The PlayStation 4 is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, on February 22, 2014, in Japan, it Switch. Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices, the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely; the console's controller was redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, an integrated touchpad among other changes.
The console supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia. The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors. Heightened demand helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3; as of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide. On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games; the company released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.
According to lead architect Mark Cerny, development of Sony's fourth video game console began as early as 2008. Less than two years earlier, the PlayStation 3 had launched after months of delays due to issues with production; the delay placed Sony a year behind Microsoft's Xbox 360, approaching unit sales of 10 million by the time the PS3 launched. PlayStation Europe CEO Jim Ryan said Sony wanted to avoid repeating the same mistake with PS3's successor. In designing the system, Sony worked with software developer Bungie, who offered their input on the controller and how to make it better for shooting games. In 2012, Sony began shipping development kits to game developers, consisting of a modified PC running the AMD Accelerated Processing Unit chipset; these development kits were known as "Orbis". In early 2013, Sony announced that an event known as PlayStation Meeting 2013 would be held in New York City, U. S. on February 20, 2013, to cover the "future of PlayStation". Sony announced the PlayStation 4 at the event.
It revealed details about the console's hardware and discussed some of the new features it will introduce. Sony showed off real-time footage of games in development, as well as some technical demonstrations; the design of the console was unveiled in June at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2013, the initial recommended retail prices of $399, €399, £349 given. The company revealed release dates for North America, Central America, South America and Australia, as well as final pieces of information, at a Gamescom press event in Cologne, Germany, on August 20, 2013; the console was released on November 15, 2013, in the United States and Canada, followed by further releases on November 29, 2013. By the end of 2013, the PS4 was launched in more European and South American countries The PS4 released in Japan at ¥39,980 on February 22, 2014. Sony finalized a deal with the Chinese government in May 2014 to sell its products in mainland China, the PS4 will be the first product to be released. Kazuo Hirai, chief executive officer of Sony, said in May: "The Chinese market, just given the size of it, is potentially a large market for video game products...
I think that we will be able to replicate the kind of success we have had with PS4 in other parts of the world in China."In September 2015, Sony reduced the price of the PS4 in Japan to ¥34,980, with similar price drops in other Southeast Asian markets. The first official sub £300 PS4 bundle was the £299.99 "Uncharted Nathan Drake Collection 500GB", released in the UK on October 9, 2015. On October 9, 2015, the first official price cut of the PS4 in North America was announced: a reduction of $50 to $349.99 and by $20 to $429.99. An official price cut in Europe followed in late October 2015, reduced to €349.99/£299.99. On June 10, 2016, Sony confirmed that a hardware revision of the PlayStation 4, rumored to be codenamed "Neo", was under development; the new revision is a higher-end model, meant to support gameplay in 4K. The new model will be sold alongside the existing model, all existing software will be compatible between the two models. Layden stated that Sony has no plans to "bifurcate the market", only that gamers playing on the Neo will "have the same experience, but one will be delivered at a higher resol
Uncharted: Drake's Fortune
Uncharted: Drake's Fortune is an action-adventure video game developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the first game in the Uncharted series, was released in November 2007 for PlayStation 3; the single-player story follows Nathan Drake, the supposed descendant of the explorer Sir Francis Drake, as he seeks the lost treasure of El Dorado, with the help of journalist Elena Fisher and mentor Victor Sullivan, whilst they battle a mercenary group led by Gabriel Roman. The game's world is navigated on foot or by vehicle, players are required to use Drake's platforming abilities to progress the story, which features puzzle sequences, while many parts of the game involve shooting and combat gameplay, it is played through a third-person perspective. Uncharted: Drake's Fortune contain a rewards system for completing certain pre determined objectives; the development of Uncharted: Drake's Fortune began in 2005, saw Naughty Dog altering their approach to development, as they sought to create a humanized video game, distinct from their other entries.
It was subsequently delayed numerous times through its development, as the team updated or wholly changed various aspects related to the story and the game's design. Uncharted: Drake's Fortune is notable for being one of the first video games to feature force feedback vibration, the development team found influence for many of the game's aesthetic elements from film, pulp magazines, movie serials. Extensively marketed as a PlayStation exclusive, Uncharted: Drake's Fortune received widespread critical acclaim from game critics upon release, with praise directed toward its visuals, musical score, animation and voice acting; the game went on to sell one million copies after its first ten weeks of release, helped propel Naughty Dog to the forefront as a video game developer. It was followed by a sequel titled Uncharted 2: Among Thieves in 2009, was re-released on PlayStation 4 as part of Uncharted: The Nathan Drake Collection; as the game opens, treasure hunter Nathan "Nate" Drake, accompanied by reporter Elena Fisher, recovers the coffin of his self proclaimed ancestor Sir Francis Drake, which he located from coordinates inscribed on a family heirloom: a ring Nate wears around his neck.
