Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of 2014, there is often no longer any difference. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, Internet surfing using sites such as YouTube and for personal multimedia, most 2016-era laptops have integrated webcams and built-in microphones. Laptops can be powered either from a battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the speed and memory capacity. Design elements, form factor, and construction can vary significantly between models depending on intended use, as portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became widely used for a variety of purposes. The terms laptop and notebook are used interchangeably to describe a computer in English. Regardless of the etymology, by the late 1990s, the terms were interchangeable, as the personal computer became feasible in 1971, the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed.
A personal, portable information manipulator was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968, the IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable was demonstrated in 1973. This prototype was based on the IBM PALM processor, the IBM5100, the first commercially available portable computer, appeared in September 1975, and was based on the SCAMP prototype. As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly, the Osborne 1, released in 1981, used the Zilog Z80 and weighed 23.6 pounds. It had no battery, a 5 in CRT screen, in the same year the first laptop-sized portable computer, the Epson HX-20, was announced. The Epson had an LCD screen, a battery. Both Tandy/RadioShack and HP produced portable computers of varying designs during this period, the first laptops using the flip form factor appeared in the early 1980s. The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981–82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85, the US$8,150 GRiD Compass 1101, released in 1982, was used at NASA and by the military, among others.
The Sharp PC-5000, Ampere and Gavilan SC released in 1983, the Gavilan SC was the first computer described as a laptop by its manufacturer, while the Ampere had a modern clamshell design. The Toshiba T1100 won acceptance not only among PC experts but the market as a way to have PC portability. From 1983 onward, several new techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the touchpad, the pointing stick
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the characteristics of the solvent when the solvent is the fraction of the mixture. The concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye, a solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. The solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration and it is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means that the components of the form a single phase. Heterogeneous means that the components of the mixture are of different phase, the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
Usually, the present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids or solids, one or more components present in the solution other than the solvent are called solutes. The solution has the physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a set of conditions. An example of a solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play almost no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions, in part of the literature, they are not even classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid, almost all gases, here are some examples, Gas in liquid, Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Liquid in liquid, The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant, alcoholic beverages are basically solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid, Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, solutions in water are especially common.
Counterexamples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous, body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions, containing many solutes
Information technology is the application of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology, the term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that the new technology not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology, based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development, pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic. This article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940, devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick.
Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s, the electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the worlds first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer, although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It lacked the ability to store its program in memory, programming was carried out using plugs, the first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948. The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, by comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes. IBM introduced the first hard drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is stored magnetically on hard disks. Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally, 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly, one of the earliest such systems was IBMs Information Management System, which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later
Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft. Air cargo comprises air freight, air express and airmail, - this practice is known as Belly Cargo. Cargo can be transported in the cabin as hand-carry by an “on-board courier”. Cargo aircraft are dedicated for the job - they carry freight on the main deck, combi aircraft carries cargo on the main deck behind the passengers’ area with side loading and in the belly. The first cargo flight took place on the 7 November 1910 in the USA, philip Orin Parmelee piloted a Wright Model B aeroplane 65 miles carrying a package of 200 pounds of silk for the opening of a store. Newspaper clippings quoted the Wright brothers as stating he covered the distance in 66 minutes, but the flight was recorded at 57 minutes. The worlds first official flight took place on 18 February 1911, at a large exhibition in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. This first airmail flight was piloted by Henri Pequet, who flew 6,500 letters a distance of 13 km, the aircraft used was a Humber-Sommer biplane with about fifty horsepower, and it made the journey in thirteen minutes.
