Sutherland railway station
Sutherland railway station is located on the Illawarra line, serving the Sydney suburb of Sutherland. It is served by Sydney Trains T4 line services and NSW TrainLink South Coast line services. Sutherland station opened on 26 December 1885 as the interim terminus of the Illawarra line when it was extended from Hurstville; the station opened for general rail traffic on 1 March 1886. It consisted of a brick station facing both the road and railway, a goods shed, a stationmaster's residence. On 9 March 1886, the line was extended to Waterfall. On 16 December 1939, Sutherland became a junction station with the opening of the Cronulla line. Although the electric wires continued south to Loftus and Royal National Park, until this was extended to Waterfall in 1980, Sutherland was the transfer station for services to Wollongong. On 15 November 1993, an upgraded footbridge with a new ticket office and lifts was opened by Minister for Transport Bruce Baird. A number of upgrades have taken place. In 2010, as part of the CityRail Clearways Program, the junction to the south of the station leading to the Cronulla railway line was duplicated.
A new bus interchange was completed in May 2014. A new lift to Platform 1 was completed in October 2014 making the station wheelchair accessible. In August 2014, construction commenced on a new 340 vehicle multi-storey car park, it opened on 6 July 2015. In 2018, the lift from platforms 2 and 3 were rebuilt to have the entrance be from the north end instead of the south. Transdev NSW operates eight routes via Sutherland station - all routes depart from the bus interchange on the western side of the station except routes 969 and 976, which depart from Flora Street on the eastern side: 961: Westfield Miranda to Barden Ridge 962: Westfield Miranda to East Hills 965: to Woronora 969: to Cronulla 976: to Grays Point 991: to Heathcote 993: Westfield Miranda to Engadine & Woronora Heights M92: to Parramatta stationSutherland station is served by one NightRide route: NightRide N10: to City Media related to Sutherland railway station at Wikimedia Commons Sutherland station details Transport for New South Wales Sutherland Station Public Transport Map Transport for NSW
Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance is a social-democratic political party in Poland. It was formed in 1991 as an electoral alliance of centre-left parties, became a single party on 15 April 1999; the SLD has no representation in the Senate following the 2015 parliamentary election. The party is a member of the Party of Progressive Alliance; the coalition can be classified as left-wing. However, during the 1990s, it managed to attract voters from the pro-market and right-wing camp; the main support for SLD came from middle-rank state sector employees, retired people, former Polish United Workers Party and All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions members and those who were unlikely to be frequent church-goers. The core of the coalition rejected concepts such as lustration and de-communization, supported a parliamentarian regime with only the role of an arbiter for the president and criticized the right-wing camp for introduction of religious education into school; the ex-communists criticized the economic reforms, pointing to the high social costs, without negating the reforms per se.
SdRP, SDU and some other socialist and social-democratic parties had formed the original Democratic Left Alliance as a centre-left coalition just prior to the nation's first free elections in 1991. In 1999 the coalition lost some members. At the time, the coalition's membership drew from the former PZPR. An alliance between the SLD and the Polish People's Party ruled Poland in the years 1993–1997; however the coalition lost power to the right-wing Solidarity Electoral Action in the 1997 election as the right-wing opposition was united this time and because of the decline of support for SLD's coalition partner PSL, though the SLD itself gained votes. SLD formed a coalition with Labour Union before the 2001 Polish election and won it overwhelmingly at last by capturing about 5.3 million votes, 42% of the whole and won 200 of 460 seats in the Sejm and 75 of 100 in the Senate. After the elections, the coalition was joined by the Polish People's Party in forming a government and Leszek Miller became the Prime Minister.
