Auriga is one of the 88 modern constellations. Located north of the celestial equator, its name is the Latin word for “the charioteer”, associating it with various mythological beings, including Erichthonius and Myrtilus. Auriga is most prominent during winter evenings in the northern Hemisphere, along with the five other constellations that have stars in the Winter Hexagon asterism; because of its northern declination, Auriga is only visible in its entirety as far as 34° south. A large constellation, with an area of 657 square degrees, it is half the size of the largest constellation, Hydra, its brightest star, Capella, is an unusual multiple star system among the brightest stars in the night sky. Beta Aurigae is an interesting variable star in the constellation; because of its position near the winter Milky Way, Auriga has many bright open clusters in its borders, including M36, M37, M38, popular targets for amateur astronomers. In addition, it has one prominent nebula, the Flaming Star Nebula, associated with the variable star AE Aurigae.
In Chinese mythology, Auriga's stars were incorporated into several constellations, including the celestial emperors' chariots, made up of the modern constellation's brightest stars. Auriga is home to the radiant for the Aurigids, Zeta Aurigids, Delta Aurigids, the hypothesized Iota Aurigids; the first record of Auriga's stars was in Mesopotamia as a constellation called GAM, representing a scimitar or crook. However, this may have represented just the modern constellation as a whole. GAM in the MUL. APIN; the crook of Auriga shepherd. It was formed from most of the stars of the modern constellation. Bedouin astronomers created constellations that were groups of animals, where each star represented one animal; the stars of Auriga comprised a herd of goats, an association present in Greek mythology. The association with goats carried into the Greek astronomical tradition, though it became associated with a charioteer along with the shepherd. In Greek mythology, Auriga is identified as the mythological Greek hero Erichthonius of Athens, the chthonic son of Hephaestus, raised by the goddess Athena.
Erichthonius was credited to be the inventor of the quadriga, the four-horse chariot, which he used in the battle against the usurper Amphictyon, the event that made Erichthonius the king of Athens. His chariot was created in the image of the Sun's chariot, the reason Zeus placed him in the heavens; the Athenian hero dedicated himself to Athena and, soon after, Zeus raised him into the night sky in honor of his ingenuity and heroic deeds. Auriga, however, is sometimes described as Myrtilus, Hermes's son and the charioteer of Oenomaus; the association of Auriga and Myrtilus is supported by depictions of the constellation, which show a chariot. Myrtilus's chariot was destroyed in a race intended for suitors to win the heart of Oenomaus's daughter Hippodamia. Myrtilus earned his position in the sky when Hippodamia's successful suitor, killed him, despite his complicity in helping Pelops win her hand. After his death, Myrtilus's father Hermes placed him in the sky, yet another mythological association of Auriga is Theseus's son Hippolytus.
He was ejected from Athens after he refused the romantic advances of his stepmother Phaedra, who committed suicide as a result. He was revived by Asclepius. Regardless of Auriga's specific representation, it is that the constellation was created by the ancient Greeks to commemorate the importance of the chariot in their society. An incidental appearance of Auriga in Greek mythology is as the limbs of Medea's brother. In the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, as they journeyed home, Medea killed her brother and dismembered him, flinging the parts of his body into the sea, represented by the Milky Way; each individual star represents a different limb. Capella is associated with the mythological she-goat Amalthea, it forms an asterism with the stars Epsilon Aurigae, Zeta Aurigae, Eta Aurigae, the latter two of which are known as the Haedi. Though most associated with Amalthea, Capella has sometimes been associated with Amalthea's owner, a nymph; the myth of the nymph says that the goat's hideous appearance, resembling a Gorgon, was responsible for the Titans' defeat, because Zeus skinned the goat and wore it as his aegis.
