Rise Against Hunger
Rise Against Hunger Stop Hunger Now, is an international hunger relief non-profit organization that coordinates the packaging and distribution of food and other life-changing aid to people in developing nations. Founded in 1998, Rise Against Hunger mobilizes more than 350,000 volunteers each year to package meals for people in need around the globe. Since 2005, Rise Against Hunger has distributed more than 315,000,000 meals to recipients in 74 countries with a mission to end hunger. Rise Against Hunger is an international hunger relief agency that seeks to end global hunger by engaging local volunteers; the organization was formed in 1998 by Ray Buchanan, a United Methodist Minister, John Hewitt, a tax expert and entrepreneur, began its meal packaging program in 2005. The organizational mission is stated as "Rise Against Hunger is driven by the vision of a world without hunger, its mission is to end hunger in our lifetime by providing food and life-changing aid to the world’s most vulnerable and creating a global commitment to mobilize the necessary resources."
Rise Against Hunger aims to end hunger through four pathways: nourishing lives, responding to emergencies, empowering communities and growing the movement. From the implementation of sustainable development community projects to the meal packaging program that utilizes local volunteers, Rise Against Hunger strives to make a global impact on hunger by building resilience, self-sufficiency and empowerment among the world’s most vulnerable populations. Rise Against Hunger supports safety net programs for nourishment and skills training to help the world’s most vulnerable navigate the difficult journey out of poverty. Rise Against Hunger partners with schools in order to promote and incentivize increased attendance. Additionally, Rise Against Hunger works to partner with vocational education and clinics in order to support adults learning new trades and encourage healthy lifestyles. Rise Against Hunger responds to emergencies. In times of floods, droughts or political unrest, the organization aims to provide food.
Access to food and market systems are destroyed in times of emergency. Rise Against Hunger works with its in-country partner organizations in order to address the immediate needs in the wake of crisis; each year Rise Against Hunger reserves 10% of its projected meals to respond to crisis situations. Official Rise Against Hunger responses include the 2016 Hurricane Matthew, Syrian conflict, South Sudanese conflict and 2010 Haiti earthquake. In order to create long-term solutions to hunger and poverty, Rise Against Hunger works to empower communities through agricultural and income-generating initiatives, it works to increase agricultural production and incomes through programs that promote improved farming methods, business skills and market access. Farmers, one of the most food insecure populations in the world, are given access to quality seeds and fertilizers to increase agricultural production and diversify their crops. Rise Against Hunger supports vocational training to help at-risk individuals increase their earning potentials and gain consistent access to food.
Part of Rise Against Hunger’s mission is to create a global commitment to mobilize the necessary resources to end hunger. The organization works with volunteer groups from communities of faith, corporations and civic clubs to package meals while developing a greater awareness of hunger-related issues. Additionally, Rise Against Hunger encourages its supporters to participate in advocacy activities to work toward changing laws, policies and attitudes to end hunger by 2030. Rise Against Hunger is working to end world hunger by the year 2030 not only through their meal packaging program, but by promoting improved agricultural methods, business skills, market access, among other things, it was an honor to not only participate in their volunteer meal packaging program, but to support a sustainable approach to ending world hunger. In order to expand its reach, Rise Against Hunger has partnered with Procore in February 2019, setting the goal to package 100,000 meals for distribution across the world to those who need it most.
The assembly process combines rice, dehydrated vegetables and a micronutrient flavoring mix formulated by Kraft Heinz Company Foundation that includes 23 essential vitamins and minerals. The cost of each meal varies between 34 cents; the food has a shelf-life of two years. Rise Against Hunger provides over 70% of its meals to support transformational development programs such as school lunch programs, vocational training programs, early childhood development programs and medical clinics. Working with these programs helps enhance lives by giving beneficiaries the opportunity to break the cycle of poverty through education, skills development, healthcare while receiving much needed nutrition. Rise Against Hunger supports partner organizations in developing countries by providing direct financial assistance to support ongoing programs that provide food, medicines or other basic necessities to impoverished populations; this program enables Rise Against Hunger to respond to crises by working with organizations on the ground.
