liability company; the Bosch subsidiary Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war, female concentration camp prisoners, including many women from the Warsaw Uprising. They had to produce accessories for German Luftwaffe aircraft.
In Hildesheim, a secret plant for the entire electrical equipment of tanks and trucks of the Wehrmacht was built. In 1944, 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke factory, 2,019 of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees. During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people, deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim. In the last years of the war, no new German tank drove without the starter elements from the Bosch factory in Hildesheim. Bosch had a monopoly position in the outfitting of German Luftwaffe aircraft. During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an larger number of factories, relocated parts of its production to 213 plants in more than 100 locations. On 12 March 1942, the company's founder, Robert Bosch, died at the age of 80. Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners of Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH and Trillke-Werke as part of a Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt project, researched the history of the two shadow factories, published several books and exhibitions on the subject.
In 2016, they published the website z. B. Bosch. Zwangsarbeit im Hildesheimer Wald. After the second world war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded. Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH, renamed Telenorma in 1985, acquired in 1987. In 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH; the most relevant inventions of the company until 2000 were the oxygen sensor, the electric motor control, the traction control system, the xenon light for cars, the electronic stability control, the common rail direct fuel injection, the direct fuel injection. In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area. In 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which they renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG. In the same year, the company opened a new testing centers in Vaitoudden close to Arjeplog in north Sweden.
A new developing center in Abstatt, Germany followed in 2004. In 2002, Bosch acquired Philips CSI, which at the time was manufacturing a broad range of professional communication and security products and systems including CCTV, congress and public address systems. Important inventions in these years were the electric hydraulic brake in 2001, the common rail fuel injection with piezo-injectors, the digital car radio with a disc drive, the cordless screwdriver with a lithium-ion battery in 2003. Bosch received the Deutsche Zukunftspreis from the German president in 2005 and 2008. A new development center was planned in 2008 in Renningen. In 2014, the first departments moved to the new center, while the remaining departments followed in 2015. In 2006, Bosch acquired Electro-Voice. In 2009, Bosch invested about 3.6 billion Euro in research. 3900 patents are published per year. In addition to increasing energy efficiency by employing renewable energies, the company plans to invest into new areas such as biomedical engineering.
China has developed into an important manufacturing base for Bosch. In 2
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, was referencing light fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries; the yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660. Today's yachts differ from other vessels by their leisure purpose. A yacht is any power vessel used for pleasure, cruising or racing. A yacht does not have to have luxury accommodations to be a yacht, in fact many racing yachts are stripped out vessels with the minimum of accommodations; the term'sailboat' is sometimes used in America to differentiate sail from powerboat. See also'yachting'. There are about 6,500 yacht over 24m on the market. Charter yachts are a subset of yachts used for pleasure, cruising or racing, but run as a business for profit. Ownership can be corporate; the paid crews of these vessels call themselves'yachties'.
Yacht lengths range from 7 metres up to dozens of meters. A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more called a cabin cruiser or a cruiser. A superyacht refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht refers to any yacht over 50 metres. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, which indicates the nationality of the ship. Although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question; the US yacht ensign for example, has a circle of 13 stars and a fouled anchor in the canton instead of the 50 stars, being quite different from the ensign of the United States, the flag of the United States. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration. Carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions; until the 1950s all yachts were made of wood or steel, but a much wider range of materials is used today.
Although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, but include modern products such as plywood, skinned balsa and epoxy resins. Wood is used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in overall length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres, where the distinction between a yacht and a ship becomes blurred. Most owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size.
Many modern racing sail yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig, that allow them to sail close to the wind. This capability is the result of a hull design oriented towards this capability. Day sailing yachts are small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they have a retractable keel, centreboard, or daggerboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys, they may have a'cuddy' cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray. Weekender yachts are larger, at under 9.5 metres in length. They may have twin keels or lifting keels such as in trailer sailers; this allows them to operate in shallow waters, if needed "dry out"—become beached as the tide falls. This is important in UK waters; the hull shape allows the boat to sit upright. Such boats are designed to undertake short journeys lasting more than 2 or 3 days.
