A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species. It can be described as a variation. A genetic marker may be a short DNA sequence, such as a sequence surrounding a single base-pair change, or a long one, like minisatellites. For many years, gene mapping was limited to identifying organisms by traditional phenotype markers; this included genes that encoded observable characteristics such as blood types or seed shapes. The insufficient number of these types of characteristics in several organisms limited the mapping efforts that could be done; this prompted the development of gene markers which could identify genetic characteristics that are not observable in organisms. Some used types of genetic markers are: RFLP SSLP AFLP RAPD VNTR SSR Microsatellite polymorphism, SNP STR SFP DArT RAD markers Molecular genetic markers can be divided into two classes a) biochemical markers which detect variation at the gene product level such as changes in proteins and amino acids and b) molecular markers which detect variation at the DNA level such as nucleotide changes: deletion, inversion and/or insertion.
Markers can exhibit two modes of i.e. dominant/recessive or co-dominant. If the genetic pattern of homozygotes can be distinguished from that of heterozygotes a marker is said to be co-dominant. Co-dominant markers are more informative than the dominant markers. Genetic markers can be used to study the relationship between an inherited disease and its genetic cause, it is known that pieces of DNA that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together. This property enables the use of a marker, which can be used to determine the precise inheritance pattern of the gene that has not yet been localized. Genetic markers are employed in genealogical DNA testing for genetic genealogy to determine genetic distance between individuals or populations. Uniparental markers are studied for assessing paternal lineages. Autosomal markers are used for all ancestry. Genetic markers have to be identifiable, associated with a specific locus, polymorphic, because homozygotes do not provide any information.
Detection of the marker can be direct by indirect using allozymes. Some of the methods used to study the genome or phylogenetics are RFLP, Amplified fragment length polymorphism, RAPD, SSR, they can be used to create genetic maps. There was a debate over. Many researchers hypothesized that virus like particles were responsible for transforming the cell, while others thought that the cell itself was able to infect other canines as an allograft. With the aid of genetic markers, researchers were able to provide conclusive evidence that the cancerous tumor cell evolved into a transmissible parasite. Furthermore, molecular genetic markers were used to resolve the issue of natural transmission, the breed of origin, the age of the canine tumor. Genetic markers have been used to measure the genomic response to selection in livestock. Natural and artificial selection leads to a change in the genetic makeup of the cell; the presence of different alleles due to a distorted segregation at the genetic markers is indicative of the difference between selected and non-selected livestock.
Molecular marker DNA marking de Vicente C, Fulton T. Molecular Marker Learning Modules – Vol. 1. IPGRI, Rome and Institute for Genetic Diversity, New York, USA. de Vicente C, Fulton T. Molecular Marker Learning Modules – Vol. 2. IPGRI, Rome and Institute for Genetic Diversity, New York, USA. de Vicente C, Glaszmann JC. Molecular Markers for Allele Mining. AMS, CIRAD, GCP, IPGRI, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation. P. 85. Spooner D, van Treuren R, de Vicente MC. Molecular markers for genebank management. CGN, IPGRI, USDA. P. 126. Media related to Genetic markers at Wikimedia Commons
Single Farm Payment
The Single Farm Payment is an agricultural subsidy paid to farmers in the EU. The EU's Common Agricultural Policy emphasised direct subsidies for agricultural produce. To reduce price distortion, the connection between payments and specific crops was removed; this "decoupling" of subsidies means they are accepted in the "Blue box" category of subsidies in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture negotiated at the Uruguay Round, in line with international agreements to reduce market-distorting subsidies and price controls. National governments within the EU make their own arrangements for implementation and for paying subsidies to farmers; some British farmers have experienced problems due to delays in verifying how much land they have, eligible for subsidy. The Scottish government offers farmers an online system to claim subsidies, which reduces the burden of paperwork. In non-Euro countries, payments to farmers may be made in local currency at an exchange rate set by the European Central Bank; some farmers trade their subsidy entitlements.