It supports local economies in developing areas and promotes self-reliance. Official website
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Shannon, County Clare
Shannon or Shannon Town, named after the river near which it stands, is a town in County Clare, Ireland. It was given town status on 1 January 1982; the town is located just off a spur of the N18/M18 road between Limerick and Ennis. It is the location of Shannon Airport, an international airport serving the Clare/Limerick region in the west of Ireland. Shannon is a new town. Spearheaded by Brendan O'Regan, it was built in the 1960s on reclaimed marshland alongside Shannon Airport, along with the Shannon Free Zone industrial estate; the residential areas were intended as a home for the thousands of workers at the airport, surrounding industries and support services. Population growth was never as fast as planned throughout the first few decades of the town's existence; this was due to the proximity of'friendly' places to live, such as Ennis town and Limerick city, or the nearby village of Newmarket-on-Fergus. The'planned' nature of this town did not result in a successful town, it was lacking in facilities, the town's shopping centre was of poor design.
Shops fronted onto pedestrian malls that were uncovered, allowing estuary winds and rain to strike at shoppers. The early low-cost housing was poor-quality terraced housing. Shannon was located in the parish of Newmarket-on-Fergus in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe, at first a priest in residence of the airport served the population. In 1966 St. Senan’s School was opened and Mary Immaculate Church was built on Corrib Drive. On 24 December 1967 the parish of Shannon was created. For a short period a group of Dominican Sisters of England had a community in the parish. In 1974 they were replaced by the Sisters of Mercy; the church of Saints John and Paul was opened in Tullyvarraga in 1980. Other churches are the Shannon Airport Oratory. St. John’s Church of Ireland School was the first school established in Shannon in 1962. Christ Church Shannon opened in 1962 serving members of the reformed faiths, but it is now closed; the Church of Ireland community is served by the Drumcliffe Union and the Methodist community is served by a lay pastor.
The population grew in the 1990s, new modern housing developments continued to be built. Facilities in the town are improving; the main road through Shannon was remodelled following the opening of the bypass of Newmarket-on-Fergus. New units continue to open in the industrial estates. Shannon town has six primary schools: St. Tola's, St John's, St Senan's, Gaelscoil Donnacha Rua, St. Conaire's and St. Aidan's, including a Gaelscoil and a school under the patronage of Church of Ireland. There are two second level education institutes in the town, St. Patrick's Comprehensive School and St. Caimin's Community School. St. Patrick's Comprehensive School opened in 1966 as Ireland's first comprehensive school, it has been serving the town since and is due an extension to increase its capacity to over 900 pupils. There is one third level institution in Shannon: the Shannon College of Hotel Management, which opened in 1951. Since 2015 it has been an official college of the National University of Galway.
Shannon Free Zone is Ireland's largest cluster of North American investments. Since its establishment in 1959, more than 110 overseas companies have chosen to open subsidiaries in Shannon. Major companies in Shannon include global market leaders as Element Six, Avocent, Genworth Financial, Lufthansa Technik, Mentor Graphics, RSA Security, Molex, GE Capital, Ingersoll Rand and Digital River. Aer Rianta International, a subsidiary of Dublin Airport Authority, has its head office on the grounds of Shannon Airport; when Eirjet existed, its head office was located on the grounds of Shannon Airport. The town is administered at a local level by Clare County Council, preceded by Shannon Town Council, which in turn succeeded the Shannon Town Commissioners. In addition, prior to September 2004, Shannon Development, a state-sponsored body had charge of many services provided by local authorities in the Republic of Ireland; this gave Shannon a unique status in local governance. In September 2004 its situation was regularised when Shannon Development transferred its local government functions to Clare County Council.