In coastal areas, long trips may be undertaken in a series of short hops. Weekenders have only a simple cabin consisting of a single "saloon" with bedspace for two to four people. Clever use of ergonomics allows space in the saloon for a galley and navigation equipment. There is limited space for stores of food. Most are single-masted "Bermuda sloops", with a single foresail of the jib or genoa type and a single mainsail; some are gaff rigged. The smallest of this type called pocket yachts or pocket cruisers, trailer sailers can be transported on special trailers. Cruising yachts are by far the most common yacht in private use, making up most of the 7–14-metre range; these vessels can be quite complex in design, as they need a balance between docile handling qualities, interior space, good light-wind performance and on-board comfort. The huge range of such craft, from dozens of builders worldwide, makes it hard to give a single illustrative description. However, most favor a teardrop-planform hull, with a fine bow, a wide, flat bottom and deep single-fin keel with ample beam to give good stability.
Most are single-masted Bermuda rigged sloops, with a single fo
The Škoda Octavia is a small family car produced by the Czech manufacturer Škoda Auto since 1996. It shares its name with an earlier model produced between 1959 and 1971. There have been three generations of the modern-era Octavia model to date, delivered with 5-door liftback saloon or 5-door estate styles only; the car is front engined, both front or four wheel drive are offered. Around five million units have been sold in its two decades of presence on the market; the Octavia is Škoda's most popular model 40% of all newly manufactured Škoda cars are Octavias. The current generation is available in wide range of derivatives, i.e. sports Octavia RS, four-wheel drive Octavia Combi 4x4, frugal Octavia GreenLine, CNG-powered Octavia G-TEC and outdoor Octavia Scout. The first generation Octavia was released in November 1996 and was built at the modernised Škoda factory in Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic; this generation was made available in estate styles only. In the United Kingdom, sales began in 1998 and the mid-size car was an instant success with buyers who appreciated its solidity and value for money, though it could not quite match the success of established large family car favourites such as the Ford Mondeo and Vauxhall Vectra.
The car was used in the United Kingdom taxi trade, owing to the large number of private hire drivers who used the vehicle, due to its low price and reliability. The first generation Octavia had a facelift in 2000, was still manufactured and marketed in some markets after the second generation was introduced in 2004. In Germany, other parts of West Europe, as well as Asia, the first generation model was marketed as the Octavia Tour, while the newer model is marketed as the Octavia. In some markets, the first generation Octavia was still known as Octavia, the newer model was referred to as the new Octavia, Octavia5 or Laura. In India, Octavia was launched in 2002 and was an instant hit with Indians for its frugal engines and solid build, it became a huge success in India. The major improvements of the facelifted model are the independent rear suspension and improved interior, in terms of space and quality of materials; the facelifted Octavia featured a 4x4 wheel drive version both for the estate and more popular sedan models, used the Haldex Traction clutch, like other Volkswagen Group A platform based cars.
It had higher ground clearance and a bigger fuel tank carrying 63-litre compared to the 55-litre standard front wheel drive versions. The 4x4 option was only available with the 1.8 T 150 bhp petrol engine, the 1.9 TDI 90 bhp diesel engine, or the 2.0 L petrol engine, all coupled with a 5-speed manual gearbox, with the 1.9 TDI-PD 100 bhp diesel engine which came with a 6-speed manual gearbox. The other 6-speed manual model was the 1.9 TDI-PD 131 bhp, only available with front-wheel-drive. The vRS was the top-level and quickest specification and used a 1.8-litre straight-4 turbocharged engine which produced 180 bhp. Škoda made a limited number of 100 WRC Replica Cars worldwide in 2002. These differ from normal vRS Octavias, as they are produced in white, have rally decals and have additional accessories as standard; the vRS model was popular with the United Kingdom Police, both as a traffic car and as an unmarked Q-car, due to its low cost, reliability and understated styling. The engines used are the same as for many other cars in the Volkswagen Group: The Škoda Octavia has been used in the European Touring Car Championship, the World Rally Championship and the FIA 2-Litre World Rally Cup.
