click links in text for more info


SHRDLU was an early natural language understanding computer program, developed by Terry Winograd at MIT in 1968–1970. In it, the user carries on a conversation with the computer, moving objects, naming collections and querying the state of a simplified "blocks world" a virtual box filled with different blocks. SHRDLU was written in the Micro Planner and Lisp programming language on the DEC PDP-6 computer and a DEC graphics terminal. Additions were made at the computer graphics labs at the University of Utah, adding a full 3D rendering of SHRDLU's "world"; the name SHRDLU was derived from ETAOIN SHRDLU, the arrangement of the letter keys on a Linotype machine, arranged in descending order of usage frequency in English. SHRDLU was a language parser that allowed user interaction using English terms; the user instructed SHRDLU to move various objects around in the "blocks world" containing various basic objects: blocks, balls, etc. What made SHRDLU unique was the combination of four simple ideas that added up to make the simulation of "understanding" far more convincing.

One was that SHRDLU's world was so simple that the entire set of objects and locations could be described by including as few as 50 words: nouns like "block" and "cone", verbs like "place on" and "move to", adjectives like "big" and "blue". The possible combinations of these basic language building blocks were quite simple, the program was adept at figuring out what the user meant. SHRDLU included a basic memory to supply context. One could ask SHRDLU to "put the green cone on the red block" and "take the cone off". SHRDLU could search back further through the interactions to find the proper context in most cases when additional adjectives were supplied. One could ask questions about the history, for instance one could ask "did you pick up anything before the cone?" A side effect of this memory, the original rules SHRDLU was supplied with, is that the program could answer questions about what was possible in the world and what was not. For instance, SHRDLU would deduce that blocks could be stacked by looking for examples, but would realize that triangles couldn't be stacked, after having tried it.

The "world" contained basic physics to make blocks fall over, independent of the language parser. SHRDLU could remember names given to objects, or arrangements of them. For instance one could say "a steeple is a small triangle on top of a tall rectangle". Here is a famous demonstration of SHRDLU: Person: Pick up a big red block. Computer: OK. Person: Grasp the pyramid. Computer: I DON'T UNDERSTAND WHICH PYRAMID YOU MEAN. Person: Find a block, taller than the one you are holding and put it into the box. Computer: BY "IT", I ASSUME YOU MEAN THE BLOCK WHICH IS TALLER THAN THE ONE I AM HOLDING. Computer: OK. Person: What does the box contain? Computer: THE BLUE PYRAMID AND THE BLUE BLOCK. Person: What is the pyramid supported by? Computer: THE BOX. Person: How many blocks are not in the box? Computer: FOUR OF THEM. Person: Is at least one of them narrower than the one which i told you to pick up? Computer: YES, THE RED CUBE. Person: Is it supported? Computer: YES, BY THE TABLE. Person: Can the table pick up blocks?

Computer: NO. Person: Can a pyramid be supported by a block? Computer: YES. Person: Can a pyramid support a pyramid? Computer: I DON'T KNOW. Person: Stack up two pyramids. Computer: I CAN'T. Person: Will you please stack up both of the red blocks and either a green cube or a pyramid? Computer: OK. Person: Which cube is sitting on the table? Computer: THE LARGE GREEN ONE WHICH SUPPORTS THE RED PYRAMID. Person: Is there a large block behind a pyramid? Computer: YES, THREE OF THEM: A LARGE RED ONE, A LARGE GREEN CUBE, AND THE BLUE ONE. Person: Put a small one onto the green cube which supports a pyramid. Computer: OK. Person: Put the littlest pyramid on top of it. Computer: OK. Person: Does the shortest thing the tallest pyramid's support supports support anything green? Computer: YES, THE GREEN PYRAMID. Person: What color is it? Computer: BY "IT", I ASSUME YOU MEAN THE SHORTEST THING THE TALLEST PYRAMID'S SUPPORT SUPPORTS. Computer: RED Person: How many things are on top of green cubes? Computer: I'M NOT SURE WHAT YOU MEAN BY "ON TOP OF "IN THE PHRASE "ON TOP OF GREEN CUBES ".