The company retains responsibility for the Shannon Free Zone. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". The highest temperature recorded in Shannon was 32.0 °C on 28 June 2018. Shannon is twinned with: Guingamp, since 1991 List of towns and villages in Ireland Official site
Shannon Airport is one of Ireland's three primary international airports, along with Dublin and Cork. In 2017, 1.751 million passengers passed through the airport, making it the third-busiest airport in the country after Dublin and Cork. Shannon Airport is located in Shannon, County Clare, serves Limerick, Ennis and the south-west of Ireland; the longest runway in Ireland, at 3,199 metres, is located at Shannon, a designated landing site for the Space Shuttle. In the late 1930s, transatlantic air traffic was dominated by flying boats, a flying boat terminal was located at Foynes on the south side of the Shannon Estuary. However, it was realised that changing technology would require a permanent airport. In 1936, the Government of Ireland confirmed that it would develop a 3.1-square-kilometre site at Rineanna for the country's first transatlantic airport. The land on which the airport was to be built was boggy, on 8 October 1936 work began to drain the land. By 1942 a serviceable airport was named Shannon Airport.
By 1945 the existing runways at Shannon were extended to allow transatlantic flights to land. When World War II ended, the airport was ready to be used by the many new post-war commercial airlines of Europe and North America. On 16 September 1945 the first transatlantic proving flight, a Pan Am DC-4, landed at Shannon from Gander. On 24 October 1945, the first scheduled commercial flight, an American Overseas Airlines DC-4, Flagship New England, stopped at the airport on the New York City–Gander–Shannon–London route. An accident involving President Airlines on 10 September 1961 resulted in the loss of 83 lives; the Douglas DC-6 aircraft crashed into the River Shannon. The number of international carriers rose in succeeding years as Shannon became well known as the gateway between Europe and the Americas. Shannon became the most convenient stopping point after a trip across the Atlantic. Additionally, during the Cold War, many transatlantic flights from the Soviet Union stopped here for refueling, because Shannon was the westernmost non-NATO airport on the European side of the Atlantic.
On September 30, 1994 Shannon was the site of the "circling over Shannon" diplomatic incident involving Boris Yeltsin. Ryanair increased services and passenger numbers at the airport through 2008. In 2007, Shannon carried 3.2 million passengers. However, after a disagreement with the Dublin Airport Authority in 2008, Ryanair announced that the number of based aircraft would reduce from four to one and 150 jobs would be lost. Services were cut by 75% and 32 Ryanair routes from the airport were reduced to eight. CityJet launched a twice-daily route to Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport in 2008 when Aer Lingus closed its London Heathrow flights; the company based an Avro RJ85 at Shannon. More services were including a route to London City Airport. In December 2012, it was announced that Shannon Airport would separate from the Dublin Airport Authority, who still own Dublin and Cork airports. On 31 December 2012 at 11:59 pm, Shannon Airport became a publicly owned commercial airport and is now operated and run by the Shannon Airport Authority plc. Shannon announced a target in 2012 to grow its passenger numbers to 2.5 million annually within five years.
However, Shannon has fallen short of its stated targeted figure with just 1.74 million flying through the airport in 2017. In March 2013, the new company appointed Neil Pakey as its first CEO. Traffic figures for June 2013 report an 8% increase on the previous year, the first time a traffic increase has been recorded in three years. On 21 March 2013, Ryanair announced a new twice-weekly route to Alicante, Spain to begin on 5 June for the summer months; that brought Shannon's total to 33 seasonal scheduled summer routes. In August 2013 Aer Lingus announced a 1x weekly service to Lanzarote every Saturday during the winter months using an A320. In October 2013, United Airlines confirmed it will increase capacity by 88% on its Shannon-Chicago route for 2014. In late 2013, Aer Lingus announced 2 new routes to Málaga, Spain and to Bristol, UK. Ryanair announced 8 new routes from Shannon to continental Europe; the new routes began from the start of April 2014, a second Boeing 737-800 was based at Shannon to accommodate the extra 300,000 passengers a year it would bring in.