The second generation Octavia was introduced in March 2004, based on the Volkswagen Group A5 platform used by other Volkswagen Group cars, such as the Audi A3 Mk2, Volkswagen Golf Mk5, Volkswagen Jetta Mk5, SEAT León Mk2, etc. Responsible for the design were Peter Wouda. Along with a new internal combustion engine range shared with other models of the Volkswagen Group, body changes included more legroom for rear seat passengers and increased ground clearance at front and rear to reduce the risk of grounding on steep ramps or facing kerbs. In addition to the Czech factories in Mladá Boleslav and Vrchlabi, from 2008 the Octavia has been produced at a factory in Bratislava, in Shanghai, under the joint venture of Shanghai Volkswagen. In Russia, the Octavia is assembled at the Volkswagen plant in Kaluga. In India, the second-generation Octavia was marketed as the Laura to distinguish it from the first generation; the car was marketed in a higher segment, was sold alongside the previous generation Octavia.
However the first generation ended production in India in 2010, as of 2012 the Laura's price was reduced and was competing in its predecessor's segment. There are two four-wheel-drive versions of the Octavia: the 4x4 and the Scout, both featuring a Haldex Traction four-wheel-drive system, based on a computer-controlled clutch centre coupling; the two models both have higher ground clearance than the standard Octavia, increased by 24 mm for the 4x4 and by 40 mm for the Scout. The Scout, announced in 2006, is only available with the estate body style, has several crossover style exterior modifications, such as larger bumpers. In August 2011, a special Škoda Octavia vRS hit the world record on the American Bonneville Speedway and became the fastest car in the world with an up to 2-litre engine, when it hit
Volkswagen Bora is a name used by the German company Volkswagen on several different models of cars: Volkswagen Bora, the Jetta MK4 was rebadged as the Volkswagen Bora outside of North America Volkswagen Bora, an independent model line originated from the Jetta MK4-based Bora produced by FAW-VW in China
Volkswagen Derby was the name firstly given by German automaker Volkswagen for the commercialization of the booted saloon version of its Volkswagen Polo Mk1 supermini, between 1977 and 1981 in Europe. The Derby name was given by the Mexican Volkswagen subsidiary for introducing the Polo Classic Mk3 saloon toward its domestic market, in the mid-90's years. With 72,412 sold in 1977 alone the car was popular, outselling the Polo sister model in that year, but sales tailed off in subsequent years. During 1981, Volkswagen introduced the second generation Derby. Most parts of the Derby are interchangeable with the Mk1 Polo, many drivetrain components are compatible with the Mk2 models. Body parts at the rear and the rear window are different and are directly attributable to the original design version of this vehicle, intended to be marketed as the Audi 60. Lights of the early version are the same as the Mk1 Polo and the car which began this design: the Audi 50, which dates to just before the full merger of Audi and Volkswagen.
This was 1979 Semperit Irish Car of the Year in Ireland. In Europe, the Derby was available with 0.9-litre, 1.1-litre and 1.3-litre four-cylinder engines, with 40, 50 and 60 bhp respectively. The Derby Formel E, offered in 1981 only, was an economy-optimised Derby featuring, among other things, a longer ratio gearbox, automatic engine turn-off when idling and a high compression version on the 1.1 L engine that demanded super instead of regular petrol. The Formel E concept was available on other contemporary VW and Audi models; the following versions were available: 900 L 1100 S 1100 LS 1100 LX 1100 CLS 1300 LS 1300 GL 1300 GLS 1100 Formel EIn 1979, the Derby underwent a face lift together with the Polo. The restyle attempted to separate the styling of the Polo and the Derby more which brought the styling of the Derby into line with its bigger counterpart, the Volkswagen Jetta; these revisions included rectangular headlamps, a restyled grille and plastic bumpers, together with some interior changes including a new dashboard and instrumentation taken from the Mk1 Golf.
In 1984, the Derby was re-badged as the Polo Classic in Europe, the Derby's unique squared headlamp front end, carried over from the Mk1, was replaced with standard Polo equipment. In the UK, the Derby name was dropped with the Mk1, the Polo Classic name was used from the Mk2's inception. However, early Polo Classics still retained the Derby styling. In turn, the "Classic" branding for the saloon was dropped in 1987 which meant that the Polo and Derby integration was complete. In the mid-90's decade, the Mexican Volkswagen subsidiary started to utilize the Derby name in order to introduce an all-new quite affordable saloon toward its domestic market. Within Volkswagen's local lineup, this new model was intended to be positioned in a segment between the old, yet bestseller -by then- classic VW Sedán/Beetle/Bug and the Mk3 Golf-Jetta, the brand's flagships. Launched by November 1994, the Mexican-market first Derbys were rebadged units of the SEAT Córdoba Mk1 model, produced by the VW Group's SEAT division.