The Single Farm Payment is a large proportion of income for many farmers, who say they could not profit without subsidies. However, farm subsidies in developed countries push down food prices and impoverish third-world farmers. Taxpayers in the EU get more than most in return for their money. In 2010, the EU spent €57 billion on agricultural development, of which €39 billion was spent on direct subsidies. Single Payment Scheme Intervention storage European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund
Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. There are several different types of space tourism, including orbital and lunar space tourism. To date, orbital space tourism has been performed only by the Russian Space Agency. Work continues towards developing suborbital space tourism vehicles; this is being done by aerospace companies like Virgin Galactic. In addition, SpaceX announced in 2018 that it is planning on sending two space tourists on a free-return trajectory around the Moon on the upper stage of SpaceX's BFR rocket, known as the Big Falcon Spaceship. During the period from 2001 to 2009, the publicized price for flights brokered by Space Adventures to the International Space Station aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft was in the range of US$20–40 million. 7 space tourists made 8 space flights during this time. Some space tourists have signed contracts with third parties to conduct certain research activities while in orbit. By 2007, space tourism was thought to be one of the earliest markets that would emerge for commercial spaceflight.
Space Adventures is the only company. In conjunction with the Federal Space Agency of the Russian Federation and Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, Space Adventures facilitated the flights for all of the world's first private space explorers; the first three participants paid in excess of $20 million each for their 10-day visit to the ISS. Russia halted orbital space tourism in 2010 due to the increase in the International Space Station crew size, using the seats for expedition crews that would have been sold to paying spaceflight participants. Orbital tourist flights were set to resume in 2015 but the one planned was postponed indefinitely and none have occurred since 2009; as an alternative term to "tourism", some organizations such as the Commercial Spaceflight Federation use the term "personal spaceflight". The Citizens in Space project uses the term "citizen space exploration". Many private space travelers have objected to the term "space tourist" pointing out that their role went beyond that of an observer, since they carried out scientific experiments in the course of their journey.
Richard Garriott additionally emphasized that his training was identical to the requirements of non-Russian Soyuz crew members, that teachers and other non-professional astronauts chosen to fly with NASA are called astronauts. He has said that if the distinction has to be made, he would rather be called "private astronaut" than "tourist". Dennis Tito has asked to be known as an "independent researcher", Mark Shuttleworth described himself as a "pioneer of commercial space travel". Gregory Olsen prefers "private researcher", Anousheh Ansari prefers the term "private space explorer". Other space enthusiasts object to the term on similar grounds. Rick Tumlinson of the Space Frontier Foundation, for example, has said: "I hate the word tourist, I always will...'Tourist' is somebody in a flowered shirt with three cameras around his neck." Russian cosmonaut Maksim Surayev told the press in 2009 not to describe Guy Laliberté as a tourist: "It's become fashionable to speak of space tourists. He is not a tourist but a participant in the mission.""Spaceflight participant" is the official term used by NASA and the Russian Federal Space Agency to distinguish between private space travelers and career astronauts.
Tito, Olsen and Simonyi were designated as such during their respective space flights. NASA lists Christa McAuliffe as a spaceflight participant due to her non-technical duties aboard the STS-51-L flight; the US Federal Aviation Administration awards the title of "Commercial Astronaut" to trained crew members of funded spacecraft. The only people holding this title are Mike Melvill and Brian Binnie, the pilots of SpaceShipOne; the Soviet space program was aggressive in broadening the pool of cosmonauts. The Soviet Intercosmos program included cosmonauts selected from Warsaw Pact member countries and from allies of the USSR and non-aligned countries. Most of these cosmonauts received full training for their missions and were treated as equals, but were given shorter flights than Soviet cosmonauts; the European Space Agency took advantage of the program. The US space shuttle program included payload specialist positions which were filled by representatives of companies or institutions managing a specific payload on that mission.