DO YOU MEAN: 1 - DIRECTLY ON THE SURFACE 2 - ANWHERE ON TOP OF? Person: 2 Computer: THREE OF THEM. Person: Had you touched any pyramid before you put the green one on the little cube? Computer: YES, THE GREEN ONE. Person: When did you pick it up? Computer: WHILE I WAS STACKING UP THE RED CUBE, A LARGE RED BLOCK AND A LARGE GREEN CUBE. Person: Why? Computer: TO GET RID OF IT. Person: Why did you do that? Computer: TO CLEAN OFF THE RED CUBE. Person: Why did you clear off that cube? Computer: TO PUT IT ON A LARGE GREEN CUBE. Person: Why did you do that? Computer: TO STACK UP THE RED CUBE, A LARGE RED BLOCK AND A LARGE GREEN CUBE. Person: Why did you do that? Computer: BECAUSE YOU ASKED ME TO. Person: How did you do it? Computer: BY PUTTING A LARGE RED BLOCK ON THE TABLE. Person: How many objects did you touch while you were doing it? Computer: FOUR OF THEM. Person: What did the red cube support before you started to clean it off? Computer: THE GREEN PYRAMID. Person: There were five blocks to the left of the box then.

Computer: NO, ONLY FOUR OF THEM: THE RED CUBE, TWO LARGE GREEN CUBES AND A LARGE RED BLOCK. Person: Put the blue pyramid on the block in the box. Computer: OK. Person: Is there anything which i

Harpalyce (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Harpalyce is a name attributed to four women. A woman subordinate to Queen Hippolyta of the Amazons. Orders an attack against Theseus. Most one of the same woman mentioned in the other myths below. Harpalyce was the daughter of King Clymenus of Arcadia, son of either Schoeneus or of Teleus of Argos. Clymenus was overcome with passion for his daughter. There are several versions of what happened next, of which all embody an incestuous father and a vengeful feast in which a child is killed and served up. In the first version Clymenus, son of Schoeneus, raped his daughter and she became pregnant; when the son was born she served him up as a meal at a banquet to his father, who killed her over that. In an alternative version of this tale, she was instead transformed into the chalkis. In the second version Harpalyce was the daughter of Clymenus son of Teleus of Argos, of Epicasta, has two brothers: Idas and Therager. Clymenus was overcome with passion for his daughter and secretly embarked on an affair with her that lasted for some time.

Alastor, descendant of Neleus, came to claim Harpalyce as his wife, she having been betrothed to him since she was young. When the couple were halfway to their home, Clymenus abducted her back and lived with her as his wife. Harpalyce, being upset by father's treatment of her, killed her younger brother and served him up to his father at a banquet, she prayed to the gods and was transformed into a bird called the chalkis. Clymenus took his own life. Harpalyce was the daughter of king of the Amymnei in Thrace, her mother died and her father suckled her from the teats of heifers and mares. He trained her as a warrior; when Neoptolemus, returning from Troy, attacked Harpalycus and wounded him, his daughter retaliated, putting the enemy to flight and saving her father. After her father's death at the hands of the rebellious people, Harpalyce took to plundering herds of cattle, taking advantage of her own ability to run outstandingly fast. Aristoxenus in his Brief Memoranda made mention of Harpalyce, a maiden, in love with one Iphiclus but never had her feelings answered and died of grief.

To commemorate her, a song contest among maidens was established and named "Harpalyce"

Grambling State University

Grambling State University is a black public university in Grambling, Louisiana. The university is home of the Eddie G. Robinson Museum and is listed on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail; the university is a member-school of the University of Louisiana System. Grambling State's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Grambling State Tigers; the university is a member of the Southwestern Athletic Conference. Grambling State was founded in 1901 and accredited in 1949; the school became Grambling College in 1946, named after Judson H. Grambling, a white sawmill owner who donated a parcel of land for construction of the school. Grambling State University developed from the desire of African-American farmers in rural north Louisiana who wanted to educate other African Americans in the northern part of the state. In 1896, the North Louisiana Colored Agriculture Relief Association led by Lafayette Richmond was formed to organize and operate a school. After opening a small school west of what is now the town of Grambling, the Association requested assistance from Booker T. Washington of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

Charles P. Adams, sent to aid the group in organizing an industrial school, became its founder and first president. Under Adams' leadership, the Colored Industrial and Agricultural School opened on November 1, 1901. Four years the school moved to its present location and was renamed as the North Louisiana Agricultural and Industrial School. By 1928, the school was able to offer two-year professional certificates and diplomas after becoming a state junior college; the school was renamed Industrial Institute. In 1936, the program was reorganized to emphasize rural education, it became known as "The Louisiana Plan" or "A Venture in Rural Teacher Education." Professional teaching certificates were awarded when a third year was added in 1936, the first baccalaureate degree was awarded in 1944 in elementary education. The institution's name was changed to Grambling College in 1946 in honor of a white sawmill owner, P. G. Grambling, who donated a parcel of land for the school. Thereafter, the college prepared secondary teachers and added curricula in sciences, liberal arts and business.