The coffin contains Sir Francis Drake's diary. Pirates attack and destroy Nate's boat; when Sully and Nate follow the diary to the indicated spot, they learn that El Dorado is a large golden idol that the Spanish had tried to remove from the island centuries ago. After finding a U-boat, mercenaries led by criminal Gabriel Roman intercept Nate and Sully. Sully is shot but Nate manages to escape to an island where Sir Francis Drake's diary claims the idol is located. On the way to the island, anti-aircraft fire forces Elena and Nate to bail out of the airplane and they are separated. Nate heads toward an old Spanish fort to find Elena. Though captured and Elena reunite and flee to the old customs house on the island. There they find. Nate discovers that the idol is located near the customs house, finds and rescues Sully. Nate realizes that the idol is cursed, that it turned the Spanish and Kriegsmarine searching for it into zombified monsters. Nate attempts to stop Roman from removing the idol from the island, arrives in time to see Atoq Navarro, a man hired by Roman, find the statue.
Navarro tricks Roman into becoming cursed. Nate jumps onto the statue and rides it as it is airlifted onto a boat in the bay. There he manages to sink the idol to the bottom of the ocean. Sully arrives and Elena and Nate leave the island with several chests of treasure, after displaying affection towards each other. Gameplay in Uncharted is a combination of action-adventure gameplay elements and some 3D platforming with a third-person perspective. Platforming elements allow Nate to jump, swim and move along ledges and swing from ropes, perform other acrobatic actions that allow players to make their way along the ruins in the various areas of the island that Drake explores; when facing enemies, the player can either use melee and combo attacks at close range to take out foes or can opt to use weapons. Melee attacks comprise a variety of single punches, while combo attacks are activated through specific sequences of button presses that, when timed offer much greater damage. Nate can only carry one pistol and one rifle at a time, there is a limited amount of ammunition per gun.
Picking up a different firearm switches that weapon for the new one. Grenades are available at certain points, the height of the aiming arc is adjusted by tilting the Sixaxis controller up or down; these third-person perspective elements were compared by several reviewers to Gears of War, in that the player can have Drake take cover behind walls, use either blind fire or aimed fire to kill enemies. In common with the aforementioned game, Uncharted lacks an actual on-screen health bar. While resting or taking cover for a brief period, Drake's health level, indicated by the screen color, returns to normal; the game includes vehicle sections, where Drake must protect the jeep he and Elena are in using a mounted turret, where Drake and Elena ride a jet ski along water-filled routes while avoiding enemy fire and explosive barrels. While players direct Drake in driving th
Syphon Filter: Logan's Shadow
Syphon Filter: Logan's Shadow is a third-person shooter stealth video game developed by SCE Bend Studio and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation Portable and PlayStation 2. It is the final game in the Syphon Filter series. Logan's Shadow is played from a third-person perspective. With the Havok physics and objects will react realistically to gunfire and other means of interaction. Logan's Shadow features weapons and gameplay mechanics; these include additions to the cover system such as side-to-side movement and blind fire around obstacles and corners, an advanced melee system that allows Gabe to use enemies as human shields, underwater combat, the ability to command other characters. When the al-Jamil terrorist group assaults the USS Mt St Helens, the National Intelligence Oversight Committee must rely on the Agency to secure the classified material within a cargo hold before the antagonists acquire it. NIOC Director Robert Cordell convinces Gabe Logan that he is their only option, but Teresa Lipan counters that this is an assignment outside of Agency jurisdiction.
Gabe agrees to go anyway, for a chance at stopping terrorist leader Ghassan al-Bitar, a Syrian he caught a year ago, with whom he has a score to settle. With his partner Lian Xing on vacation in Cyprus, Gabe flies to the Indian Ocean where a clan of Somali pirates called the Warsingala Protectors have invaded the ship. Bitar is leading them, Gabe suspects this assault involves more than a mere pirating operation. Intercepting Spec Ops communications, pilot Alima Haddad warns Gabe that Cordell did not tell him everything, Logan realises the contents of Hold Five, a secret to the Navy, are Bitar's primary target. Establishing a link to the St Helens' communications dish, Alima attempts to extract Logan, but her helicopter is shot down. Despite Gabe's efforts, she dies. Frustrated and furious, Gabe destroys several pirate boats carrying stolen goods from the St Helens and re-enters the ship via the damaged main hull. However, Bitar has stolen the cargo inside Hold Five, which NIOC couriers ship.