The worlds first scheduled airmail post service took place in the United Kingdom between the London suburb of Hendon, and the Postmaster Generals office in Windsor, Berkshire, on September 9,1911. It was part of the celebrations for King George Vs coronation and at the suggestion of Sir Walter Windham, the service ran for just under a month, transporting 35 bags of mail in 16 flights. In the early 20s, air cargo developed rapidly because numerous entrepreneurs realized aircraft could move high value and low volume consignments much faster than the railroads and shipping companies. The first scheduled flight from London to Paris in 1919 had only one passenger but carried leather for a shoe manufacturer and grouse for a restaurant. Although there were a few attempts to air freight airlines from the 1920s on. In 1945, at a conference in Havana,57 airlines formed the International Air Transport Association, in 1948 Berlin was jointly controlled by the Allies and Russians, although the Russians held the area surrounding the city and thus land access.
As this access was closed, in the so-called Berlin blockade, an airlift remained the only option to get increasingly urgent deliveries of food and other supplies to West Berlin. Over 330 days to 12 May 1949 a total of 2.26 million tons of cargo were airlifted to Berlin, although freight traffic developed modestly, reaching only 800,000 tonnes worldwide by the mid-1950s, the world economy was hitting its post-war stride. In 1968, Boeing launched the four engine 747, the first wide-body aircraft, the 747 was the first aircraft capable of transporting full pallets in the cargo hold, revolutionizing the air cargo industry. Despite widespread hopes for a vibrant industry, for decades the air freight did not grow as expected and remained a small part of total air traffic
British South American Airways
British South American Airways was a state-run airline in the United Kingdom in the late 1940s responsible for services to the Caribbean and South America. Originally named British Latin American Air Lines it was renamed before services started in 1946, BSAA operated mostly Avro aircraft, Yorks and Tudors and flew to Bermuda, the West Indies and the western coast of South America. After two high-profile aircraft disappearances it was merged into the British Overseas Airways Corporation at the end of 1949, most of BSAAs aircraft were given individual aircraft names beginning with Star, the heavenly bodies used in long-range celestial navigation. Chairman of the new company was W J Booth, the single route to be flown was Hurn- Lisbon-Bathurst-Natal-Rio de Janeiro-Montevideo-Buenos Aires. The first commercial flight followed ten weeks and this responsibility was expanded in 1946 to routes to the West Indies, Central America and the west coast of South America. 1947 In January 1947 the airline reached an agreement with British West Indian Airways which would become an associate, BSAA would buy the majority of shares in BWIA and provide technical advice and general supervision.
In May 1947 the airline started a series of test flights to Bermuda using a converted Avro Lancaster which was refuelled in mid-air over the Azores to complete the flight in 20 hours. On 2 August 1947 Avro Lancastrian Star Dust crashed in Argentina with the loss of all on board, in the first financial year under government control the airline made a surplus of £20,507. The two other airline corporations BOAC and BEA made a loss of £10,234,781. On 31 March 1947 the corporation had a staff of 1,031 and had carried 5,397 passengers since August 1946, for navigation purposes, the Lancastrians and Yorks were using military Gee radar over Europe, and Rebecca on the other side of the Atlantic. 1948 On 30 January 1948 Avro Tudor Star Tiger with a crew of six and 25 passengers bound for Bermuda disappeared over the Atlantic Ocean, the remaining Tudors were grounded while an investigation was undertaken. In February the chief executive, Don Bennett was dismissed by the board, in March the Tudor aircraft were allowed to fly initially as freighters but not to carry passengers.