These payload specialists did not receive the same training as professional NASA astronauts and were not employed by NASA. In 1983, Ulf Merbold from ESA and Byron Lichtenberg from MIT were the first payload specialists to fly on the Space Shuttle, on mission STS-9. In 1984, Charles D. Walker became the first non-government astronaut to fly, with his employer McDonnell Douglas paying US$40,000 for his flight. NASA was eager to prove its capability to Congressional sponsors. During the 1970s, Shuttle prime contractor Rockwell International studied a $200–300 million removable cabin that could fit into the Shuttle's cargo bay; the cabin could carry up to 74 passengers into orbit for up to three days. Space Habitation Design Associates proposed, in 1983, a cabin for 72 passengers in the bay. Passengers were located in six sections, each with windows and its own loading ramp, with seats in different configurations for launch and landing. Another proposal was based on the Spacelab habitation modules, which provided 32 seats in the payload bay
Spent fuel pool
Spent fuel pools are storage pools for spent fuel from nuclear reactors. They are 40 or more feet deep, with the bottom 14 feet equipped with storage racks designed to hold fuel assemblies removed from the reactor. A reactor's pool is specially designed for the reactor in which the fuel was used and situated at the reactor site. An away-from-reactor, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, such as the one located at the Morris Operation, is sometimes used. In many countries, the fuel assemblies, after being in the reactor for 3 to 6 years, are stored underwater for 10 to 20 years before being sent for reprocessing or dry cask storage; the water provides shielding from radiation. While only about 20 feet of water is needed to keep radiation levels below acceptable levels, the extra depth provides a safety margin and allows fuel assemblies to be manipulated without special shielding to protect the operators. About a quarter to a third of the total fuel load of a reactor is removed from the core every 12 to 24 months and replaced with fresh fuel.
Spent fuel rods generate intense heat and dangerous radiation. Fuel is moved from the reactor and manipulated in the pool by automated handling systems, although some manual systems are still in use; the fuel bundles fresh from the core are segregated for several months for initial cooling before being sorted into other parts of the pool to wait for final disposal. Metal racks keep the fuel in controlled positions for physical protection and for ease of tracking and rearrangement. High-density racks incorporate or other neutron-absorbing material to ensure subcriticality. Water quality is controlled to prevent the fuel or its cladding from degrading. Current regulations in the United States permit re-arranging of the spent rods so that maximum efficiency of storage can be achieved; the maximum temperature of the spent fuel bundles decreases between 2 and 4 years, less from 4 to 6 years. The fuel pool water is continuously cooled to remove the heat produced by the spent fuel assemblies. Pumps circulate water from the spent fuel pool to heat exchangers back to the spent fuel pool.
The water temperature in normal operating conditions is held below 50 °C. Radiolysis, the dissociation of molecules by radiation, is of particular concern in wet storage, as water may be split by residual radiation and hydrogen gas may accumulate increasing the risk of explosions. For this reason the air in the room of the pools, as well as the water, must be continually monitored and treated. Rather than manage the pool's inventory to minimize the possibility of continued fission activity, China is building a 200 MWt nuclear reactor to run on used fuel from nuclear power stations to generate process heat for district heating and desalination. An SFP operated as a deep pool-type reactor. Other research envisions a similar low-power reactor using spent fuel where instead of limiting the production of hydrogen by radiolysis, it is encouraged by the addition of catalysts and ion scavengers to the cooling water; this hydrogen would be removed to use as fuel. If there is a prolonged interruption of cooling due to emergency situations, the water in the spent fuel pools may boil off resulting in radioactive elements being released into the atmosphere.
In the magnitude 9 earthquake that struck the Fukushima nuclear plants in March 2011, three of the spent fuel pools were in buildings that lost the roof and were seen to be emitting water vapor. The US NRC wrongly stated that the pool at reactor 4 had boiled dry—this was denied at the time by the Japanese and found to be incorrect in subsequent inspection and data examination. According to nuclear plant safety specialists, the chances of criticality in a spent fuel pool are small avoided by the dispersal of the fuel assemblies, inclusion of a neutron absorber in the storage racks and overall by the fact that the spent fuel has too low an enrichment level to self-sustain a fission reaction, they state that if the water covering the spent fuel evaporates, there is no element to enable a chain reaction by moderating neutrons. According to Dr. Kevin Crowley of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, "successful terrorist attacks on spent fuel pools, though difficult, are possible. If an attack leads to a propagating zirconium cladding fire, it could result in the release of large amounts of radioactive material."