The asterism containing the three goats had been a separate constellation. Before that, Capella was sometimes seen as its own constellation—by Pliny the Elder and Manilius—called Capra, Caper, or Hircus, all of which relate to its status as the "goat star". Zeta Aurigae and Eta Aurigae were first called the "Kids" by Cleostratus, an ancient Greek astronomer. Traditionally, illustrations of Auriga represent it as its driver; the charioteer has two kids under his left arm. However, depictions of Auriga have been inconsistent over the years; the reins in his right hand have been drawn as a whip, though Capella is always over his left shoulder and the Kids under his left arm. The 1488 atlas Hyginus deviated from this typical depiction by showing a four-wheeled cart driven by Auriga
ROSAT was a German Aerospace Center-led satellite X-ray telescope, with instruments built by West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was launched on 1 June 1990, on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral, on what was designed as an 18-month mission, with provision for up to five years of operation. ROSAT operated for over eight years shutting down on 12 February 1999. In February 2011, it was reported that the 2,400 kg satellite was unlikely to burn up while re-entering the Earth's atmosphere due to the large amount of ceramics and glass used in construction. Parts as heavy as 400 kg could impact the surface intact. ROSAT re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 23 October 2011 over Bay of Bengal. According to NASA, the Roentgensatellit was a joint German, U. S. and British X-ray astrophysics project. ROSAT carried a German-built imaging X-ray Telescope with three focal plane instruments: two German Position Sensitive Proportional Counters and the US-supplied High Resolution Imager.
The X-ray mirror assembly was a grazing incidence four-fold nested Wolter I telescope with an 84-cm diameter aperture and 240-cm focal length. The angular resolution was less than 5 arcsecond at half energy width; the XRT assembly was sensitive to X-rays between 0.1 and 2 keV. In addition, a British-supplied extreme ultraviolet telescope, the Wide Field Camera, was coaligned with the XRT and covered the energy band from 0.042 to 0.21 keV. ROSAT's unique strengths were high spatial resolution, low-background, soft X-ray imaging for the study of the structure of low surface brightness features, for low-resolution spectroscopy; the ROSAT spacecraft was a three-axis stabilized satellite which can be used for pointed observations, for slewing between targets, for performing scanning observations on great circles perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. ROSAT was capable of fast slews which makes it possible to observe two targets on opposite hemispheres during each orbit; the pointing accuracy was 1 arcminute with stability less than 5 arcsec per sec and jitter radius of ~10 arcsec.
Two CCD star sensors were used for optical position sensing of guide stars and attitude determination of the spacecraft. The post facto attitude determination accuracy was 6 arcsec; the ROSAT mission was divided into two phases: After a two-month on-orbit calibration and verification period, an all-sky survey was performed for six months using the PSPC in the focus of XRT, in two XUV bands using the WFC. The survey was carried out in the scan mode; the second phase consists of the remainder of the mission and was devoted to pointed observations of selected astrophysical sources. In ROSAT's pointed phase, observing time was allocated to Guest Investigators from all three participating countries through peer review of submitted proposals. ROSAT was expected to operate beyond its nominal lifetime; the main assembly was a German-built imaging X-ray Telescope with three focal plane instruments: two German Position Sensitive Proportional Counters and the US-supplied High Resolution Imager. The X-ray mirror assembly was a grazing incidence four-fold nested Wolter I telescope with an 84 cm diameter aperture and 240 cm focal length.
The angular resolution was less than 5 arcsec at half energy width. The XRT assembly was sensitive to X-rays between 0.1 and 2 keV. Each Position Sensitive Proportional Counter is a thin-window gas counter; each incoming X-ray photon produces an electron cloud whose position and charge are detected using two wire grids. The photon position is determined with an accuracy of about 120 micrometers; the electron cloud's charge corresponds to the photon energy. The US supplied High Resolution Imager used a crossed grid detector with a position accuracy to 25 micrometers; the instrument was damaged by solar exposure on 20 September 1998. The Wide Field Camera was a British-supplied extreme ultraviolet telescope co-aligned with the XRT and covered the wave band between 300 and 60 angstroms. X-ray all-sky survey catalog, more than 150,000 objects XUV all-sky survey catalog Source catalogs from the pointed phase containing ~ 100,000 serendipitous sources Detailed morphology of supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies.