In the financial year April 1947 to March 1948 the Corporation made a loss of £421,481, on 18 August the Tudor returned to passenger service with a new service to Kingston, Jamaica. In December the Tudors replaced the Avro Lancastrian on routes to Havana, Cuba, by December 1948 the airline had transported over 1,000,000 gallons of petrol into Berlin from Wunstorf in over 700 flights using mostly Tudor V tankers each fitted with five tanks. 1949 In January 1949 the airline acquired Bahamas Airways, with British West Indian Airways it would be used as a feeder airline for BSAA services in the Caribbean. On 17 January in a repeat of Star Tiger incident the Tudor Star Ariel disappeared over the Atlantic on a flight from Bermuda and it had seven crew and 13 passengers. The Tudors were withdrawn from service by the pending investigation. BSAA passengers to Bermuda were already being carried by BOAC aircraft via New York, the airline did have Saunders-Roe Princess flying-boats on order but they would not be delivered until 1951 and the transfer of Canadair North Star which were on order for BOAC was considered
British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. It continued operating overseas services throughout World War II, after the passing of the Civil Aviation Act of 1946, European and South American services passed to two further state-owned airlines, British European Airways and British South American Airways. BOAC absorbed BSAA in 1949, but BEA continued to operate British domestic, a 1971 Act of Parliament merged BOAC and BEA with effect from 31 March 1974, forming todays British Airways. On 24 November 1939, BOAC was created by Act of Parliament to become the British state airline, formed from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. The companies had been operating together since war was declared on 3 September 1939, on 1 April 1940, BOAC started operations as a single company. Linking Britain to the Horseshoe Route taxed the resources of BOAC, although Spain denied access, Portugal welcomed BOACs civilian aircraft at Lisbon.
The Empire flying-boats were at their limit on the 1,900 mile Lisbon-Bathurst sector, refuelling at Las Palmas in the Canary Islands was permitted by Spain for some Empire flying-boat flights in 1940 and 1941. In 1941 longer range Consolidated Catalinas, Boeing 314As were introduced to guarantee non-stop Lisbon to Bathurst sectors, BOACs flying-boat base for Britain was shifted from Southampton to Poole, but many flights used Foynes in Éire, reached by shuttle flight from Whitchurch. Use of Foynes reduced the chance of interception or friendly fire incidents over the English Channel. BOAC had large bases at Durban, Alexandria and a school at Soroti. These were BOACs first New York services and this was the first sustained North Atlantic landplane service. By September 1944 BOAC had made 1,000 transatlantic crossings, in late 1942, the new hard-surface airport at Lisbon permitted the use of civil registered Liberators to North and West Africa and Egypt. Arguably, BOACs most famous wartime route was the Ball-bearing Run from Leuchars to Stockholm in neutral Sweden, initially flown with Lockheed 14s and Lockheed Hudson transports, the unsuitable Armstrong Whitworth Whitley civilianised bombers were used between 9 August and 24 October 1942.
The much faster civilian registered de Havilland Mosquitoes were introduced by BOAC in 1943, between 1939 and 19456,000 passengers were transported by BOAC between Stockholm and Great Britain. At the end of the war, BOACs fleet consisted of Lockheed Lodestars, lend-lease Douglas DC-3s, converted Sunderlands, and the first Avro Lancastrians, Avro Yorks, and Handley Page Haltons. The Short Empire, Short S.26 and Boeing 314A flying boats, the Corporations aircraft and personnel were scattered around the world, and it took a decade to reorganise it into an efficient unit at Heathrow. Whilst the major world airlines abandoned flying-boats at the end of WWII, BOAC continued with theirs until 1950, and even introduced the new Short Solent on the leisurely Nile route to South Africa. In 1948, the unpressurised Yorks were still operating passenger services as far afield as Nairobi, Accra and Calcutta, after its first six Lockheed 049 Constellations, BOAC had to use some ingenuity to increase its Constellation fleet
American Association of Airport Executives
It provides its members with industry-related services, support and various professional development opportunities. The American Association of Airport Executives was founded in September,1928, created by 10 airport directors, it was created as an organization to represent airport management throughout the United States. Today, AAAEs nearly 5,400 members represent 850 airports and it maintains six regional affiliate chapters that provide services on a local level. Members who complete this program earn the right to use the A. A. E, a Certified Member has met specific membership requirements and has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of airport management. Members who complete this program earn the right to use the C. M. designation after their names, an Airport Certified Employee has completed a training/education program in one of four fields and has earned the right to use the ACE designation after his or her name
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body, Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, the largest airline currently is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the worlds first airline and it was founded on November 16,1909 with government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. The first fixed wing scheduled air service was started on January 1,1914 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, the four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands KLM, Colombias Avianca, Australias Qantas, and the Czech Republics Czech Airlines.