When Gabe reaches the bridge, Arleigh Burke-class destroyers with the Fifth Fleet have begun launching cruise missiles to scuttle their own ship. He tries to stop Bitar from escaping. Gabe kills Fahid and escapes from the ship, his return to the Agency brings more complications when Cordell mentions Lian was never in Cyprus, produces pictures of her with a Chinese man, both in a foreign land. From Cordell's point of view, Lian being a defector or a double agent, the Agency would be compromised, the NIOC suspends the IPCA. Despite Teresa's reservations, running out of options, Gabe enlists a marine salvage expert Dane Bishop to explore the sunken St Helens for NIOC courier files that could have the information of where Lian was when she was photographed; the duo find Spetsnaz divers are searching for evidence. Gabe realises they work for Surgei Kudrenko, another antagonist who survived an attempt that Gabe made on his life on a mission years earlier. Bishop cuts a hole inside the ship, sucking Logan into the hull, Gabe follows his advise on destroying the engine turbines.
When they rendezvous, the pair stop the ship's nuclear reactor from melting down and kill Kudrenko's right-hand man, before the enemy can escape with the courier codes. The decoded microfiles show pictures captured by MI6 in Azerbaijan. Lian and the Chinese male are hostages, but the Spetsnaz are looking for them, suggesting they found out about the St Helens through their intelligence resources. Compounding the situation is the Russians who are conducting genocidal killings and ethnic cleansing activities throughout the country. Believing that Lian might get killed, Gabe teams up with Maggie Powers, who claims to be in the same region to "track smugglers", to find out who captured Lian. While searching a hotel room shared by Lian and her accomplice, Gabe encounters a Chinese Secret Service agent, codenamed Trinidad; the two fight and kill Spetsnaz forces. Although he rescues her from interrogators, Kudrenko captures them after they destroy a Russian gunship. Inside a gulag, Trinidad confronts Gabe, the Chinese admitting that she was Lian's instructor in the CSS.
According to Trinidad, her student used to be married to the man seen in Shen Rei. China wants him back because he is the inventor of the device stolen from the St Helens, Trinidad helps free Gabe from custody so he can find them. Logan wonders about the significance of the device, such that America, Russia and Syria all want it, he begins to suspect Maggie is attempting to acquire it as well for England, does not know who to trust. Gabe kills Kudrenko during an aeroplane firefight, but Cordell arrests Maggie and tells Logan he has shut down the agency. Cordell had used Gabe from the start to locate them; the NIOC now knows where al-Jamil's desert stronghold is, but Logan is forced to accept early retirement. Against his belief that Cordell is right, Teresa informs Gabe that Lian is in love with him, must be Bitar's prisoner if none of the world powers have Shen. Gabe realises that Cordell will bomb al-Jamil's base, it will kill Lian, he assists several Army Rangers in the assault on al-Jamil, but Gabe must enter the bunker on his own in search of Bitar.
He finds Lian alive, the two study Shen's device, the X-Z-2. It transpires that the device is Shen's solution to the energy crisis, but China wanted to weaponise it, so he defected with Lian's help and fled to Pak
Infocom was a software company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts that produced numerous works of interactive fiction. They produced one notable business application, a relational database called Cornerstone. Infocom was founded on June 22, 1979 by staff and students of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, lasted as an independent company until 1986, when it was bought by Activision. Activision shut down the Infocom division in 1989, although they released some titles in the 1990s under the Infocom Zork brand. Activision abandoned the Infocom trademark in 2002. Infocom games are text adventures where users direct the action by entering short strings of words to give commands when prompted; the program will respond by describing the results of the action the contents of a room if the player has moved within the virtual world. The user reads this information, decides what to do, enters another short series of words. Examples include "go west" or "take flashlight". Infocom games were written using a LISP-like programming language called ZIL that compiled into a byte code able to run on a standardized virtual machine called the Z-machine.