With these programs in effect, the school was transformed from a single purpose institution of teacher education into a multi-purpose college. In 1949, the college was accredited by the Southern Association of Schools; the Grambling science building is one of twenty-six public structures in Louisiana constructed by prominent contractor George A. Caldwell, who completed major public buildings throughout the state. In 1974, the addition of graduate programs in early childhood and elementary education qualified the school as a university. From 1977 to 2000, the university prospered. Several new academic programs were incorporated. New facilities were added to the 384-acre campus, including a business and computer science building, school of nursing, student services building, stadium support facility, an intramural sports center. State Representative George B. Holstead of Ruston, whose grandfather had been instrumental in the founding of Louisiana Tech, worked to increase state appropriations for both Louisiana Tech and Grambling State University during his legislative tenure from 1964-1980.

On December 7, 2010, the Grambling State University Historic District, an area comprising 16 buildings dating from 1939 to 1960, was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Following the first President Charles P. Adams, Ralph Waldo Emerson Jones became the second president and the successful baseball coach from 1936 until his retirement in 1977. Five presidents served from 1977 to 2001: Dr. Joseph Benjamin Johnson, Dr. Harold W. Lundy, Dr. Raymond Hicks, Dr. Leonard Haynes III, Dr. Steve A. Favors. Dr. Neari Francois Warner was selected as the university's first female president, when she served a three-year interim term. Dr. Horace Judson, who became the institution's seventh president in 2004, led the most ambitious 5-year campaign to rebuild the institution's facilities, he retired at the end of October 2009. That year Dr. Frank Pogue started as the institution's eighth president. On April 4, 2014, Pogue announced his retirement effective June 30, 2014. Dr. Cynthia S. Warrick became Grambling's second female president, serving a one-year interim term starting on July 1, 2014 and ending on July 1, 2015.

Dr. Willie Larkin served as president from July 1, 2016 to July 1, 2016; the current and tenth president is GSU alumnus Richard J. Gallot, Jr. Esq. Grambling State University offers undergraduate and graduate degrees through the following four colleges: College of Art & Sciences College of Business College of Educational and Graduate Studies College of Professional StudiesIn addition, there is the Earl Lester Cole Honors College available for high-achieving undergraduate students seeking a more unique academic experience. An Army ROTC program is available for undergraduate students interested in a college curriculum with a military foundation. Grambling State offers a doctoral degree in Developmental Education through the College of Educational and Graduate Studies. Grambling State is accredited by 18 separate accrediting associations, a member in good standing in 20 organizations and is 100% accredited in all of the programs required by the Louisiana Board of Regents; the Grambling Tigers represent Grambling State University in NCAA intercollegiate athletics.

Grambling's sports teams participate in NCAA Division I in the Southwestern Athletic Conference. The Grambling State University Department of Athl

Infra (album)

Infra is the 2010 album by neo-classical composer Max Richter, released on July 19, 2010 on FatCat Records. The album was reissued on April 2014 on Deutsche Grammophon; the album artwork is taken from the backdrop of The Royal Ballet's production Infra at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London on November 11, 2008. Infra received positive reviews from contemporary music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 77, based on 14 reviews, which indicates "generally favorable reviews". Joe Tangari of Pitchfork Media gave the album a positive review, stating, "Infra works as an enveloping and moving work absent any knowledge of its beginnings. Others may glean different feelings from it than I do, but, part of the point. If it conjures nothing of the night for you, it is some of Richter's best work, and if you've cared about his music, it will make you feel something." All tracks are written by Max Richter.