These units came to Mexico produced from the SEAT Spanish manufacture until late 1995, featuring just the original SEAT badges swapped by VW emblems instead. By 1996, domestic-target units were assembled at the Volkswagen Mexico's Puebla facilities featuring Spain-sourced parts. Production in Mexico of these units was interrupted at some point in 1997, in order to re-launch the car as an all-new mid-1998 model. By the time, the Mexican Volkswagen "new Derby" would be the European-market Volkswagen Polo Classic Mk3, it came with the 90 hp 1.8 L VW engine coupled to a 5-speed manual gearbox. In 2002, production of the Mk3 Polo Classic ceased in Europe in favour of the new Mk4 Polo production, but continued in South America, at the Volkswagen Argentina facilities where it was being manufactured and offered to its domestic market as Polo Classic, such as in Europe. Thus, Volkswagen Mexico continued to offer this model in its lineup as Derby, importing the Argentinian-produced units. A comfort version was offered as Derby "Wolfsburg Edition".
A bit Trendline and Sportline editions were introduced. Circa 2006, the Argentinian-produced Mk3 Polo Classic got a slight "makeover" spotted on the headlights, front grille and bumpers; the new design of these components got pretty much the same design style on those from the applied facelift to the SEAT Cordoba Mk1, back in 1999. Volkswagen Mexico remained commercializing this renewed model as Derby until late 2008, when it was phased out, in favor of the introduction of the Brazilian-sourced VWPQ24 Platform-based Volkswagen Voyage/Gol Mk5. A lightweight cargo vehicle was designed around the Mk3 Polo Classic and traded in the Mexican and South American markets as the Volkswagen Caddy first, just as Volkswagen Van
The SEAT Ibiza is a supermini car manufactured by Spanish car manufacturer SEAT since 1984. It is SEAT's best-selling car; the Ibiza is named after the Spanish island of Ibiza, it is the second SEAT model to be named after a Spanish city, after the SEAT Ronda. It was introduced at the 1984 Paris Motor Show as the first car developed by SEAT as an independent company, though it was designed by SEAT in collaboration with well-known firms such as Italdesign and Porsche. From the second generation version onwards, SEAT formed part of the German automotive industry concern Volkswagen Group, all further Ibiza generations, as well as the rest of the SEAT model range, were built on Volkswagen Group platforms and technologies; the Ibiza spans five generations, among which it has debuted twice a new platform of the Volkswagen Group. All of them were the top seller model in SEAT's range. A rebadged redeveloped version of the first generation Ibiza remains still in production under license in China, by the Nanjing Automobile Group automaker.
The Ibiza is now available only in the five-door hatchback variants, between 1993 and 2008, coupé and estate versions were sold as the SEAT Córdoba. In 2010, an estate version, called Ibiza ST, was launched. Introduced in the 1984 Paris Motor Show, the SEAT Ibiza Mk1 entered production in the'Zona Franca' assembly lines on 27 April 1984 and proved to be a success for the Spanish manufacturer, as it sold 1,342,001 units until the launch of its second generation in 1993; the Ibiza's sales success gave the SEAT marque a platform to build on, as it looked to increase sales in following years. This version, while it established the now classic Ibiza shape, was advertised as having "Italian styling and German engines": having its bodywork been designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro's Italdesign, being prepared for industrialisation by the German manufacturer Karmann, it was based on a small family car, which in turn was based on the Fiat Ritmo. The gearbox and powertrain were developed in collaboration with Porsche, thus named under licence System Porsche.
Despite Porsche's direct involvement in the Ibiza's engines, it was only after paying a royalty of 7 German marks per car sold back to Porsche that SEAT gained the right to put the'System Porsche' inscription on the engine blocks. By the time Giugiaro was assigned to the Ibiza project, his previous proposal for the second generation of the Volkswagen Golf had been rejected by Volkswagen. So when SEAT approached him with the proposal for a spacious supermini class contender, that particular project was reincarnated as the first generation of the SEAT Ibiza. Using a compact car as basis, in terms of size, it was larger than most superminis like the Ford Fiesta and Opel Corsa/Vauxhall Nova, but smaller than any small family car such as the Ford Escort and Opel Kadett/Vauxhall Astra; the luggage capacity increased to 1,200 litres after folding rear seats. It was launched on the United Kingdom market in September 1985, when the brand was launched there, along with the Malaga saloon, it competed with budget offerings like the Hyundai Pony, gave budget buyers a more modern alternative to the outdated offerings from Lada, Škoda, Yugo and FSO.
