Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not offer. Bribery is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. Bribery is offering to do something for someone for the expressed purpose of receiving something in exchange. Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is not bribery. For example, it is legal for an employee of a Public Utilities Commission involved in electric rate regulation to accept a rebate on electric service that reduces their cost for electricity, when the rebate is available to other residential electric customers. Giving the rebate to influence them to look favorably on the electric utility's rate increase applications, would be considered bribery.
A bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. It may be money, rights in action, preferment, emolument, objects of value, advantage, or a promise to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity. Many types of payments or favors can constitute bribes: tip, sop, skim, discount, waived fee/ticket, free food, free ad, free trip, free tickets, sweetheart deal, kickback/payback, inflated sale of an object or property, lucrative contract, campaign contribution, sponsorship/backing, higher paying job, stock options, secret commission, or promotion. One must be careful of differing cultural norms when examining bribery. Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. Political campaign contributions in the form of cash, for example, are considered criminal acts of bribery in some countries, while in the United States, provided they adhere to election law, are legal. Tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies, while in others the two concepts may not be interchangeable.
In some Spanish-speaking countries, bribes are referred to as "mordida". In Arab countries, bribes may be called baksheesh or "shay". French-speaking countries use the expressions "dessous-de-table", "pot-de-vin", or "commission occulte". While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative connotation, the expression "dessous-de-table" can be understood as a accepted business practice. In German, the common term is Schmiergeld; the offence may be divided into two great classes: the one, where a person invested with power is induced by payment to use it unjustly. The briber might hold a powerful role and control the transaction; the forms that bribery take are numerous. For example, a motorist might bribe a police officer not to issue a ticket for speeding, a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections might bribe a functionary for faster service. Bribery may take the form of a secret commission, a profit made by an agent, in the course of his employment, without the knowledge of his principal.
Euphemisms abound for this Bribers and recipients of bribery are numerous although bribers have one common denominator and, the financial ability to bribe. According to BBC news U. K, "bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion"; as indicated on the pages devoted to political corruption, efforts have been made in recent years by the international community to encourage countries to dissociate and incriminate as separate offences and passive bribery. From a legal point of view, active bribery can be defined for instance as the promising, offering or giving by any person, directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage, for himself or herself or for anyone else, for him or her to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions.. Passive bribery can be defined as the request or receipt, directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage, for himself or herself or for anyone else, or the acceptance of an offer or a promise of such an advantage, to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions.
The reason for this dissociation is to make the early steps of a corrupt deal an offence and, thus, to give a clear signal that bribery is not acceptable. Besides, such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be difficult to prove that two parties have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal. Besides, there is no such formal deal but only a mutual understanding, for instance when it is common knowledge in a municipality that to obtain a building permit one has to pay a "fee" to the decision maker to obtain a favourable decision. A grey area may exist. United States law is strict in li
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, security tapes, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards. The main goal of security printing is to prevent tampering, or counterfeiting. More many of the techniques used to protect these high-value documents have become more available to commercial printers whether they are using the more traditional offset and flexographic presses or the newer digital platforms. Businesses are protecting their lesser-value documents such as transcripts and prescription pads by incorporating some of the features listed below to ensure that they cannot be forged or that alteration of the data cannot occur undetected. A number of technical methods are used in the security printing industry. Security printing is most done on security paper, but it can occur on plastic materials. Most banknotes are made of heavy paper always from cotton fibres for strength and durability, in some cases linen or speciality coloured or forensic fibres are added to give the paper added individuality and protect against counterfeiting.
Some countries, including Canada, Romania, New Zealand, Singapore, United Kingdom and Australia, produce polymer banknotes, to improve longevity and allow the inclusion of a small transparent window as a security feature, difficult to reproduce using common counterfeiting techniques. A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper that appears lighter or darker than surrounding paper when viewed with a light from behind the paper, due to paper density variations. A watermark is made by impressing a water coated metal stamp or dandy roll onto the paper during manufacturing. Watermarks were first introduced in Bologna, Italy in 1282. Watermarks can be made on polymer currency, for example, Australia has its coat of arms watermarked on all its plastic bills. Printed with white ink, simulated watermarks have a different reflectance than the base paper and can be seen at an angle; because the ink is white, it can not be scanned. Intaglio is a printing technique. Copper or zinc plates are used, the incisions are created by etching or engraving the image, but one may use mezzotint.