Main personnelMax Richter – composer, mixing, primary artist Nick Barr – viola Natalia Bonner – violin Ian Burdge – cello Chris Worsey – cello Louisa Fuller – violinAdditional personnelBill Cooper – photography Julian Opie – images Mandy Parnellmastering Nick Wollage – engineer

Norfolk and Norwich Hospital

The Norfolk and Norwich Hospital stood on a site in St Stephen's Road, Norfolk, England. Founded in 1771, it closed in 2003 after its services had been transferred to the new Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital. Many of the buildings were demolished and replaced by housing; the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital was founded in 1771 as a charitable institution for the care of "the poor and the sick" and was established by William Fellowes and Benjamin Gooch. A new hospital designed by Edward Boardman and Thomas Henry Wyatt in the pavilion layout opened on the same site in 1883; the Norfolk and Norwich Eye Infirmary, founded in 1822 by physicians Lewis Evans and Robert Hull and the surgeon, Thomas Martineau, moved to the St Stephen's Road site in 1913. During the First World War the Norfolk and Norwich cared for servicemen and in February 1915 a new ward, the Eastern Daily Press ward, was opened. An ear and throat building was built in 1930 and a maternity and gynecology building was added in 1935.

The Second World War saw the hospital bombed on a number of occasions, including in April 1942, during the German Baedeker Blitz, the site was damaged by bombing on 27 June. As a result of the June 1942 raid, four wards and the main operating theatres were destroyed. In 1948 the National Health Service was founded and the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital became an NHS hospital. Major expansion took place at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital in the late 1960s with the construction of a ten-storey maternity block, opened by the Queen Mother in 1968. A new main ward block and treatment area, a teaching centre were all built in the 1970s. By late 2001 most of the clinical services had left the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital for the new university hospital on the Norwich Research Park with the last departments vacating the site in January 2003. In October 2002 a thanksgiving service was held at Norwich Cathedral to mark the contribution the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital and its staff had made over the centuries.

Around 800 staff and visitors attended the service of thanksgiving for the old hospital. The Department of Health sold the old site to developer Persimmon Homes and the site was redeveloped as Fellowes Plain; the medical tradition was commemorated in the Fellowes Plain street names, which were named after notable Norfolk and Norwich Hospital figures: Sarah West Close, Thomas Wyatt Close, Edward Jodrell Plain, Benjamin Gooch Way, Phillipa Flowerday Plain and Kenneth McKee Plain. Jasper Blaxland, consultant general surgeon 1925 to 1946 Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust website

Leonardo Mascheroni

Pedro Leonardo Mascheroni is a physicist who, according to the United States government, attempted to sell nuclear secrets to a Federal Bureau of Investigation agent posing as a Venezuelan spy. "U. S. authorities stressed that the Venezuelan government had no role in the affair." Mascheroni from Argentina, went to the US in 1963 to study at the University of California, where he gained a doctorate. He became a US citizen in 1972, he worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1979 to 1987. In the 1980s he was suspected by some of his superiors of being a spy for Argentina, whilst never charged, was stripped of his security clearance and fired from Los Alamos in 1987, he left Los Alamos after a controversy surrounding his idea of using hydrogen fluoride lasers to generate nuclear fusion. Since he has been critical of Los Alamos and has attempted to lobby the United States Congress to fund his idea. According to the Miami Herald, he has been described as both a "nut" and a "prophet", he is married to Marjorie Roxby Mascheroni, herself a former technical writer for Los Alamos.

In 2009, the FBI raided Mascheroni's home on suspicion of his being a spy, an allegation he denied in an interview with the Albuquerque Journal: "I would have left this country if I were a spy... Spies do not take their case in front of Congress, they don't leave all their files and computers and everything here for the FBI to just come and take." Some fellow scientists defended Mascheroni at the time. In 2010, Mascheroni was indicted on suspicion of selling classified information. According to the United States, Mascheroni told a man whom he believed to be from the Venezuelan embassy that he could help Venezuela develop a nuclear bomb within ten years using a secret underground nuclear reactor; the man turned out to be an undercover FBI agent, Mascheroni was subsequently arrested. Mascheroni charged the phony Venezuelan agent $793,000 for the 132-page document, which he titled A Deterrence Program for Venezuela. Mascheroni was reportedly interested in obtaining Venezuelan citizenship, he denied the accusations, claiming that he was "driven by science".

Venezuelan leader Hugo Chávez, who has denied being interested in developing nuclear weapons, has been critical of the United States' conduct in the Mascheroni case, "suggesting the FBI deliberately created a disinformation campaign."If convicted and his wife faced potential life sentences. On June 21, 2013, Mascheroni and his wife pleaded guilty in Federal court. Mascheroni faces a prison sentence of 24 to 66 months, his wife faces a prison sentence of 12 to 24 months. Atomic spies