Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Tor (anonymity network)
Tor is free and open-source software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name "The Onion Router". Tor directs Internet traffic through a free, volunteer overlay network consisting of more than seven thousand relays to conceal a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Using Tor makes it more difficult to trace Internet activity to the user: this includes "visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages, other communication forms". Tor's intended use is to protect the personal privacy of its users, as well as their freedom and ability to conduct confidential communication by keeping their Internet activities from being monitored. If someone is attempting to maintain their anatomy online using tor, than it is crucial that everything be done within that browser. For example, if an action is done in chrome, safari, or other types of browsers. So stick to the Tor browser for complete autonomy from any overly intrusive government.
Tor does not prevent an online service from determining. Tor does not hide the fact that someone is using Tor; some websites restrict allowances through Tor. For example, the MediaWiki TorBlock extension automatically restricts edits made through Tor, although Wikipedia allows some limited editing in exceptional circumstances. Onion routing is implemented by encryption in the application layer of a communication protocol stack, nested like the layers of an onion. Tor encrypts the data, including the next node destination IP address, multiple times and sends it through a virtual circuit comprising successive, random-selection Tor relays; each relay decrypts a layer of encryption to reveal the next relay in the circuit to pass the remaining encrypted data on to it. The final relay decrypts the innermost layer of encryption and sends the original data to its destination without revealing or knowing the source IP address; because the routing of the communication was concealed at every hop in the Tor circuit, this method eliminates any single point at which the communicating peers can be determined through network surveillance that relies upon knowing its source and destination.
An adversary may try to de-anonymize the user by some means. One way this may be achieved is by exploiting vulnerable software on the user's computer; the NSA had a technique that targets a vulnerability – which they codenamed "EgotisticalGiraffe" – in an outdated Firefox browser version at one time bundled with the Tor package and, in general, targets Tor users for close monitoring under its XKeyscore program. Attacks against Tor are an active area of academic research, welcomed by the Tor Project itself; the bulk of the funding for Tor's development has come from the federal government of the United States through the Office of Naval Research and DARPA. The core principle of Tor, "onion routing", was developed in the mid-1990s by United States Naval Research Laboratory employees, mathematician Paul Syverson, computer scientists Michael G. Reed and David Goldschlag, with the purpose of protecting U. S. intelligence communications online. Onion routing was further developed by DARPA in 1997; the alpha version of Tor, developed by Syverson and computer scientists Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson and called The Onion Routing project, or Tor project, launched on 20 September 2002.
The first public release occurred a year later. On 13 August 2004, Syverson and Mathewson presented "Tor: The Second-Generation Onion Router" at the 13th USENIX Security Symposium. In 2004, the Naval Research Laboratory released the code for Tor under a free license, the Electronic Frontier Foundation began funding Dingledine and Mathewson to continue its development. In December 2006, Dingledine and five others founded The Tor Project, a Massachusetts-based 501 research-education nonprofit organization responsible for maintaining Tor; the EFF acted as The Tor Project's fiscal sponsor in its early years, early financial supporters of The Tor Project included the U. S. International Broadcasting Bureau, Human Rights Watch, the University of Cambridge and Netherlands-based Stichting NLnet. From this period onward, the majority of funding sources came from the U. S. government. In November 2014 there was speculation in the aftermath of Operation Onymous that a Tor weakness had been exploited. A BBC source cited a "technical breakthrough" that allowed the tracking of the physical locations of servers.
In November 2015 court documents on the matter, besides generating serious concerns about security research ethics and the right of not being unreasonably searched guaranteed by the US Fourth Amendment, may link the law enforcement operation with an attack on Tor earlier in the year. In December 2015, The Tor Project announced that it had hired Shari Steele as its new executive director. Steele had led the Electronic Frontier Foundation for 15 years, in 2004 spearheaded EFF's decision to fund Tor's early development. One of her key stated aims is to make Tor more user-friendly in order to bring wider access to anonymous web browsing. In July 2016 the complete board of the Tor Project resigned, announced a new board, made up of Matt Blaze, Cindy Cohn, Gabriella Coleman, Linus Nordberg, Megan Price, Bruce Schneier. Tor enables its users to surf the Internet and send instant messages anonymously, is used by a wide variety of people for both licit and illicit purposes. Tor has, for example, been used by criminal enterprises, hacktivism groups, law enforcement agencies at cross purposes, sometimes simultaneously.
The WorldForge project is producing an open source framework for massively multiplayer online role-playing games. The intent lies in creating a used development framework and set of libraries by motivating interested developers to improve on the original source code; the WorldForge Project began in October 1998, under the original name of "Altima." It was envisioned to be an "Alternative to Ultima Online" and was mentioned in an article on the Slashdot news website, which became a major source of interested developers. The original founder has since left the project along with most pre-Slashdot developers. Despite this, the community has become able to sustain itself. A new governing system and selected coordinators has been established, fixing a new direction and a new goal; this community has decided to work on something much more significant than a "mere Ultima clone," and voted itself the new name "WorldForge". Avinash Gupta was the first leader of the project, followed by Bryce Harrington, but more developers have chosen not to select a leader, instead rely on consensus among a small group of determined core developers to decide the overall direction of the project.
The WorldForge community has adopted the view that "massive" is unnecessary in a non-commercial game and has focused instead on "community" environments. Because most WorldForge servers are run by volunteers without strong bandwidth and hardware capacities this direction has practical reasons. Several independent game projects have joined WorldForge, resulting in a lot of parallel development; the pig farming simulation Acorn is the only complete, if modest, game so far, released. Its significance lies in providing a proof of concept that the project can integrate and deliver software and media, as well as maintain a community capable of creativity and innovation. Development of Acorn ended in 2001; the primary focus has shifted to a tactical building game called Mason, which focuses on competitive construction and invention of buildings and mechanisms. The intent lies in developing powerful yet generic "item invention" algorithms capable of bringing a new dimension of dynamic content to interactive gaming, creating, in effect, a working physics model that enables players to build and operate objects within the game that were not intended by the creators.
Other games will continue to be developed alongside Mason. This game is in alpha development and there are two available 3D clients. Mason includes all the functionality of Acorn; the project is beginning to branch out into other forms of entertainment, as it finds that its processes and multi-disciplinary nature are applicable there. There are two functional 3D clients for Worldforge and Sear. Both clients are capable of normal operation such as moving around the world and performing actions such as starting fires, planting trees, making stakes etc. However, Ember has more advanced entity editing capabilities suitable for world building. Both clients are available for Linux and Windows, only Sear is available for Mac. Cyphesis handles the running of the world, it is intended to become an AI only server and Indri is supposed to model Physics. However work on Indri is moving by while Cyphesis is being developed. List of open source games Official website