In printing, the surface is covered in ink, rubbed vigorously with tarlatan cloth or newspaper to remove the ink from the surface, leaving it in the incisions. A damp piece of paper is placed on top, the plate and paper are run through a printing press that, through pressure, transfers the ink to the paper; the sharp printing obtained from the intaglio process is hard to imitate by other means. Intaglio allows for the creation of latent images which are only visible when the document is viewed at a shallow angle. A guilloché is an ornamental pattern formed of two or more curved bands that interlace to repeat a circular design, they are made with a geometric lathe. This involves the use of small text, is most used on currency and bank checks; the text is small enough to be indiscernible to the naked eye. Cheques, for example, use microprint as the signature line. Color changing inks are made from mica. Color changing inks colored magnetizable inks are prepared by including chromatic pigments of high color strength.
The magnetic pigments’ strong inherent color reduces the spectrum of achievable shades. Pigments should be used at high concentrations to ensure that sufficient magnetizable material is applied in thin offset coats; some magnetic pigment are best suited for colored magnetizable inks due to their lower blackness. Homogenous magnetization is obtained on pigment made of spherical particles. Best results are achieved when remanence and coercive field strength are low and the saturating magnetization is high. Magnetic pigments are used in ribbon inks for coding and reading; the pigment is dispersed in a binder system or a wax compound and applied either by pressing or by hot melt to a carrier film. When pearlescent pigments are viewed at different angles the angle of the light as it's perceived makes the color appear to change as the magnetic fields within the particles shift direction. A hologram may be embedded either via hot-stamping foil, wherein an thin layer of only a few micrometers of depth is bonded into the paper or a plastic substrate by means of a hot-melt adhesive and heat from a metal die, or it may be directly embossed as holographic paper, or onto the laminate of a card itself.
When incorporated with a custom design pattern or logo, hologram hot stamping foils become security foils that protect credit cards, bank notes and value documents from counterfeiting. Holograms help in curtailing forging, duplication of products hence are essential for security purposes. Once stamped on a product, they can not be forged, enhancing the product at the same time. From a security perspective, if stamped, a hologram is a superior security device as it is impossible to remove from its substrate. Metal threads and foils, from simple iridescent features to foil color copying to foils with additional optically variable effects are used. There are two kinds of security threads. One is a thin aluminum coated and de-metalized polyester film thread with microprinting, embedded in the security paper as banknote or pa
Prilly is a municipality in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, located in the district of Ouest Lausannois. It is one of the western suburbs of the city of Lausanne. Prilly is first mentioned around 976-77 as in uilla que uocatur presliacus. By 1185 it was known as Prillie. Prilly has an area, as of 2009, of 2.19–2.18 square kilometers. Of this area, 0.24 km2 or 11.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.14 km2 or 6.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.8 km2 or 82.2% is settled. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 6.4% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 51.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 15.1%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 9.1%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 7.8% is used for growing crops and 2.7% is pastures. The municipality was part of the Lausanne District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Prilly became part of the new district of Ouest Lausannois.
The village of Prilly is developed along the Lausanne-Jougne street and is now part of the agglomeration of Lausanne. It consists of the village of Prilly and the hamlets of Le Chasseur, La Fleur-de-Lys and L'Union, all three of which developed along the Prilly-Neuchâtel road; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is a fleur de lys or, overall. Prilly has a population of 12,110; as of 2008, 36.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 7.5%. It has changed at a rate of 6.1% due to migration and at a rate of 2.9% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with Italian being second most German being third. There are 6 people. Of the population in the municipality 1,716 or about 15.7% were born in Prilly and lived there in 2000. There were 3,455 or 31.5% who were born in the same canton, while 1,738 or 15.9% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 3,635 or 33.2% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 67 live births to Swiss citizens and 69 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 90 deaths of Swiss citizens and 20 non-Swiss citizen deaths.
Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 23 while the foreign population increased by 49. There were 3 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 149 non-Swiss men and 128 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 38 and the non-Swiss population increased by 194 people. This represents a population growth rate of 2.1%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Prilly is. Of the adult population, 1,528 people or 13.6% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 1,710 people or 15.3% are between 30 and 39, 1,612 people or 14.4% are between 40 and 49, 1,239 people or 11.1% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 1,211 people or 10.8% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 991 people or 8.8% are between 70 and 79, there are 619 people or 5.5% who are between 80 and 89, there are 99 people or 0.9% who are 90 and older.