In March 2003, the PSL left the coalition. By 2004 the support for SLD in the polls had dropped from about 30% to just below 10%, several high-ranking party members had been accused of taking part in high-profile political scandals by the mainstream press. On 6 March 2004, Leszek Miller was replaced by Krzysztof Janik. On March 26 the Sejm speaker Marek Borowski, together with other high-ranking SLD officials, announced the creation of a new centre-left party, the Social Democratic Party of Poland. On the next day, Leszek Miller announced he would step down as Prime Minister on 2 May 2004, the day after Poland joined the European Union. Miller proceeded to do so. In the 2004 European Parliament election, it only received 9% of the votes, giving it 5 of 54 seats reserved for Poland in the European Parliament, as part of the Party of European Socialists. Wojciech Olejniczak, the former Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, was elected the president of SLD on 29 May 2004, succeeded Józef Oleksy, who resigned from the post of Polish Prime Minister due to false accusations of links to the KGB.
The 2004 European elections foreshadowed the SLD's huge defeat in the 2005 parliamentary election, in which it won only 11.3% of the vote. This gave the party 55 seats a quarter of what it had had prior to the election, it lost all of its Senators. In late 2006 a centre-left political alliance called Left and Democrats was created, comprising SLD and smaller centre-left parties, the Labour Union, the Social Democratic Party of Poland, the liberal Democratic Party – demokraci.pl. The coalition won a disappointing 13% in the 2007 parliamentary election and was dissolved soon after in April 2008. On 31 May 2008, Olejniczak was replaced by Grzegorz Napieralski as SLD leader. In the 2009 European election the Democratic Left Alliance-Labor Union joint ticket received 12% of the vote and 7 MEPs were elected as part of the newly retitled Socialists & Democrats group. In the 2011 parliamentary election, SLD received 8.24% of the vote which gave it 27 seats in the Sejm. After the elections, one of the party members, Sławomir Kopyciński, decided to leave SLD and join Palikot's Movement.
On December 10, 2011, Leszek Miller was chosen to return as the party leader. In the 2014 European elections on 25 May 2014, the SLD received 9.4% of the national vote and returned 4 MEPs. In July 2015 the SLD formed the United Left electoral alliance along with Your Movement, Labour United and The Greens and minor parties to contest the upcoming election. In the 2015 parliamentary election held on 25 October 2015, the United Left list received 7.6% of the vote, below the 8% threshold, leaving the SLD without parliamentary representation for the first time. Indeed, for the first time since the end of Communism, no centre-left parties won any seats in this election. In 2017, the party withdrew from the Socialist International, while maintaining ties with the Progressive Alliance. List of Democratic Left Alliance politicians coalition Democratic Left Alliance-Labor Union Official website The Warsaw Voice Article. 24 November 2004
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California. SLAC research centers on a broad program in atomic and solid-state physics, chemistry and medicine using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and a free-electron laser as well as experimental and theoretical research in elementary particle physics, astroparticle physics, cosmology. Founded in 1962 as the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the facility is located on 172 hectares of Stanford University-owned land on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California—just west of the University's main campus; the main accelerator is 3.2 kilometers long—the longest linear accelerator in the world—and has been operational since 1966. Research at SLAC has produced three Nobel Prizes in Physics: 1976: The charm quark—see J/ψ meson 1990: Quark structure inside protons and neutrons 1995: The tau leptonSLAC's meeting facilities provided a venue for the Homebrew Computer Club and other pioneers of the home computer revolution of the late 1970s and early 1980s.
In 1984 the laboratory was named an ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark and an IEEE Milestone. SLAC developed and, in December 1991, began hosting the first World Wide Web server outside of Europe. In the early-to-mid 1990s, the Stanford Linear Collider investigated the properties of the Z boson using the Stanford Large Detector; as of 2005, SLAC employed over 1,000 people, some 150 of whom were physicists with doctorate degrees, served over 3,000 visiting researchers yearly, operating particle accelerators for high-energy physics and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory for synchrotron light radiation research, "indispensable" in the research leading to the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Stanford Professor Roger D. Kornberg. In October 2008, the Department of Energy announced that the Center's name would be changed to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; the reasons given include a better representation of the new direction of the lab and the ability to trademark the laboratory's name.
