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SI base unit

The SI base units are the standard units of measurement defined by the International System of Units for the seven base quantities of what is now known as the International System of Quantities: they are notably a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived. The units and their physical quantities are the second for time, the metre for measurement of length, the kilogram for mass, the ampere for electric current, the kelvin for temperature, the mole for amount of substance, the candela for luminous intensity; the SI base units are a fundamental part of modern metrology, thus part of the foundation of modern science and technology. The SI base units form a set of mutually independent dimensions as required by dimensional analysis employed in science and technology; the names and symbols of SI base units are written in lowercase, except the symbols of those named after a person, which are written with an initial capital letter. For example, the metre has the symbol m, but the kelvin has symbol K, because it is named after Lord Kelvin and the ampere with symbol A is named after André-Marie Ampère.

A number of other units, such as the litre, astronomical unit and electronvolt, are not formally part of the SI, but are accepted for use with SI. On 20 May 2019, as the final act of the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units, the BIPM introduced the following new definitions, replacing the preceding definitions of the SI base units. New definitions of the base units were approved on 16 November 2018, took effect 20 May 2019; the definitions of the base units have been modified several times since the Metre Convention in 1875, new additions of base units have occurred. Since the redefinition of the metre in 1960, the kilogram had been the only base unit still defined directly in terms of a physical artefact, rather than a property of nature; this led to a number of the other SI base units being defined indirectly in terms of the mass of the same artefact. It has long been an objective in metrology to define the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant, in the same way that the metre is now defined in terms of the speed of light.

The 21st General Conference on Weights and Measures placed these efforts on an official footing, recommended "that national laboratories continue their efforts to refine experiments that link the unit of mass to fundamental or atomic constants with a view to a future redefinition of the kilogram". Two possibilities attracted particular attention: the Planck constant and the Avogadro constant. In 2005, the International Committee for Weights and Measures approved preparation of new definitions for the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and it noted the possibility of a new definition of the mole based on the Avogadro constant; the 23rd CGPM decided to postpone any formal change until the next General Conference in 2011. In a note to the CIPM in October 2009, Ian Mills, the President of the CIPM Consultative Committee – Units catalogued the uncertainties of the fundamental constants of physics according to the current definitions and their values under the proposed new definition, he urged the CIPM to accept the proposed changes in the definition of the kilogram, ampere and mole so that they are referenced to the values of the fundamental constants, namely the Planck constant, the electron charge, the Boltzmann constant, the Avogadro constant.

This approach was approved in 2018, only after measurements of these constants were achieved with sufficient accuracy. International vocabulary of metrology International System of Quantities Non-SI units mentioned in the SI Metric prefix Physical constant International Bureau of Weights and Measures National Physical Laboratory NIST -SI


Nordlandet is an island in Kristiansund Municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. The 14.3-square-kilometre island is located just east of the city center of Kristiansund, is one of the boroughs of the city. The island is home to Kristiansund Airport, named after the nearby 205-metre tall mountain Kvernberget; this is the largest of the islands. Norwegian National Road 70 connects the island to the city of Kristiansund and south to the mainland. In the northwestern part of the island the Nordsund Bridge connects it to the island of Kirkelandet, in the southwestern part of the island the Omsund Bridge connects it to the island of Frei. List of islands of Norway


Shem was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature. The children of Shem were Elam, Arphaxad and Aram, in addition to daughters. Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arphaxad. Islamic literature describes Shem as one of the believing sons of Noah; some sources identify Shem as a prophet in his own right and that he was the next prophet after his father. Shem is mentioned several times in Genesis 5-11 as well as 1 Chronicles 1:4. Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Shem and his brother Japheth, but with sufficient ambiguity to have yielded different English translations; the verse is translated in the King James Version as: "Unto Shem the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder to him were children born." However, the New American Standard Bible gives: "Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the older brother of Japheth, children were born". According to Genesis 10:22-31: 22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, Aram.

23 And the sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, Mash. 24 And Arpachshad begot Shelah. 25 And unto Eber were born two sons. 26 And Joktan begot Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah. 30 And their dwelling was as thou goest toward Sephar, unto the mountain of the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. 32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations. Genesis 11:10 records that Shem was 100 years old at the birth of Arphaxad, two years after the flood. Excerpts from Genesis 11:10-27—:'Shem was a hundred years old, begot Arpachshad two years after the flood.... Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, begot Shelah. 13 And Arpachshad lived after he begot Shelah... Shelah lived thirty years, begot Eber.... Eber lived four and thirty years, begot Peleg.... Peleg lived thirty years, begot Reu.... Reu lived two and thirty years, begot Serug.'... Serug lived thirty years, begot Nahor.... Nahor lived nine and twenty years, begot Terah....