The destinations announced were Berlin Schonefeld, Memmingen, Warsaw Modlin, Kraków, Nice and Fuerteventura. On 4 July 2014, the "Bank of Ireland Runway Night Run" featured 1,200 people running along Shannon's runway to raise money for charity. In late 2014, Aer Lingus Regional operator Stobart Air said that they would close down their Shannon base in early 2015, they returned in June 2015 operating 6 flights weekly Birmingham service followed by 6 flights weekly Edinburgh service. In late 2015, they announced a new CEO for Matthew Thomas. Ryanair announced that it will be ending its Paris and Memmingen routes in late 2016, it reduced its Manchester and London Stansted routes. Ryanair is aiming for 720,000 passengers in Summer 2017 though that they were close to 800,000 in Summer 2016. In October 2016, SAS announced a new route to Stockholm from August 1, 2017 to October 7, 2017. Shortly after that, Lufthansa announced a weekly service to Frankfurt running from April to October in 2017. In September 2017 Ryanair announced a new Route to Reus.
It will run through summer 2018 operating 2x weekly
County Clare is a county in Ireland, in the Mid-West Region and the province of Munster, bordered on the West by the Atlantic Ocean. There is debate whether it should be considered a part of Connacht. Clare County Council is the local authority; the county had a population of 118,817 at the 2016 census. The county town and largest settlement is Ennis. Clare is north-west of the River Shannon covering a total area of 3,400 square kilometres. Clare is the 7th largest of Ireland's 32 traditional counties in area and the 19th largest in terms of population, it is bordered by two counties in Munster and one county in Connacht: County Limerick to the south, County Tipperary to the east and County Galway to the north. Clare's nickname is the Banner County; the county is divided into the baronies of Bunratty Lower, Bunratty Upper, Clonderalaw, Ibrickan, Islands, Tulla Lower and Tulla Upper. These in turn are divided into civil parishes; these divisions are cadastral, defining ownership, rather than administrative.
Bodies of water define much of the physical boundaries of Clare. To the south-east is the River Shannon, Ireland's longest river, to the south is the Shannon Estuary; the border to the north-east is defined by Lough Derg, the third largest lake on Ireland. To the west is the Atlantic Ocean, to the north is Galway Bay. County Clare contains a unique karst region, which contains rare flowers and fauna. At the western edge of The Burren, facing the Atlantic Ocean, are the Cliffs of Moher; the highest point in County Clare is Moylussa, 532 m, in the Slieve Bernagh range in the east of the county. The following islands lie off the coast of the county: Aughinish Inishmore Island Inishloe Mutton Island Scattery Island County Clare hosts the oldest known evidence of human activity in Ireland; the patella of a bear, subject to butchering close to the time of death, was found in the Alice and Gwendoline Cave, near Edenvale House, Clarecastle. The bone features a number of linear-cut marks, has been dated to circa 10,500 BC, from the Paleolithic era.
This discovery, publicized in 2017, pushed back Ireland's occupation by 2,500 years - what was regarded as the oldest site of occupation was the Mesolithic site of Mount Sandel, County Londonderry. This bear bone was discovered in 1903 during an archaeological excavation but was not studied until over a century later. There was a Neolithic civilization in the Clare area — the name of the peoples is unknown, but the Prehistoric peoples left evidence behind in the form of ancient dolmen: single-chamber megalithic tombs consisting of three or more upright stones. Clare is one of the richest places in Ireland for these tombs; the most noted. The remains of the people inside the tomb have been excavated and dated to 3800 BC. Ptolemy created a map of Ireland in his Geographia with information dating from 100 AD. Within his map, Ptolemy names the areas in which they resided. Historians have found the tribes on the west of Ireland the most difficult to identify with known peoples. During the Early Middle Ages, the area was part of the Kingdom of Connacht ruled by the Uí Fiachrach Aidhne.
In the mid-10th century, it was annexed to the Kingdom of Munster to be settled by the Dalcassians. It was renamed meaning North Munster. Brian Boru became a leader from here during this period the most noted High King of Ireland. From 1118 onwards the Kingdom of Thomond was in place as its own petty kingdom, ruled by the O'Brien Clan. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Thomas de Clare established a short-lived Norman lordship of Thomond, extinguished at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea in 1318 during Edward Bruce's invasion. There are two main hypotheses for the origins of the county name "Clare". One is that the name is derived from Thomas de Clare, embroiled in local politics and fighting in the 1270s and 1280s. An alternative hypothesis is that the county name Clare comes from the settlement of Clare, whose Irish name Clár refers to a crossing over the River Fergus. In 1543, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Murrough O'Brien, by surrender and regrant to Henry VIII, became Earl of Thomond within Henry's Kingdom of Ireland.