After the September 11, 2001 attacks the Nuclear Regulatory Commission required American nuclear plants "to protect with high assurance" against specific threats involving certain numbers and capabilities of assailants. Plants were required to "enhance the number of security officers" and to improve "access controls to the facilities". Deep geological repository Dry cask storage Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents Nuclear fuel cycle Radioactive waste Spent nuclear fuel shipping cask Radiological Terrorism: Sabotage of Spent Fuel Pool Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission An example diagram of a Spent Fuel Pool Indian Point Energy Center "Geek Answers: Does nuclear waste glow?" BY GRAHAM TEMPLETON 07.17.2014 at Geek.com
School Food Punishment
School Food Punishment was a four-member Japanese band. They were signed onto Sony Music Japan's Epic Records Japan record label prior to their breakup in June 2012; the lyrics of each of the band's songs were written by guitarist Yumi Uchimura. The band was formed on October 2004 by Uchimura, while their first live performance took place in December of the same year. In 2007, their debut album, school food is good food, was released. In 2008, both of their songs, "feedback" and "Futari Umi no Soko" were featured as theme songs to the Japanese television drama Joshidaisei Kaikeishi no Jikenbo, while their mini-album "Riff-rain" was released by Tower Records and sold out in under a week, they performed in numerous live concerts, including FM802, part of the Minami Wheel 2008 live event, the J-Wave Live event, part of the Tokyo Real Eyes Live Supernova. In 2009, they signed onto their first major record label, Sony Music Japan's Epic Records Japan division, their major label debut is "futuristic imagination", the ending theme to the Kenji Kamiyama anime television series Eden of the East, airing on the rated noitaminA timeslot on Fuji TV.
Amongst their first projects was contributing to Judy and Mary's 15th Anniversary Tribute Album, in which they covered the band's "Brand New Wave Upper Ground" song, with their performance praised by sources such as The Japan Times as having been the highlight of the album and having evoked Judy and Mary's songwriting and musical values. In 2012, the band announced; the band said. On June 11, 2012 School Food Punishment announced that they had broken up due to vocalist Yumi Uchimura having left the band. Following the dissolution of School Food Punishment, Yumi Uchimura, producer Ryo Eguchi and touring guitarist Ritsuo Mitsui joined the band la la larks known as successor of School Food Punishment. In 2016, Masayuki Hasuo and Hideaki Yamasaki had a new singer Annabel and formed the band siraph, too. Yumi Uchimura lead vocals, songwriter. Founder of the band. Favorite musicians： Ringo Shiina, Kuuki Koudan, Spangle call Lilli line Masayuki Hasuo keyboards, electric piano, composer. Favorite musicians： Melt-Banana, at.the.drive-in Hideaki Yamasaki bass guitar, backing vocals, composer.
He joined the band after scope and Watanabe, etc.. Favorite musicians： Ringo Shiina, Grapevine Osamu Hidai drums, composer, he joined the band in 2007. At first, he worked at this band and Current of air. Favorite musicians： Phish, Misako Odani, Nao MatsuzakiPast membersAtsushi Ueda bass guitar, he left the band in 2008. Katsuya Katano drums, he left the band in 2007. SAM D. guitar. Left the band in 2010. Youngest member All lyrics written by all music composed by School Food Punishment. Futuristic imagination #35 with 1st week sales of 4,165 Ending theme to the Fuji Television noitaminA anime television series, Eden of the East. Butterfly swimmer #60 with 1st week sales of 1,657 sea-through communication #49 with 1st week sales of 1,368 light prayer #31 with 1st week sales of 3,044 Main theme for the first Eden of the East film, The King of Eden. Future nova/after laughter "future nova" is the opening theme and "after laughter" is the ending theme to the second Eden of the East film, Paradise Lost.