As the games were text based and used variants of the same Z-machine interpreter, the interpreter had to be ported to new computer architectures only once per architecture, rather than once per game. Each game file included a sophisticated parser which allowed the user to type complex instructions to the game. Unlike earlier works of interactive fiction which only understood commands of the form'verb noun', Infocom's parser could understand a wider variety of sentences. For instance one might type "open the large door go west", or "go to festeron". With the Z-machine, Infocom was able to release most of their games for most popular home computers of the day simultaneously—the Apple II family, Atari 800, IBM PC compatibles, Amstrad CPC/PCW, Commodore 64, Commodore Plus/4, Commodore 128, Kaypro CP/M, Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, the Mac, Atari ST, the Commodore Amiga and the Radio Shack TRS-80; the company was known for shipping creative props, or "feelies", with its games. Inspired by Colossal Cave, Marc Blank and Dave Lebling created what was to become the first Infocom game, Zork, in 1977 at MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science.
Despite the development of a revolutionary virtual memory system that allowed games to be much larger than the average personal computer's normal capacity, the enormous mainframe-developed game had to be split into three equal parts. Zork I was released for the TRS-80 in 1980. Infocom was founded on June 22, 1979. Lebling and Blank each authored several more games and additional game writers were hired, notably including Steve Meretzky. Other popular and inventive titles included a number of sequels and spinoff games in the Zork series, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, A Mind Forever Voyaging. In its first few years of operation, text adventures proved to be a huge revenue stream for the company. Whereas most computer games of the era would achieve initial success and suffer a significant drop-off in sales, Infocom titles continued to sell for years and years. Employee Tim Anderson said of their situation, "It was phenomenal – we had a basement that just printed money." By 1983 Infocom was the most dominant computer-game company.
In late 1984, management declined an offer by publisher Simon & Schuster to acquire Infocom for $28 million, far more than the board of directors's valuation of $10–12 million. In 1993 Computer Gaming World described this era as the "Cambridge Camelot, where the Great Underground Empire was formed". Infocom games were popular, InfoWorld said, in part because "in offices all over America executives and managers are playing games on their computers". An estimated 25% had a computer game "hidden somewhere in their drawers", Inc. reported, they preferred Infocom adventures to arcade games. The company stated that year that 80 % were men. Most players enjoyed reading books. We sell to the minority that does read". A 1996 article in Next Generation said Infocom's "games were noted for having more depth than any other adventure games, before or since." Three components proved key to Infocom's success: marketing strategy, rich storytelling and feelies. Whereas most game developers sold their games in software stores, Infocom distributed their games via bookstores.
Infocom's products appealed more to those with expensive computers, such as the Apple Macintosh, IBM PC, Commodore Amiga. Berez stated that "there is no noticeable correlation between our penetration. There is a high correlation between the price of the machine and our sales... people who are putting more money into their machines tend to buy more of our software". Since their games were text-based, patrons of bookstores were drawn to the Infocom games as they were interested in reading. Unlike most computer software, Infocom titles were distributed under a no-returns policy, which allowed them to make money from a single game for a longer period of time
Naughty Dog, LLC is an American first-party video game developer based in Santa Monica, California. Founded by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin in 1984 as an independent developer, the studio was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment in 2001. Gavin and Rubin produced a sequence of progressively more successful games, including Rings of Power and Way of the Warrior in the early 1990s; the latter game prompted Universal Interactive Studios to sign the duo to a three-title contract and fund the expansion of the company. Longtime American game designer and producer Mark Cerny convinced Naughty Dog to focus its new resources on creating a character-based platform game that would utilize the 3D capabilities of the new systems; this led to the release of Crash Bandicoot for the PlayStation in 1996. Naughty Dog developed three Crash Bandicoot games over the next several years. After developing Crash Team Racing, the company began working on Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy for the PlayStation 2. In 2004, who had become the company's president, left the company to work on a new project named Iron and the Maiden.
In addition to their inhouse game team, Naughty Dog is home to the ICE Team, one of SIE Worldwide Studios's central technology groups. The company's first PlayStation 3 title, Uncharted: Drake's Fortune, was released in 2007, with the series tetralogy being completed by 2016. Naughty Dog was known for having a history of developing one game at a time, one franchise per console, a controversial trend, criticized by fans; this lasted until Naughty Dog announced a new intellectual property for the PlayStation 3, The Last of Us, in development by a secondary team at the studio and released to universal acclaim in 2013. High school students Jason Rubin and Andy Gavin, having experimented with Lisp and C++, teamed up to create video games and founded JAM Software, of which JAM stood for "Jason and Andy's Magic", in 1984. Rubin and Gavin chose to create software for the Apple II and decided to create a skiing game for their second title. During production of the game, Gavin accidentally copied bootleg games over the only copy of the skiing game they had.