Detection of shadowing of diffuse X-ray emission by molecular clouds. Detection of pulsations from Geminga. Detection of isolated neutron stars. Discovery of X-ray emission from comets. Observation of X-ray emission from the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy with Jupiter. 1RXS - an acronym, the prefix used for the First ROSAT X-ray Survey, a catalogue of astronomical objects visible for ROSAT in the X-ray spectrum. See Category:ROSAT objects ROSAT was planned to be launched on the Space Shuttle but the Challenger disaster caused it to be moved to the Delta platform; this move made it impossible to bring it back to Earth. Designed for a five-year mission, ROSAT continued in its extended mission for a further four years before equipment failure forced an end to the mission. For some months after this, ROSAT completed its last observations before being switched off on 12 February 1999. On 25 April 1998, failure of the primary star tracker on the X-ray Telescope led to pointing errors that in turn had caused solar overheating.
A contingency plan and the necessary software had been developed t
2 Aurigae is a possible binary star system in the northern constellation of Auriga. This object is visible to the naked eye as a faint, orange-hued star with an apparent visual magnitude of +4.79. It forms an attractive four-star asterism when viewed in a low power eyepiece, together with the nearby HIP 22647 and another loose visual pair, HIP 22776 and HIP 22744, all above magnitude 8. 2 Aurigae is moving closer to the Earth with a heliocentric radial velocity of −17 km/s. The visible component is an aging giant star with a stellar classification of K3- III Ba0.4. The suffix notation indicates this is a mild barium star, which means the stellar atmosphere is enriched with s-process elements, it is either a member of a close binary system and has acquired these elements from a white dwarf companion or else it is on the asymptotic giant branch and is generating the elements itself. 2 Aurigae is 1.80 billion years old with 2.86 times the mass of the Sun and has expanded to 48 times the Sun's radius.
It is radiating 599 times the Sun's luminosity from its enlarged photosphere at an effective temperature of 4,115 K. HR 1551 Image 2 Aurigae
European Space Agency
The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,200 in 2018 and an annual budget of about €5.72 billion in 2019. ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight; the main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle. The agency is working with NASA to manufacture the Orion Spacecraft service module, that will fly on the Space Launch System; the agency's facilities are distributed among the following centres: ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands. After World War II, many European scientists left Western Europe in order to work with the United States. Although the 1950s boom made it possible for Western European countries to invest in research and in space-related activities, Western European scientists realised national projects would not be able to compete with the two main superpowers.
In 1958, only months after the Sputnik shock, Edoardo Amaldi and Pierre Auger, two prominent members of the Western European scientific community, met to discuss the foundation of a common Western European space agency. The meeting was attended by scientific representatives from eight countries, including Harrie Massey; the Western European nations decided to have two agencies: one concerned with developing a launch system, ELDO, the other the precursor of the European Space Agency, ESRO. The latter was established on 20 March 1964 by an agreement signed on 14 June 1962. From 1968 to 1972, ESRO launched seven research satellites. ESA in its current form was founded with the ESA Convention in 1975, when ESRO was merged with ELDO. ESA had ten founding member states: Belgium, France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom; these signed the ESA Convention in 1975 and deposited the instruments of ratification by 1980, when the convention came into force. During this interval the agency functioned in a de facto fashion.
ESA launched its first major scientific mission in 1975, Cos-B, a space probe monitoring gamma-ray emissions in the universe, first worked on by ESRO. The ESA collaborated with NASA on the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the world's first high-orbit telescope, launched in 1978 and operated for 18 years. A number of successful Earth-orbit projects followed, in 1986 ESA began Giotto, its first deep-space mission, to study the comets Halley and Grigg–Skjellerup. Hipparcos, a star-mapping mission, was launched in 1989 and in the 1990s SOHO, Ulysses and the Hubble Space Telescope were all jointly carried out with NASA. Scientific missions in cooperation with NASA include the Cassini–Huygens space probe, to which ESA contributed by building the Titan landing module Huygens; as the successor of ELDO, ESA has constructed rockets for scientific and commercial payloads. Ariane 1, launched in 1979, carried commercial payloads into orbit from 1984 onward; the next two versions of the Ariane rocket were intermediate stages in the development of a more advanced launch system, the Ariane 4, which operated between 1988 and 2003 and established ESA as the world leader in commercial space launches in the 1990s.