Stanford University had opposed the Department of Energy's attempt to trademark "Stanford Linear Accelerator Center". In March 2009 it was announced that the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was to receive $68.3 Million in Recovery Act Funding to be disbursed by Department of Energy's Office of Science. The main accelerator was an RF linear accelerator that accelerated electrons and positrons up to 50 GeV. At 3.2 km long, the accelerator was the longest linear accelerator in the world, was claimed to be "the world's most straight object." Until 2017 when the European x-ray free electron laser opened. The main accelerator is buried 9 m below ground and passes underneath Interstate Highway 280; the above-ground klystron gallery atop the beamline is the longest building in the United States. A portion of the original linear accelerator is now part of the Linac Coherent Light Source; the Stanford Linear Collider was a linear accelerator that collided electrons and positrons at SLAC. The center of mass energy was about 90 GeV, equal to the mass of the Z boson, which the accelerator was designed to study.
Grad student Barrett D. Milliken discovered the first Z event on 12 April 1989 while poring over the previous day's computer data from the Mark II detector; the bulk of the data was collected by the SLAC Large Detector, which came online in 1991. Although overshadowed by the Large Electron-Positron Collider at CERN, which began running in 1989, the polarized electron beam at SLC made certain unique measurements possible, such as parity violation in Z Boson-b quark coupling. Presently no beam enters the south and north arcs in the machine, which leads to the Final Focus, therefore this section is mothballed to run beam into the PEP2 section from the beam switchyard; the SLAC Large Detector was the main detector for the Stanford Linear Collider. It was designed to detect Z bosons produced by the accelerator's electron-positron collisions; the SLD operated from 1992 to 1998. PEP began operation in 1980, with center-of-mass energies up to 29 GeV. At its apex, PEP had five large particle detectors in operation, as well as a sixth smaller detector.
About 300 researchers made used of PEP. PEP stopped operating in 1990, PEP-II began construction in 1994. From 1999 to 2008, the main purpose of the linear accelerator was to inject electrons and positrons into the PEP-II accelerator, an electron-positron collider with a pair of storage rings 2.2 km in circumference. PEP-II was host to the BaBar experiment, one of the so-called B-Factory experiments studying charge-parity symmetry; the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource is a synchrotron light user facility located on the SLAC campus. Built for particle physics, it was used in experiments where the J/ψ meson was discovered, it is now used for materials science and biology experiments which take advantage of the high-intensity synchrotron radiation emitted by the stored electron beam to study the structure of molecules. In the early 1990s, an independent electron injector was built for this storage ring, allowing it to operate independently of the main linear accelerator. SLAC plays a primary role in the mission and operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in August 2008.
The principal scientific objectives of this mission are: To understand the mechanisms of particle acceleration in AGNs, SNRs. To resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emiss
Sliač Airport or Letisko Tri Duby is an international airport in central Slovakia situated between the towns of Zvolen and Banská Bystrica and near the spa town of Sliač. The airport has one runway, 2,400 m long; the airport is used by the military as well as commercially for civilian flights. The "Tri Duby Airport" played an important role during the Slovak National Uprising in 1944 when it became the most important airport of the Anti-Nazi Resistance in Slovakia. Between September 6 and October 25, 1944, the airport was being used as the main base of the Slovak Insurgent Air Force but because of the advancing German units, it had to be evacuated. While the territory controlled by the Slovak rebels was being encircled by the hostile German forces, "Tri Duby" and the nearby Zolná airport were the main gateways to the rest of the world. In addition to the significant Soviet aid to Slovakia, the United States, were sending in supplies and OSS operatives through "Tri Duby", these flights were used to evacuate American aeronauts liberated from the German POW camps.