Rubin created a new skiing game called Ski Crazed within the weekend. Because the game played Gavin reprogrammed the game to play quicker; the game was picked up and published by Baudville, who bought the game from Jam Software for $250. Rubin and Gavin created an Apple IIGS graphic adventure game titled Dream Zone, released in 1988 and ported to the Atari ST, Amiga and personal computer. In 1989, Rubin and Gavin released a game titled Keef the Thief, published by Electronic Arts for the Apple IIGS, Amiga and IBM PC Compatible. To make a fresh start and to dissolve their relationship with Baudville and Gavin renamed Jam Software as Naughty Dog on September 9, 1989. Naughty Dog created and developed Rings of Power, published by Electronic Arts for the Sega Genesis in 1991. Rubin and Gavin were joined on the title by programmer Vijay Pande, who would become better known for orchestrating the distributed computing disease researching project known as Folding@home at Stanford University. In 1994, Rubin and Gavin produced the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer title Way of the Warrior and presented it to Mark Cerny of Universal Interactive Studios.
Cerny was pleased with Way of the Warrior and signed Naughty Dog on to Universal Interactive Studios for three additional games. Rubin and Gavin devised a plan to create a three-dimensional action-platform game; because the player would be forced to look at the character's rear, the game was jokingly codenamed "Sonic's Ass Game". Production of the game began in 1994, during which Naughty Dog expanded its number of employees and invented a development tool called "Goal Oriented Object LISP", to create the characters and gameplay. Cartoonists Charles Zembillas and Joe Pearson were recruited to create the characters of the game, which resulted in the titular character Crash Bandicoot. After 14 months of development, the game was shown to Sony Computer Entertainment, who signed on to publish the game. Crash Bandicoot was shown to the public for the first time at E3 and went on to become one of the highest-selling titles for the PlayStation console, selling over 6.8 million copies. Naughty Dog continued to develop two more Crash Bandicoot games, with a spin-off Crash Team Racing kart racing game.
By the studio was looking to develop games for Sony and not be constrained by Universal Interactive. Since Universal held the rights to the Crash Bandicoot series, Naughty Dog could not develop future games in its own right; the studio would be bought out by Sony to avoid a repeat while it focused on developing the first game of the Jak and Daxter series. The Jak and Daxter games met similar success as the Crash Bandicoot games. During the development of Jak 3 and Jak X: Combat Racing games and Gavin transitioned Evan Wells and Stephen White to become co-presidents of Naughty Dog by the time the founders left the studio. White was replaced by Christophe Balestra after a year. Starting in 2007, Naughty Dog began work on the Uncharted series, made their first approach to realistic worlds and characters, in contrast to their Crash Bandicoot and Jak and Daxter series, which featured fantastical worlds set in a fictional setting; the Uncharted franchise has been praised for its cinematic quality and technical proficiency, has sold nearly 17 million copies worldwide as of April 2012.
During the 2011 Spike TV Video Game Awards, Naughty Dog unveiled a new intellectual property, The Last of Us, described as a "post-apocalyptic third-person action-adventure game", following the plight of a teenage girl, Ellie
Days Gone is an upcoming action-adventure survival horror video game developed by SIE Bend Studio and published by Sony Interactive Entertainment for PlayStation 4. The game uses Unreal Engine 4. Days Gone is an action-adventure survival horror game set in a post-apocalyptic open world, played from a third-person perspective; the player controls Deacon St. John, a former outlaw-turned-drifter and bounty hunter who prefers life on the road to wilderness encampments; the game takes place two years after a global pandemic occurred which killed all of humanity, transformed millions of others into "Freakers", mindless zombie-like creatures that are evolving. In the E3 2016 stage demo, two types of "Freakers" were revealed and Hordes. In the E3 2017 stage demo, infected animals such as bears and wolves were revealed to comprise the "Freakers", human enemies are revealed to be featured in the game as well; the player can complete objectives in multiple ways, such as by using stealth or long and short ranged weapons.
A dynamic weather system and day-night cycle will feature, making "Freakers" weak and slow by day but fast and strong by night. Deacon's main transportation vehicle is a motorcycle that can be modified with parts to enhance its speed, durability or maneuverability, among other parameters; the player is able to craft new items to improve combat efficiency. Days Gone went into full production in January 2015; the game is in development using Unreal Engine 4. John Garvin is the creative director and writer of the game, Jeff Ross is the game director; the game was scheduled to be released on February 22, 2019, but was delayed to April 26, 2019, to allow the development team to polish the game. Announced via Twitter, development studio, confirmed Days Gone's gold status in a celebratory tweet and accompanying photo. Official website