RPG #20 with 1st week sales of 4,323 Ending theme to the Fuji Television noitaminA anime television series. How to go #18 with 1st week sales of 6,023 Opening theme to the Fuji Television noitaminA anime television series, Un-Go. Amp-reflection Prog-Roid feedback/Futari Umi no Soko "feedback": Opening theme to the BS-i television drama Joshidaisei Kaikeishi no Jikenbo, 3rd Annual Toho Shinemazu Gakusei Eigaisai image song. "Futari Umi no Soko": Ending theme to the BS-i television drama Joshidaisei Kaikeishi no Jikenbo. School food is good food CD-extra: Music video to "pool". Pool: Ending theme to the Kansai TV television series Bari-san ver. 2.0. Air feel, color swim CD-extra: Music video to "you may crawl" Riff-rain nextpop Featured "pool". Judy and Mary 15th Anniversary Tribute Album Performed cover of "Brand New Wave Upper Ground". 1st Demo 2nd Demo Official website Boundie's website for School Food Punishment school food punishment at MySpace
International Facility Management Association
The International Facility Management Association is a professional membership association for facility management professionals. IFMA's global headquarters office, called the Service Center of Excellence, is located in Houston, Texas, USA. IFMA employs staff located in Antwerp, Belgium. IFMA was founded in 1980 by a group of people led by David Armstrong of Michigan State University, George Graves of Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. and Charles Hitch of Manufacturer's Bank. It was established in Ann Arbor, Michigan as the National Facility Management Association, a not-for-profit incorporated association; the name was changed to IFMA in 1982 due to a growing Canadian contingency. As of 2019, IFMA had 24,000 members in more than 100 countries. IFMA is a member of the Global Facility Management Association, a consortium of facility management associations. IFMA certifies facility managers, conducts research, provides educational programs, accredits facility management degree and certificate programs, produces a series of facility management-related conferences and expositions.
Its official publication, FMJ, is a bimonthly magazine written for facility professionals. IFMA's "World Workplace" is an annual conference and exposition for professionals who support facilities. Held in the U. S. the event series has expanded to Europe, the Middle East, India and Asia. IFMA produces and hosts "Facility Fusion", an educational event offering FM networking and leadership training, as well as a produce and service exposition. Established in 1990 as a nonprofit 501 corporation, the IFMA Foundation promotes educational opportunities to advance the facility management profession and make FM a career of choice; the IFMA Foundation provides FM student resources, such as competitions, scholarships and an internship board, works with economic development committees and academic institutions to expand FM education and awareness. The foundation's work is supported by contributions from the facility management community, including IFMA members, councils, corporate sponsors and private contributors.
IFMA comprises three types of networking groups, collectively called components. This includes sub-groups by region, facility type or area of practice and specialization or core competency of focus. Institute of Workplace and Facilities Management Building Owners and Managers Association Global Facility Management Association Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
Strong Female Protagonist
Strong Female Protagonist is an ongoing superhero webcomic written by Brennan Lee Mulligan and drawn by Molly Ostertag, published online since 2012. Strong Female Protagonist describes itself as covering "the adventures of a young middle-class American with super-strength, invincibility and a crippling sense of social injustice", it follows Alison Green, the titular protagonist, as she has retired from her superhero role of "Mega Girl" at the age of 19 in order to focus on her college education, but finds out that this is easier said than done. Io9, which selected Strong Female Protagonist as one of the best new and short webcomics of 2012, approved of the comic posing "intriguing questions about the relationship between superheroes and real-world problems"; as Comics Alliance wrote, "the idea of someone with superpowers questioning whether they're making a real difference or just making things worse by throwing bad guys through buildings" isn't new to the genre, but the reviewer considered Strong Female Protagonist's approach to it refreshing by its lack of cynicism and the formed, likable characterization of Alison and the comic's supporting cast.
Like io9, the reviewer highlighted the improvement of Ostertag's drawings throughout the comic's first volume, praised the storytelling's natural rhythm and successful combination of comedy and mystery elements. The comic was collected in a book published by Top Shelf Productions in November 2014, after a Kickstarter campaign intended to raise $8,000 raised over $60,000 instead. In April 2017 another Kickstarter campaign was made for a second book, this time raising over $70,000. Strong Female Protagonist