The airport changed its name from "Tri Duby" to Sliač in 1945. In 2009, it was closed for a major reconstruction project financed in part by NATO and the EU, it was reopened for military use in May 2011, for civilian use in June 2011. Sliač Airport operates only summer charter flights to popular sea resort destinations in Bulgaria, Turkey and Egypt. Passenger throughput and operations since 2014: Media related to Sliač Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Airport information for LZSL at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for LZSL at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for LZSL at NOAA/NWS Accident history for SLD at Aviation Safety Network
In aviation, icing conditions are those atmospheric conditions that can lead to the formation of water ice on the surfaces of an aircraft, or within the engine as carburetor icing. Inlet icing is another engine-related danger occurring in jet aircraft; these icing phenomena do not occur together. Many aircraft general aviation aircraft, are not certified for flight into known icing—icing conditions certain or to exist, based on pilot reports and forecasts. Icing conditions exist; these parameters affect the speed that characterize the formation of ice on an aircraft. Federal Aviation Regulations contain a definition of icing conditions that some aircraft are certified to fly into. So-called SLD, or supercooled large droplet, conditions are those that exceed that specification and represent a particular hazard to aircraft. Qualitatively, pilot reports indicate icing conditions in terms of their effect upon the aircraft, will be dependent upon the capabilities of the aircraft. Different aircraft may report the same quantitative conditions as different levels of icing as a result.
Clear ice is clear and smooth. Supercooled water droplets, or freezing rain, do not freeze instantly. "horns" or protrusions are formed and project into the airflow. Rime ice is rough and opaque, formed by supercooled drops freezing on impact. Forming along an airfoil's stagnation point, it conforms to the shape of the airfoil. Mixed ice is a combination of rime ice. Frost ice is the result of water freezing on unprotected surfaces; this can be dangerous when flight is attempted because it disrupts an airfoil's boundary layer airflow causing a premature aerodynamic stall and, in some cases increased drag making takeoff dangerous or impossible. SLD ice refers to ice formed in Supercooled Large Droplet conditions, it is similar to clear ice, but because droplet size is large, it extends to unprotected parts of the aircraft and forms larger ice shapes, faster than normal icing conditions. This was a factor in the crash of American Eagle Flight 4184; the wing will ordinarily stall at a lower angle of attack, thus a higher airspeed, when contaminated with ice.
Small amounts of ice will have an effect, if the ice is rough, it can be a large effect. Thus an increase in approach speed is advisable. How much of an increase depends on both the aircraft type and amount of ice. Stall characteristics of an aircraft with ice contaminated wings will be degraded, serious roll control problems are not unusual; the ice accretion may be asymmetric between the two wings. The outer part of a wing, ordinarily thinner and thus a better collector of ice, may stall first rather than last. Several methods exist to reduce the dangers of icing; the first, simplest, is to avoid icing conditions altogether, but for many flights this is not practical. If ice are present on an aircraft prior to takeoff, they must be removed from critical surfaces. Removal can take many forms: Mechanical means, which may be as simple as using a broom or brush to remove snow Application of deicing fluid or hot water to remove ice, etc. Use of infrared heating to melt and remove contaminants Put the aircraft into a heated hangar until snow and ice have melted Position aircraft towards the sun to maximize heating up of snow and ice covered surfaces.
In practice this method is limited by the time and weather conditions. All of these methods remove existing contamination, but provide no practical protection in icing conditions. If icing conditions exist, or are expected before takeoff anti-icing fluids are used; these resist the effects of snow and rain for some time. They are intended to provide no inflight protection. To protect an aircraft against icing in-flight, various forms of anti-icing or deicing are used: A common approach is to route engine "bleed air" into ducting along the leading edges of wings and tailplanes; the air heats the leading edge of the surface and this melts or evaporates ice on contact. On a turbine powered aircraft air is extracted from the compressor section of the engine. If the aircraft is turbocharged piston powered, bleed air can be scavenged from the turbocharger; some aircraft are equipped with pneumatic deicing boots. These systems require less engine bleed air but are less effective than a heated surface. A few aircraft use a weeping wing system, which has hundreds of small holes in the leading edges and releases anti-icing fluid on demand to prevent the buildup of ice.
Electrical heating is used to protect aircraft and components against icing. The heating may be applied continuously or intermittently, giving an effect similar to the use of deicing boots. In all these cases only critical aircraft surfaces and components are protected. In particular only the leading edge of a wing is protected. Carburetor heat is applied to carbureted engines to clear icing. Fuel-injected engines can suffer from blocked inlets. In these engines an alternate air source is available. Note there is a difference between anti-icing. Deicing refers to the removal of ice from the airframe.