Terah lived seventy years, begot Abram and Haran.... and Haran begot Lot. According to Luke 3:36 Jesus is a descendant of Shem; the 1st-century historian Flavius Josephus, among many others, recounted the tradition that Shem's five sons were the progenitors of the nations of Elam, Chaldea and Levantine, respectively. According to some Jewish traditions, Shem is believed to have been Melchizedek, King of Salem, whom Abraham is recorded to have met after the Battle of the Four Kings. A rabbinic document that surfaced in the 17th century, claiming to be the lost Book of Jasher, provides some names not found in any other source. Shem is regarded by scholars to be the successor to Noah, receiving prophetic knowledge and leadership of his people. Shem was one of the people whom God made Jesus resurrect as a sign to the Children of Israel. Early Islamic historians like Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham always included Shem's name in the genealogy of Muhammad. In a Shiite tradition Ja'far al-Sadiq has narrated to his companions that Jibrael visited Noah close to the time of his death, relaying God's message: "Oh Noah!

Your prophethood has expired and your days are complete, so look to the Great Name, the inheritance and effects of the knowledge of prophethood, hand these over to your son, for I do not leave the Earth except that there is a knowledgeable one by which obedience to Me can be recognized..." The following family tree contains information from the Hebrew Bible, without data from any other sources. According to Luke 3, an additional figure named Cainan is the son of Arpachshad and the father of Shelah. Wives aboard the Ark Kishik, David; the Book of Shem: On Genesis before Abraham. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9781503606760. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Sem". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company

Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana

Jefferson Davis Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,594; the parish seat is Jennings. Jefferson Davis Parish is named after the president of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, Jefferson Davis, it forms a part of the Acadiana region. In 2005, the parish was damaged by Hurricane Rita, which caused much wind damage and flooding in the western part of the parish; the storm caused Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge to be affected by saltwater intrusion. Jefferson Davis Parish was one of the last parishes to be organized in the state of Louisiana, it was a part of Imperial Calcasieu Parish, which contributed to five other parishes as the population increased in the area. The bill creating Jefferson Davis Parish was passed by the state legislature in 1912 but did not take effect until 1913. Jefferson Davis Parish is part of the large, 22-county Acadiana region of Louisiana, influenced by a large Francophone population, it was named after Jefferson Davis, a prominent planter and the President of the Confederate States of America.

The first oil in Louisiana was drilled in 1901 in Evangeline, Acadia Parish, by W. Scott Heywood, who in 1932 was elected to the Louisiana State Senate; the oil field was known as the Jennings Oil Field because Jennings was the nearest railroad stop to the oil field. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 660 square miles, of which 651 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. Jefferson Davis Parish comprises five incorporated towns including Elton, Jennings, Lake Arthur, Welsh. There are many unincorporated areas that add to the interest and economic structure of the parish including Barnsdall, China, Edna, Foreman's Hall, Illinois Plant, Lauderdale, Pine Island, Roanoke, Thornwell, Topsy and Woodlawn. Interstate 10 runs east and west through the center of the parish, providing access to local markets. Additionally, the Union Pacific Railroad is centrally located within the parish and the Mermentau River, which connects to the Intracoastal Waterway and has a channel depth of nine feet, provides access to the Port of Mermentau.

The Jennings Airport, with a runway length of 5,000 feet, is capable of landing a small jet and is located next to Interstate 10. Jefferson Davis Parish attracts sportsmen to the Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge. Allen Parish Evangeline Parish Acadia Parish Vermilion Parish Cameron Parish Calcasieu Parish Beauregard Parish Jennings, Welsh As of the census of 2000, there were 31,435 people, 11,480 households, 8,529 families residing in the parish; the population density was 48 people per square mile. There were 12,824 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 80.60% White, 17.79% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 0.99 % of the population were Latino of any race. 16.15 % of the population reported speaking Cajun French at home. There were 11,480 households out of which 37.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families.

22.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.18. In the parish the population was spread out with 29.30% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.50 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $27,736, the median income for a family was $33,129. Males had a median income of $28,279 versus $18,668 for females; the per capita income for the parish was $13,398. About 18.10% of families and 20.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.40% of those under age 18 and 19.90% of those age 65 or over. Jefferson Davis Parish Public Schools operates the schools in the parish. Elton Elementary School Elton High School Fenton Elementary School Hathaway High School Jennings Elementary School Jennings High School Lacassine High School Lake Arthur Elementary School Lake Arthur High School James Ward Elementary School Welsh Elementary School Welsh High School Welsh-Roanoke Jr.

High School Jeff Davis Parish is served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lafayette which has one school in the parish: Our Lady Immaculate Additionally, Jeff Davis is served by one unaffiliated private school Bethel Christian School is a PreK-12 Christian school located in unincorporated Jefferson Davis Parish, near Jennings. Jeff Davis Parish is served by one institution of higher education The Morgan Smith campus of the Sowela Technical Community College is located in Jennings. C Company 3-156TH Infantry Battalion resides in Louisiana; this unit as part of the 256th IBCT deployed twice to Iraq in 2004-5 and 2010. J

Chimaira (album)