The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was the Aircraft Transport and Travel, using a fleet of former military Airco DH. 4A biplanes that had been modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris - Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH. 16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather and began to attract European competition. In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract, six Royal Air Force Airco DH. 9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force, the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère, known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919, in its first year, the D. L. R. Operated regularly scheduled flights on routes with a length of nearly 1000 miles. Network was more than 3000 km long, and included destinations in the Netherlands, another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921. It was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Sweden, the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, and is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a Royal predicate from Queen Wilhelmina. Its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, in 1921, KLM started scheduled services
Norwegian Air Lines
Det Norske Luftfartselskap A/S or DNL, trading internationally as Norwegian Air Lines, was an airline and flag carrier of Norway. Founded in 1927, it operated domestic and international routes from 1935 to 1941 and it became one of the three founders of Scandinavian Airlines System and became one of its three holding companies from 1951, with a 28% stake and listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange. DNL was renamed SAS Norge ASA in 1996 and was merged in 2001 to create the SAS Group, the company was founded as Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen A/S in 1933, after Fred, Olsen & Co. took over the assets of a failed airline with the same name from 1927. After taking over the incumbent Widerøe the following year, allowing five other shipping companies a partial ownership, Olsen & Bergenske A/S, DNL started domestic seaplane routes based at Oslo Airport and Oslo Airport, using Junkers Ju-52 aircraft. In 1935, DNL was close to starting transatlantic flights in cooperation with Pan Am, after the outbreak of World War II, DNL ceased operations from 1941 to 1946.
From then, DNL started international flights using Douglas DC-3 and introduced Short Sandringhams on domestic sea routes, along with Aerotransport of Sweden and Det Danske Luftfartselskab of Denmark, DNL founded Overseas Scandinavian Airlines System to pool transatlantic flights. In 1948, all of DNLs services were re-branded as SAS, the company experienced four fatal accidents. The first DNL was registered on 4 May 1927, with a capital of NOK6,500, with Arnold Ræstad. On 18 June, the capital was raised to NOK50,000, including a 20% stake owned by the Municipality of Oslo. At the time, the service to Norway was Lufthansa. Both DNL and Norske Luftruter applied for ground handling for Lufthansa at Gressholmen and this was granted to Norske Luftruter, but DNL was granted the concession to operate the ferry to the island from Oslo East Station. In 1930, the government appointed a civil aviation commission, led by Admiral von der Lippe and it concluded in 1932, and recommended that a single, large national airline be established.
The same year, the Municipality of Oslo and the Norwegian Ministry of Defence appointed a committee with the goal of building an airport near Oslo. It concluded in June, and recommended that the airport be built at Fornebu, by 1934, construction had started, although the airport would not open until 1 June 1939. On 1 September 1933, the Oslo-based shipping company Fred, Olsen & Co. owned by the brothers Thomas Fredrik Olsen and Rudolf Olsen, announced their plans to establish a national airline. The foundation of the company was made on 16 October 1933, with Thomas Olsen, Rudolf Olsen, Johan L. Müller, Ganger Rolf, the airline was established with a share capital of NOK750,000 and took over the former DNL. The new company was named Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred, Olsen A/S and hired Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen—since 1921 director of the Civil Aviation Council—as managing director
Government of Ireland
The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. The structure of the Government of Ireland is regulated fundamentally by the Constitution of Ireland, the Government is headed by a prime minister called the Taoiseach. The deputy prime minister is called the Tánaiste, and is nominated by the Taoiseach from among the members of the Government, the Government must consist of between seven and fifteen members, according to the Constitution of Ireland. Every member of the Government must be a member of the parliament of Ireland, no more than two members of the Government may be members of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas. Therefore, all members of the Government must be members of Dáil Éireann. The Taoiseach, Tánaiste and Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil, the 7 to 15 Members of Government are generally referred to as The Cabinet. The Taoiseach is nominated by Dáil Éireann, the house of the Oireachtas. Other members of the Government are nominated by the Taoiseach, approved by Dáil Éireann, Members of the government are often styled cabinet ministers, as opposed to Ministers of State, called junior ministers, who are not in the cabinet.