Although the succeeding Ariane 5 experienced a failure on its first flight, it has since established itself within the competitive commercial space launch market with 82 successful launches until 2018. The successor launch vehicle of Ariane 5, the Ariane 6, is under development and is envisioned to enter service in the 2020s; the beginning of the new millennium saw ESA become, along with agencies like NASA, JAXA, ISRO, CSA and Roscosmos, one of the major participants in scientific space research. Although ESA had relied on co-operation with NASA in previous decades the 1990s, changed circumstances led to decisions to rely more on itself and on co-operation with Russia. A 2011 press issue thus stated: Russia is ESA's first partner in its efforts to ensure long-term access to space. There is a framework agreement between ESA and the government of the Russian Federation on cooperation and partnership in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, cooperation is underway in two different areas of launcher activity that will bring benefits to both partners.
Notable outcomes are ESA's include SMART-1, a probe testing cutting-edge new space propulsion technology, the Mars Express and Venus Express missions, as well as the development of the Ariane 5 rocket and its role in the ISS partnership. ESA maintain
Capella designated α Aurigae, is the brightest star in the constellation of Auriga, the sixth-brightest star in the night sky, the third-brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere after Arcturus and Vega. A prominent object in the northern winter sky, it is circumpolar to observers north of 44°N, its name meaning "little goat" in Latin, Capella depicted the goat Amalthea that suckled Zeus in classical mythology. Capella is close, at only 42.9 light-years from the Sun. Although it appears to be a single star to the naked eye, Capella is a quadruple star system organized in two binary pairs, made up of the stars Capella Aa, Capella Ab, Capella H, Capella L; the primary pair, Capella Aa and Capella Ab, are two bright yellow giant stars, both of which are around 2.5 times as massive as the Sun. The secondary pair, Capella H and Capella L, are around 10,000 astronomical units from the first and are two faint and cool red dwarfs. Capella Aa and Capella Ab have exhausted their core hydrogen, cooled and expanded, moving off the main sequence.
They are in a tight circular orbit about 0.74 AU apart, orbit each other every 104 days. Capella Aa is the cooler and more luminous of the two with spectral class K0III. An ageing red clump star, Capella Aa is fusing helium to oxygen in its core. Capella Ab is smaller and hotter and of spectral class G1III, it is in the Hertzsprung gap, corresponding to a brief subgiant evolutionary phase as it expands and cools to become a red giant. Capella is one of the brightest X-ray sources in the sky, thought to come from the corona of Capella Aa. Several other stars in the same visual field have been catalogued as companions but are physically unrelated. Α Aurigae is the star system's Bayer designation. It has the Flamsteed designation 13 Aurigae, it is listed in several multiple star catalogues as ADS 3841, CCDM J05168+4559, WDS J05167+4600. As a nearby star system, Capella is listed in the Gliese-Jahreiss Catalogue with designations GJ 194 for the bright pair of giants and GJ 195 for the faint pair of red dwarfs.
The traditional name Capella is Latin for female goat. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN. It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names; the catalogue of star names lists Capella as applying to the star α Aurigae Aa. Capella was the brightest star in the night sky from 210,000 years ago to 160,000 years ago, at about −1.8 in apparent magnitude. At −1.1, Aldebaran was brightest before this period. Capella is thought to be mentioned in an Akkadian inscription dating to the 20th century BC, its goat-associated symbolism dates back to Mesopotamia as a constellation called "GAM", "Gamlum" or "MUL. GAM" in the 7th-century BC document MUL. APIN. GAM represented a scimitar or crook and may have represented the star alone or the constellation of Auriga as a whole. Bedouin astronomers created constellations that were groups of animals, where each star represented one animal.
The stars of Auriga comprised a herd of goats, an association present in Greek mythology. It is sometimes called the Shepherd's Star in English literature. Capella was seen as a portent of rain in classical times. Building J of the pre-Columbian site Monte Albán in Oaxaca state in Mexico was built around 275 BC, at a different orientation to other structures in the complex, its steps are aligned perpendicular to the rising of Capella at that time, so that a person looking out a doorway on the building would have faced it directly. Capella is significant as its heliacal rising took place within a day of the Sun passing directly overhead over Monte Albán. Professor William Wallace Campbell of the Lick Observatory announced that Capella was binary in 1899, based on spectroscopic observations—he noted on photographic plates taken from August 1896 to February 1897 that a second spectrum appeared superimposed over the first, that there was a doppler shift to violet in September and October and to red in November and February—showing that the components were moving toward and away from the Earth.