Chimaira is the third studio album by Chimaira, released on August 9, 2005. It debuted No. 74 on the Billboard 200 charts and sold 14,000 copies in the United States in its first week of release. The album would be the band's final release under Roadrunner Records and the only one to feature Kevin Talley on drums. Chimaira would mark further progression in heaviness. Band member Chris Spicuzza described the album as "the next natural step from Impossibility of Reason... more brutal." He noted its deemphasise on melodic tracks, alluding to the 2003 song "Down Again," and described the writing process as having "zero limitations."All lyrics were written by vocalist Mark Hunter. The opening track "Nothing Remains" was written on the day that Dimebag Darrell was shot, but was not written about his death. All tracks are written except where noted; the album was re-issued in 2006 with a bonus disc containing nine additional tracks. All live tracks are from The Dehumanizing Process DVD. ChimairaRob Arnold – lead guitar Matt DeVries – rhythm guitar Mark Hunter – vocals Jim LaMarca – bass guitar Chris Spicuzza – keyboards, synthesizers backing vocals Kevin Talley – drumsAdditional musiciansAndols Herrick – live drums, tracked drums ProductionProduced by Ben Schigel and Mark Hunter at Spider Studios Mixed by Ben Schigel and Colin Richardson Engineered by Ben Schigel, Tony Gammalo and Tom Kubik Mastered by Ted Jensen at Sterling Sound Artwork, design and art direction by Garrett Zunt Additional photography by Todd Bell Hear Matt Deveries talk about why he left band and his future plans

Stonequarry Creek railway viaduct, Picton

Stonequarry Creek railway viaduct is a heritage-listed railway viaduct over the Stonequarry Creek located on the Main Southern railway in the south-western Sydney town of Picton in the Wollondilly Shire local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by John Whitton as the Engineer-in-Chief for Railways and was built from 1863 to 1867 by Murnin and Brown, it is known as Stonequarry Creek Railway Viaduct and Picton railway viaduct over Stonequarry Creek. The property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The town of Picton was named by Major Antill after Sir Thomas Picton in 1841; the location was known as "Stonequarry". The Duke of Wellington described Picton as a "rough foul-mouthed devil as lived" but capable, he was "respected for his courage and feared for his irrascible temperament". He was chiefly remembered for his exploits under Wellington in the Iberinan Peninsular War displaying great barvery and persistence.

He was the most senior officer to die there. He was buried in the family vault at Hanover Square in London. In 1859 Picton was re-interred in St. Paul's Cathedral, lying close to the body of the Duke of Wellington; the Stonequarry Creek railway viaduct was built for the Picton to Goulburn railway extension, 1862-1869. John Whitton signed the plans in July 1862 but the first contractor failed so Murnin and Brown took over the contract in December 1863; the work was supervised by George Cowdery and was opened for traffic on 28 February 1867 for the first section of extension to Mittagong. It cost A£10,437, it is the oldest railway arch bridge in New South Wales and the first one built for two tracks, the second is over James Street, Lithgow. Economic constraints forced Whitton to build the others for single track, they were progressively bypassed by double track brick arch bridges whereas Stonequarry Creek viaduct continues its original function. The viaduct is accessible from Menangle Road. A sandstone viaduct carrying the double track Main South Railway over Stonequarry Creek just south of Picton railway station.

It is south of the station in terms of the general direction of the line, although it is north of the station because the line runs north at this point. There are five arches of 12 metres clear span which together with pier widths and abutments gives the viaduct a total length of 84 metres; the middle arch is the highest above the creek bed at 24 metres. The piers are solid stone, founded at shollw depth into rock, tapering to the springing levels of the arches which are solid semi-circular, 6 metres radius and 1 metre thick. At the piers, the internal "V" formed by the adjoining arches is filled by stone rubble to about 5 metres and dished to form a drain. There is a pipe drain down the middle. By this arrangement the ballastered tracks do not get water logged. There is a low stone parapet wall on each side of the viaduct supplemented by a timber fence for the safety of train shunters; the abutments are U-shaped in plan with three internal buttresses. As at 15 March 2006, the viaduct is in excellent condition and carries rail traffic, heavier and faster than when built.

No strengthening works or modification have been necessary. The viaduct retains its original function. There have been only minor railway attachments to suit changing operations over the years, but those that remain do not detract from the significance of the bridge; as at 15 March 2006, this 1867 viaduct is significant because it is the oldest stone arch railway bridge in New South Wales. It is associated with John Whitton the "father of new South Railways", it is an imposing sandstone structure, a landmark for the historic town of Picton, its construction contributed to the subsequent railway extension to Albury in 1883 to link with the Victorian line and to the development of Southern Western new South Wales and when John Whitton was denied funds to continue with the expensive wrought iron girder bridges he chose the stone arch viaduct for his major bridge works, it has proved to be a most cost-effective structure. It is unique being the first double track stone arch viaduct and retains its original fabric and function.

It represents a major technological achievement in the construction of the Great Southern Railway line by John Whitton. Picton railway viaduct over Stonequarry Creek was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales. This viaduct is the oldest stone arch railway bridge in New South Wales, it is still in use without any restriction on railway operations. The place has a strong or special association with a person, or group of persons, of importance of cultural or natural history of New South Wales's history, it is associated with John Whitton the "father of New South Wales railways". The place is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in New South Wales; the viaduct is an imposing sandstone structure, a landmark for the historic town of Picton and a photo stop for tourist.

The place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in New South Wales for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. Its construction contributed to the railway extension to Albury to link with the Victorian line and to the development of South Western New South Wales, it con