A minister is usually in charge of a Department of State, occasionally a minister without portfolio is appointed who is a minister and a member of the Government but not a Minister of the Government. Non members have no voting rights at Cabinet but may participate fully and normally receive circulated Cabinet Papers on the same basis as a full member of Government. The Government is advised by the Attorney General, who is not formally a member of the Government, the Chief Whip may attend meetings of the cabinet, but is not a member of the Government. In addition, the Government can choose other Ministers of State and this person is informally known as a Super Junior Minister. The current Super Junior Ministers are Paul Kehoe and Finian McGrath, Office of the President The Office of President was established by The Constitution. The President is elected directly by the people, the term of office is 7 years and a President may not serve more than 2 terms. The President must reside in or near Dublin, st.
Patrick’s Hall, Dublin Castle, is the venue for Inauguration ceremonies, at which each President takes an oath as provided in the Constitution. The President represents all the people when undertaking official engagements at home, the President is Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces. There have been nine different holders of the office – Michael D. Higgins is the current President. The formal powers, the President, who does not have an executive or policy role, exercises them on the advice of the Government. Additional functions can be conferred on the President by law, a special Commission acts whenever the President is absent
Packet switching increases network efficiency and robustness, and enables technological convergence of many applications operating on the same network. Packets are composed of a header and payload, Information in the header is used by networking hardware to direct the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software. This concept contrasted and contradicted then-established principles of pre-allocation of network bandwidth, the new concept found little resonance among network implementers until the independent work of British computer scientist Donald Davies at the National Physical Laboratory in the late 1960s. Packet mode communication may be implemented with or without intermediate forwarding nodes, in case of a shared physical medium, the packets may be delivered according to a multiple access scheme. In the late 1950s, the US Air Force established a wide area network for the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment radar defense system and they sought a system that might survive a nuclear attack to enable a response, thus diminishing the attractiveness of the first strike advantage by enemies.
Report P-2626 described a general architecture for a large-scale, Barans work was known to Robert Taylor and J. C. R. Licklider at the Information Processing Technology Office, who advocated wide area networks, starting in 1965, Donald Davies at the National Physical Laboratory, UK, independently developed the same message routing methodology as developed by Baran. He called it packet switching, a more accessible name than Barans and he gave a talk on the proposal in 1966, after which a person from the Ministry of Defence told him about Barans work. A member of Davies team met Lawrence Roberts at the 1967 ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles, Davies had chosen some of the same parameters for his original network design as did Baran, such as a packet size of 1024 bits. In 1966, Davies proposed that a network should be built at the laboratory to serve the needs of NPL, the NPL Data Communications Network entered service in 1970. In 1974, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn published the specifications for Transmission Control Protocol, Packet switching may be classified into connectionless packet switching, known as datagram switching, and connection-oriented packet switching, known as virtual circuit switching.
Examples of connectionless protocols are Ethernet, Internet Protocol, and the User Datagram Protocol, connection-oriented protocols include X.25, Frame Relay, Multiprotocol Label Switching, and the Transmission Control Protocol. In connectionless mode each packet includes complete addressing information, the packets are routed individually, sometimes resulting in different paths and out-of-order delivery. Each packet is labeled with an address, source address. It may be labeled with the number of the packet. At the destination, the original message/data is reassembled in the correct order, connection-oriented transmission requires a setup phase in each involved node before any packet is transferred to establish the parameters of communication. The packets include a connection identifier rather than address information and are negotiated between endpoints so that they are delivered in order and with error checking, the signaling protocols used allow the application to specify its requirements and discover link parameters.
Acceptable values for service parameters may be negotiated, routing a packet requires the node to look up the connection id in a table