Henry Sidney as Lord Deputy of Ireland responded to the Desmond Rebellion by creating the presidency of Connaught in 1569 and presidency of Munster in 1570. He transferred Thomond from Munster to Connaught. About 1600, Clare was removed from the presidency of Connaught and made a presidency in its own right under the Earl of Thomond; when Henry O'Brien, 5th Earl of Thomond died in 1639, Lord Deputy Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford decreed Clare should return to the presidency of Munster, but the Wars of the Three Kingdoms delayed this until the Restoration of 1660. Clare's county nickname is the Banner County, for which various origins have been suggested: the banners captured by Clare's Dragoons at the Battle of Ramillies.
School health and nutrition services
School health and nutrition services are services provided through the school system to improve the health and well-being of children and in some cases whole families and the broader community. These services have been developed in different ways around the globe but the fundamentals are constant: the early detection, prevention or amelioration of disease and abuse from which school aged children can suffer, it was shown by statistics that many pupils were behind in their studies only because of lack of physical vitality. In 1920, it was shown that so many pupils in the schools of Brooklyn, New York, were compelled to pass through the same grades twice that, at the average cost of $40 a term for each pupil, the borough lost $2,000,000. On this basis various social organizations demanded an appropriation from the city of $100,000 for more effective medical aid to the school children, contending that more than half of the extra expense could thus be saved. Out of 252,000 school-children inspected in New York City in 1919, 74% were found defective physically, defective teeth and vision being the chief faults.
Unesco has published a set of tools, to support the FRESH framework, to guide those wishing to set up school health services around the world. Designed for developing nations, these tools can be of universal use; the main emphasis of these tools is on: HIV/AIDS Food and nutrition Helminths and hygiene Malaria Violence Drugs and alcohol School health services are well developed in the United States. Central guidelines are provided by Making Health Academic but each state and within that each school board has adopted its own specific methods; this is a five-year project funded by CDC's Division of Adolescent and School Health designed to enable all schools to be part of a co-ordinated school health program. The project is built around the fact that six preventable behaviours learned in childhood and youth, account for most of the serious illnesses and premature deaths in the United States. An example from a maritime state is where a typical mission statement starts "School Health Services fosters the growth and educational achievement of Massachusetts' students by promoting their health and wellbeing...
" New Mexico. An example from a southern state is where an interesting "yucca model of coordinated school health" is used to help visualize the inter-relationship of the services. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care American School Health Association The health of children and youth in the UK is the responsibility of the NHS, for example child health screening and advice for parents of overweight children. School based services are therefore more limited than in the US. England - Warrington Northern Ireland Scotland Indicators of school health in Morocco are troublesome. A recent article by the European Institute of Health Sciences in Casablanca noted that: 15% of school children in Morocco live with chronic medical conditions such as bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, congenital diseases and cancer. 10 % to 25 % of injuries to children occur. 85% of infections occurring in school children are transmitted in school. 15 % of school children suffer from an behavioral problem.
One-third of them will have serious dysfunction. Statistics about engagement of Moroccan youth in risky behaviors are alarming. School health services are traditionally provided by school nurses, but there is a severe shortage of qualified school nurses; the Institute therefore proposes both a one-year specialization program in school nursing designed for registered general nurses and a one-year program for qualifying teachers in providing school health services. School health systems are expanding in low- and middle-income countries. Information on school health in these countries is collated on the Schools and Health website maintained by the Partnership for Child Development. A database of School Health and Nutrition Programmes in low and middle income countries can be found on the site: SHN Country Programme Database Australia Canada Ireland Nigeria has a non-profit NGO dedicated to improving the health of Nigerian adolescents. Singapore Pakistan India has a non-profit SHARP NGO dedicated to improving the health of Indian school students Medical inspection in schools was first instituted in France in 1886 in succession, this example was followed by Belgium, Chile and Great Britain, the latter in 1908.