As of 2000, there were 4,181 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 5,160 married individuals, 795 widows or widowers and 819 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 5,437 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.0 persons per household. There were 2,432 households that consist of only one person and 174 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 5,531 households that answered this question, 44.0% were households made up of just one person and there were 20 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 1,410 married couples without children, 1,194 married couples with children There were 279 single parents with a child or children. There were 102 households that were made up of unrelated people and 94 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 255 single family homes out of a total of 860 inhabited buildings. There were 443 multi-family buildings, along with 120 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 42 other use buildings that had some housing.
Of the single family homes 26 were built before 1919, while 20 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes were built between 1919 and 1945; the most multi-family homes were built between 1946 and 1960 and the next most were built between 1961 and 1970. There were 18 multi-family houses built between 1996 and 2000. In 2000 there were 6,011 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 2,217. There were 572 single room apartments and 467 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 5,337 apartments were permanently occupied, while 519 apartments were seasonally occupied and 155 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 0.4 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.16%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 fede
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque known locally as Duke City and abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Mexico and the 32nd-most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 558,545 in 2017. It is the principal city of the Albuquerque metropolitan area, which has 910,726 residents as of July 2017. Albuquerque's Metropolitan statistical area is the 60th-largest in the United States; the Albuquerque MSA population includes the cities of Rio Rancho, Placitas, Los Lunas and Bosque Farms, forms part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,171,991 in 2016. The city was named in honor of Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque, Viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1711; the growing village was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. The Duke's title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the province of Badajoz, near the border with Portugal. Albuquerque serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County, is in north-central New Mexico.
The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, the Rio Grande flows through the city. Albuquerque has one of the highest elevations of any major city in the U. S. ranging from 4,900 feet above sea level near the Rio Grande to over 6,700 feet in the foothill areas of Sandia Heights and Glenwood Hills. Albuquerque is home to Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, the University of New Mexico, Central New Mexico Community College, Presbyterian Medical Services, Presbyterian Health Services, the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque Biological Park, the Petroglyph National Monument, the New Mexico Technology Corridor, a concentration of high-tech private companies and government institutions. Albuquerque is the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the world's largest gathering of hot-air balloons, taking place every October; the name of the city has its origin through Latin, deriving from albus quercus meaning "white oak".
The name was given in reference to the prevalence of cork oaks in the province of Badajoz, which have white wood when the bark is removed. The first "r" in Alburquerque was dropped due to association with the prominent Portuguese general Alfonso de Albuquerque, whose family title and name originated from the town of Alburquerque in Spain, once a dominion of the kings of Portugal and used the Portuguese variant spelling of its name; the change was in part because citizens found the original name difficult to pronounce. Petroglyphs carved into basalt in the western part of the city bear testimony to an early Native American presence in the area, now preserved in the Petroglyph National Monument; the Tanoan and Keresan peoples had lived along the Rio Grande for centuries before European settlers arrived in what is now Albuquerque. By the 1500s, there were around 20 Tiwa pueblos along a 60-mile stretch of river from present-day Algodones to the Rio Puerco confluence south of Belen. Of these, 12 or 13 were densely clustered near present-day Bernalillo and the remainder were spread out to the south.
Two Tiwa pueblos lie on the outskirts of the present-day city, both of which have been continuously inhabited for many centuries: Sandia Pueblo, founded in the 14th century, the Pueblo of Isleta, for which written records go back to the early 17th century, when it was chosen as the site of the San Agustín de la Isleta Mission, a Catholic mission. The Navajo and Comanche peoples were likely to have set camps in the Albuquerque area, as there is evidence of trade and cultural exchange between the different Native American groups going back centuries before European conquest. Albuquerque was founded in 1706 as the Spanish colonial outpost of Villa de Alburquerque. Albuquerque was a farming community and strategically located military outpost along the Camino Real; the town was the sheep-herding center of the West. Spain established a presidio in Albuquerque in 1706. After 1821, Mexico had a military presence there; the town of Alburquerque was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern: a central plaza surrounded by government buildings, a church.