British astronomer Hugh Newall had observed its composite spectrum with a four prism spectroscope attached to a 25 inches telescope at Cambridge in July 1899, concluding that it was a binary star system. Many observers tried to discern the component stars without success. Known as "The Interferometrist's Friend", it was first resolved interferometrically in 1919 by John Anderson and Francis Pease at Mount Wilson Observatory, who published an orbit in 1920 based on their observations; this was the first interferometric measurement of any object outside the Solar System. A high-precision orbit was published in 1994 based on observations by the Mark III Stellar Interferometer, again at Mount Wilson Observatory. Capella became the first astronomical object to be imaged by a separate element optical interferometer when it was imaged by the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope in September 1995. In 1914, Finnish astronomer Ragnar Furuhjelm observed that the spectroscopic binary had a faint c
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth; the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations. However, most of the estimated 300 sextillion stars in the Universe are invisible to the naked eye from Earth, including all stars outside our galaxy, the Milky Way. For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star's interior and radiates into outer space. All occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the star's lifetime, for some stars by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes.
Near the end of its life, a star can contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its luminosity, spectrum respectively; the total mass of a star is the main factor. Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities produces a plot known as a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. Plotting a particular star on that diagram allows the age and evolutionary state of that star to be determined. A star's life begins with the gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material composed of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements; when the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective heat transfer processes.
The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. A star with mass greater than 0.4 times the Sun's will expand to become a red giant when the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. In some cases, it will fuse heavier elements in shells around the core; as the star expands it throws a part of its mass, enriched with those heavier elements, into the interstellar environment, to be recycled as new stars. Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or if it is sufficiently massive a black hole. Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound and move around each other in stable orbits; when two such stars have a close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a star cluster or a galaxy. Stars have been important to civilizations throughout the world, they have used for celestial navigation and orientation.
Many ancient astronomers believed that stars were permanently affixed to a heavenly sphere and that they were immutable. By convention, astronomers grouped stars into constellations and used them to track the motions of the planets and the inferred position of the Sun; the motion of the Sun against the background stars was used to create calendars, which could be used to regulate agricultural practices. The Gregorian calendar used nearly everywhere in the world, is a solar calendar based on the angle of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its local star, the Sun; the oldest dated star chart was the result of ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC. The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period; the first star catalogue in Greek astronomy was created by Aristillus in 300 BC, with the help of Timocharis. The star catalog of Hipparchus included 1020 stars, was used to assemble Ptolemy's star catalogue.
Hipparchus is known for the discovery of the first recorded nova. Many of the constellations and star names in use today derive from Greek astronomy. In spite of the apparent immutability of the heavens, Chinese astronomers were aware that new stars could appear. In 185 AD, they were the first to observe and write about a supernova, now known as the SN 185; the brightest stellar event in recorded history was the SN 1006 supernova, observed in 1006 and written about by the Egyptian astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and several Chinese astronomers. The SN 1054 supernova, which gave birth to the Crab Nebula, was observed by Chinese and Islamic astronomers. Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars that are still used today and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars, they built the first large observatory research institutes for the purpose of producing Zij star catalogues. Among these, the Book of Fixed Stars was written by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, who observed a number of stars, star clusters and galaxies.
According to A. Zahoor, in the 11th century, the Persian polymath scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Milky
A magnetar is a type of neutron star believed to have an powerful magnetic field. The magnetic field decay powers the emission of high-energy electromagnetic radiation X-rays and gamma rays; the theory regarding these objects was proposed by Robert Duncan and Christopher Thompson in 1992, but the first recorded burst of gamma rays thought to have been from a magnetar had been detected on March 5, 1979. During the following decade, the magnetar hypothesis became accepted as a explanation for soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars. Like other neutron stars, magnetars are around 20 kilometres in diameter and have a mass 2–3 times that of the Sun; the density of the interior of a magnetar is such that a tablespoon of its substance would have a mass of over 100 million tons. Magnetars are differentiated from other neutron stars by having stronger magnetic fields, by rotating comparatively quicker. Most neutron stars rotate once every one to ten seconds, whereas magnetars rotate once in less than one second.
A magnetar's magnetic field gives rise to strong and characteristic bursts of X-rays and gamma rays. The active life of a magnetar is short, their strong magnetic fields decay after about 10,000 years, after which activity and strong X-ray emission cease. Given the number of magnetars observable today, one estimate puts the number of inactive magnetars in the Milky Way at 30 million or more. Starquakes triggered on the surface of the magnetar disturb the magnetic field which encompasses it leading to powerful gamma ray flare emissions which have been recorded on Earth in 1979, 1998, 2004. Magnetars are characterized by their powerful magnetic fields of 108 to 1011 tesla; these magnetic fields are hundreds of millions of times stronger than any man-made magnet, quadrillions of times more powerful than the field surrounding Earth. Earth has a geomagnetic field of 30–60 microteslas, a neodymium-based, rare-earth magnet has a field of about 1.25 tesla, with a magnetic energy density of 4.0×105 J/m3.
A magnetar's 1010 tesla field, by contrast, has an energy density of 4.0×1025 J/m3, with an E/c2 mass density more than 10,000 times that of lead. The magnetic field of a magnetar would be lethal at a distance of 1000 km due to the strong magnetic field distorting the electron clouds of the subject's constituent atoms, rendering the chemistry of life impossible. At a distance of halfway from Earth to the moon, a magnetar could strip information from the magnetic stripes of all credit cards on Earth; as of 2010, they are the most powerful magnetic objects detected throughout the universe. As described in the February 2003 Scientific American cover story, remarkable things happen within a magnetic field of magnetar strength. "X-ray photons split in two or merge. The vacuum itself is polarized, becoming birefringent, like a calcite crystal. Atoms are deformed into long cylinders thinner than the quantum-relativistic de Broglie wavelength of an electron." In a field of about 105 teslas atomic orbitals deform into rod shapes.
At 1010 teslas, a hydrogen atom becomes a spindle 200 times narrower than its normal diameter. The strong fields of magnetars are understood as resulting from a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo process in the turbulent dense conducting fluid that exists before the neutron star settles into its equilibrium configuration; these fields persist due to persistent currents in a proton-superconductor phase of matter that exists at an intermediate depth within the neutron star. A similar magnetohydrodynamic dynamo process produces more intense transient fields during coalescence of pairs of neutron stars; when in a supernova, a star collapses to a neutron star, its magnetic field increases in strength. Halving a linear dimension increases the magnetic field fourfold. Duncan and Thompson calculated that when the spin and magnetic field of a newly formed neutron star falls into the right ranges, a dynamo mechanism could act, converting heat and rotational energy into magnetic energy and increasing the magnetic field an enormous 108 teslas, to more than 1011 teslas.
The result is a magnetar. It is estimated that about one in ten supernova explosions results in a magnetar rather than a more standard neutron star or pulsar. On March 5, 1979, a few months after the successful dropping of satellites into the atmosphere of Venus, the two unmanned Soviet spaceprobes, Venera 11 and 12, that were drifting through the Solar System were hit by a blast of gamma radiation at 10:51 EST; this contact raised the radiation readings on both the probes from a normal 100 counts per second to over 200,000 counts a second, in only a fraction of a millisecond. This burst of gamma rays continued to spread. Eleven seconds Helios 2, a NASA probe, in orbit around the Sun, was saturated by the blast of radiation, it soon hit Venus, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter's detectors were overcome by the wave. Seconds Earth received the wave of radiation, where the powerful output of gamma rays inundated the detectors of three U. S. Department of Defense Vela satellites, the Soviet Prognoz 7 satellite, the Einstein Observatory.
Just before the wave exited the Solar System, the blast hit the International Sun–Earth Explorer. This powerful blast of gamma radiation constituted the strongest wave of extra-solar gamma rays detected; because gamma rays travel at the speed of light and the time of the pulse