In the United States, medical inspection in schools was first instituted in New York City in 1892 in Boston in 1894, in Chicago in 1895, in Philadelphia in 1898
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha. Its name was Saint Helena and Dependencies until 1 September 2009, when a new constitution came into force giving the three islands equal status within the territory. Despite this change, the whole territory is still referred to as Saint Helena after its main island; the demonym Saint Helenians and the derived name for the local nationality is understood to include Ascension Islanders and Tristanians, as well. Of volcanic origin, the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Tristan da Cunha were all separate colonies of the English crown, though separately discovered by several Portuguese explorers between 1502 and 1504; the Portuguese found. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses. Though they formed no permanent settlement, the island became crucially important for the collection of food and as a rendezvous point for homebound voyages from Asia.
English privateer Francis Drake probably located the island on the final lap of his circumnavigation of the world. Further visits by other English explorers followed, once St Helena's location was more known, English warships began to lie in wait in the area to attack Portuguese carracks on their way home from India. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch began to frequent the island and made a formal claim to it in 1633, but did not settle the isle and by 1651 abandoned it in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1657, the English East India Company was granted a charter to govern Saint Helena by Oliver Cromwell, the following year the Company decided to fortify and colonise the island with planters; the first governor, Captain John Dutton, arrived in 1659, it is from this date that St Helena claims to be Britain’s second oldest remaining colony, after Bermuda. A fort was completed and a number of houses were built. After the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, the East India Company received a Royal Charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island.
The fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York and heir apparent King James II of England and VII of Scotland. The Kingdom of England became part of the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and the United Kingdom in 1801; the most important and first settled, the island of Saint Helena, had been governed by the East India Company since 1659. It became internationally known as the British government's chosen place of exile of Napoleon Bonaparte, detained on the island from October 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821, it was made a British crown colony in 1834 by the Government of India Act 1833. Unoccupied Ascension Island was garrisoned by the Royal Navy on 22 October 1815, shortly after which the end of the Age of Sail made its difficult location in the equatorial doldrums less important relative to its strategic importance as a centrally positioned naval coaling station. For similar reasons Tristan da Cunha was annexed as a dependency of the Cape Colony on 14 August 1816, at the settlement of the Napoleonic wars.
For a short period just Tristan da Cunha had been inhabited by a private American expedition who named the territory the Islands of Refreshment. The political union between these colonies began to take shape on 12 September 1922, when by letters patent Ascension Island became a dependency of Saint Helena. Populated Tristan da Cunha today little more than an outpost with a population of less than three hundred, followed suit on 12 January 1938; the three island groups shared this constitutional relationship until 1 September 2009, when the dependencies were raised to equal status with St. Helena and the territory changed its name from "Saint Helena and Dependencies" to "Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha". During the Battle of the Atlantic of World War II and the following several years of U-boat warfare in the Atlantic, both Saint Helena and Ascension Island were used by the Allies to base patrolling anti-surface-commerce-raider and anti-submarine warfare forces against the Axis powers' naval units.
Long range naval patrol flying boats were used in the effort, in the war during the struggle to improve air coverage over the commercially important sea lanes, air strips were built to support land based aircraft which supplied and complemented the PBY Catalina patrol planes in the vitally important ASW mission. The United Kingdom and the United States still jointly operate the airfield on Ascension, which serves as a space-based communications, signals intelligence, navigation nexus and hub. One of only four GPS satellite ground antennas is located there; the territory stretches across a huge distance of the South Atlantic Ocean with the northern-most island, having a latitude of 7° 56′ S of the equator and the southern-most island, Gough Island, at 40° 19′ S. Between Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha is the Tropic of Capricorn; the distance between the northern tip of Ascension Island and the southern tip of Gough Island is 2,263 miles. The whole territory has the same time zone: Greenwich Mean Time.
Daylight saving time is not observed. Although all three parts of the territory were formed by volcanic activity, only the Tristan da Cunh