After a slow start, sales picked up and reached the 10,000-a-year milestone by the end of the decade. The interior space was good but styling was unimaginative though it was known for having a rather quirky interior instrument layout, marked by a lack of control stalks; the indicators were operated by a rocker-switch, the headlights by a sliding switch. It had three principal trim levels with bodyworks of 3 and 5 doors and several versions such as Base, Disco, Designer, Fashion, SXi etc; as power outputs dropped due to more stringent emissions requirements, a 1.7-litre version of the engine was developed for the Sportline version. For the same reason, a 109 PS turbocharged version of the 1.5-litre engine was developed for the Swiss market and presented in March 1989. In the meantime, SEAT had signed a cooperation agreement with Volkswagen and in 1986 the German car maker became SEAT's major shareholder; the Ibiza Mark 1 received a light restyling in early 1989 with a moderate facelift in the exterior, an new, less radical interior, many mechanical modifications.
This is referred to as the second series. Most obvious is the shift from a black plastic grille with seven bars to one with four body-colored ones, with some models receiving new side moldings; the interior was all new, with new seats and a new steering wheel, while the gearbox was redesigned, the brakes and steering improved. At the time, the Ibiza was being produced at a rate of 1100 cars per day, the cumulative production had reached a half million. A more thorough restyling was launched in 1991 under the name New style, although by now an all-new Ibiza was being developed; the following year, in February 1992, SEAT launched the Ibiza "Serie Olímpica" to celebrate SEAT's participation in the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona as a sponsor, the SEAT Ibiza Mk1 along with the SEAT Toledo Mk1 became the official cars of the Games. The larger sedan version SEAT Málaga was a closer relative to the SEAT Ronda, although it shared engines with the Ibiza. All engines were inline-four-cylinder units, front transverse mounted: The 0.9-litre and 1.2-litre engines had carburetor, as did the 1.5-litre 85 hp engine, while the 1.5-litre 90 hp and 1.7-litre engines, introduced in 1989, used single-point injection systems.
The 1.5-litre 100 hp, introduced in 1988, had multi-point fuel injection. The 1.7-litre diesel was an indirect
The SEAT Inca was a van and panel van produced by the Spanish manufacturer SEAT between 1995 and 2003. It was designed and assembled in Spain, based on the SEAT Ibiza Mark 2, it was first shown at the Barcelona Motor Show of 1995. The SEAT Inca had two rear wing doors which, because they were non symmetrical, were supposed to facilitate loading and unloading. Capable of carrying a payload of 550 kg and drawing a 1,000 kg braked trailer the Inca proved to be a strong work horse in many markets.'Comercial do Ano' award in 1997, in Portugal The Inca came with 1.4 60 brake horsepower and 1.6 75 bhp petrol engines, was available with the tried and tested 64 bhp 1.9 indirect injection diesel engine from the Volkswagen Golf and Volkswagen Polo, or a 90 bhp Turbocharged Direct Injection diesel in certain countries. A 64 bhp 1.9 Suction Diesel Injection direct injection diesel with electronic control and improved economy over the indirect injection engine was available onwards from 1999. From its launch in 1995 until end of production in 2003, more than 115,000 SEAT Inca cars were produced and sold.
The annual production of SEAT Inca delivery/panel van and Kombi manufactured at SEAT Martorell are shown in the following table: The SEAT Inca was rebadged by SEAT's parent company Volkswagen and sold under the name Volkswagen Caddy. Its badge-engineered Volkswagen stablemate was identical in every respect apart from some branding logos, the front grille. In the beginning of the 2000s, the Volkswagen Group had decided to shift the marketing focus of the SEAT brand to target the younger driver with an emphasis on more sporty models. Despite this move, the Caddy and the Inca continued to be produced at the same manufacturing facilities, until the Inca was discontinued in June 2003; the Inca name was dropped from the line up of SEAT, but the Caddy was replaced with a new variant based on the platform of the Volkswagen Golf V. SEAT corporate website