This central plaza area has been preserved and is open to the public as a museum, cultural area, center of commerce. It is referred to as "Old Town Albuquerque" or "Old Town", it was sometimes referred to as "La Placita". On the north side of Old Town Plaza is San Felipe de Neri Church. Built in 1793, it is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the city. After the American occupation of New Mexico, Albuquerque had a federal garrison and quartermaster depot, the Post of Albuquerque, from 1846 to 1867. During the Civil War, Albuquerque was occupied in February 1862 by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley, who soon afterward advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. During his retreat from Union troops into Texas he made a stand on April 8, 1862, at Albuquerque and fought the Battle of Albuquerque against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby; this daylong engagement at long range led to few casualties. When the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1880, it bypassed the Plaza, locating the passenger depot and railyards about 2 miles east in what became known as New Albuquerque or New Town.
The railway company bui
Chavornay is a municipality in the district of Jura-Nord Vaudois in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. In 2017 the former municipalities of Essert-Pittet and Corcelles-sur-Chavornay merged into the municipality of Chavornay. Chavornay is first mentioned in 927 as Cavorniacum. In 1228 it was mentioned as Chavornai. After the 2017 merger Chavornay had an area of 19.28 km2. Before the merger Chavornay had an area, of 11.07 square kilometers. Of this area, about 65.7 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 14.8% is settled and 3.9% is unproductive land. In the 2013/18 survey a total of 105 ha or about 9.5% of the total area was covered with buildings, an increase of 49 ha over the 1980 amount. Over the same time period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 2 ha and is now about 0.63% of the total area. Of the agricultural land, 10 ha is used for orchards and vineyards, 706 ha is fields and grasslands and 0 ha consists of alpine grazing areas. Since 1980 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 54 ha.
Over the same time period the amount of forested land has increased by 1 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 36 ha in the municipality; the municipality was part of the Orbe District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Chavornay became part of the new district of Jura-Nord Vaudois. The municipality is located on the eastern edge of the Orbe valley, on the right side of the Talent river; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per pale Argent and Gules, overall a Crown Or ornamented Vert and Azure. Chavornay has a population of 4,903; as of 2008, 21.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 28.5%. It has changed at a rate of 8.2 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with German being second most common and Portuguese being third. There are 40 people; the age distribution, as of 2009, in Chavornay is. Of the adult population, 504 people or 14.4 % of the population are between 29 years old. 525 people or 15.1% are between 30 and 39, 597 people or 17.1% are between 40 and 49, 406 people or 11.6% are between 50 and 59.
The senior population distribution is 283 people or 8.1% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 139 people or 4.0% are between 70 and 79, there are 77 people or 2.2% who are between 80 and 89, there are 16 people or 0.5% who are 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 1,194 people who never married in the municipality. There were 159 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 1,159 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were 388 households that consist of only one person and 91 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 1,181 households that answered this question, 32.9% were households made up of just one person and there were 7 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 300 married couples without children, 383 married couples with children There were 66 single parents with a child or children. There were 15 households that were made up of unrelated people and 22 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.
In 2000 there were 307 single family homes out of a total of 537 inhabited buildings. There were 103 multi-family buildings, along with 92 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 35 other use buildings that had some housing. In 2000, a total of 1,143 apartments were permanently occupied, while 92 apartments were seasonally occupied and 49 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 5.4 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1.11%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Swiss Reformed Church of Saint-Maurice is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. In the 2015 federal election the most popular party was the SVP with 28.2% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SP and the GPS. In the federal election, a total of 876 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 37.3%. The 2015 election saw a large change in the voting when compared to 2011.
The percentage of the vote received by the FDP increased from 17.2% in 2011 to 25.9% in 2015. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP and the LPS Party. In the federal election, a total of 720 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 36.4%. Chavornay is a bedroom community with many new residents; the municipality is part of the agglomeration of Lausanne. As of 2014, there were a total of 1,498 people employed in the municipality. Of these, 86 people worked in 19 businesses in the primary economic sector. A majority of the primary sector employees worked in small businesses; the remainder worked in 2 small businesses with a total of 42 employees. The secondary sector employed 866 workers in 37 separate businesses. In 2014, 180 employees worked in 36 small companies (l
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva. Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants; the metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003; the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges.
Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers.
Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.0% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation i