Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
Sekolah Menengah Sains Sabah is a residential school established in Malaysian state of Sabah. As the first residential school in East Malaysia and the 27th of its kind in Malaysia, SMESH was known as Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Sabah. SMESH was established in 1978 but became operational on 1 January 1984, it has a 16-acre permanent campus in Kota Kinabalu. Due to the unsafe state of the campus, SMESH is temporarily operated in a temporary campus in Tuaran; the idea of having a residential school in Sabah was initiated in 1970s. Although SBPS was established in 1978, SBPS started its operation on 1 January 1984 under the leadership of its Founding Principal, Mohd. Radzwan Mohd. Yusof; the first group of SBPS students were enrolled on 26 May 1984. SBPS was renamed as SMESH by the Ministry of Education on 12 April 1997. Prior to 2011, SMESH was made a Cluster of Excellence School. On 26 May 2011, Education Minister Muhyiddin Yassin declared SMESH a High Performance School; as such, SMESH was given considerable autonomy powers from MOE.
For many years, including in 2018, SMESH was ranked the best secondary school in Sabah based on public examination results achieved by students and the school. In 2014, SMESH became the second best school in Malaysia based on Malaysian Certificate of Education 2013 results. In 2015, Ministry of Works declared the permanent campus of SMESH in Kota Kinabalu unsafe. SMESH was relocated to Tuaran; the old campus of Kent Teaching Education Institute was set up as the temporary campus of SMESH at the end of 2015. In March 2018, Education Minister Mahdzir Khalid announced that RM 72 million was provided rebuild the permanent campus under Najib Government. Assistant Minister of State Jimmy Wong revealed, in July 2018, that the real cost of rebuilding the permanent campus is RM 74.2 million and that the project is still at pre-implementation level. In July 2018, SMESH was selected as the second school in Malaysia and the first in Sabah to go cashless by MobilityOne. SMESH is led by a senior-grade Principal appointed by MOE.
He is assisted by a Management Council comprising all three Vice Principals and four Head of Departments. Since the inception of SBPS/SMESH in 1984, six Principals took the helm of the school. Zaini Zair is the Principal of SMESH since 2008; the following principals preceded him: 1984-1987: Mohd. Radzwan Mohd. Yusof 1987-1994: Adnan Ibrahim 1994-1996: Abbas Awang 1997-2005: Wahid Kapal 2005-2008: Rossminah Yamin In accordance with the status of SMESH as a top school in Sabah, SMESH was equipped with completed facilities; the permanent campus of SMESH has a main hall, four science labs, three workshops, a computer lab, a sports complex, a Muslim prayer hall and two blocks of student accommodation. In addition to Internet access points installed at strategic places around the school, students were given permission to bring own laptops to the school under a set of terms and conditions set by the school. Since 1984, SMESH has recorded numerous achievements at various levels. In academic, SMESH was made the best school in Sabah for 2018 based on SPM 2017 results.
In co-curricular activities, SMESH has been the top school in district-level Interschool Sports Championship. SMESH received a gold medal in Fully Residential School International Symposium, the recent being in 2018. In administration and finance, SMESH was given a clean audit by the Auditor General. Since 1984, SMESH has produced hundreds of notable alumni. One of them has been Isnaraissah Munirah Majilis, Member of Parliament for Kota Belud and Deputy Minister of Energy, Science, Climate Change and Environment since 2018. SMESH Kota Kinabalu SMESH official website
Malay College Kuala Kangsar
Kolej Melayu Kuala Kangsar is a premier residential school in Malaysia. It is an all-Malay school in the royal town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak, it is sometimes dubbed "the Eton College of the East". It was awarded Cluster School of Excellence title by the Ministry of Education. Since 2010, the school was awarded with the Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi or High Performance School title, a title awarded to Malaysian top schools that have met stringent criteria including academic achievement, strength of alumni, international recognition and linkages; the school has been selected as International Baccalaurate World School for Diploma Programme since 2011 and Middle Years Programme since 2016. It offers both national curriculum while implementing IB curriculum standards. MCKK is a member of an international organisation of best secondary schools in the world called Global Alliance of Leading-Edge Schools led by Raffles Institution of Singapore. About 10% of current students are with public & private scholarships, such as Bank Negara Malaysia, Telekom Malaysia, Yayasan Peneraju Pendidikan Bumiputera and many more.
The school is one of the only two boarding school in Malaysia. The school's patron is the Conference of Rulers; as an institution under the royal patronage of Conference of Rulers, the school receives royal visits from His Majesty Yang di-Pertuan Agong, King of Malaysia every five years and every year from HRH Sultan of Perak as school's board chairman. The board members are appointed by the Conference; the school is specialized in rugby and leadership. It leads Malaysian schools in robotics & education innovation. Malay College Kuala Kangsar is the first residential school in Malaysia. Established on 2 January 1905, it was known as the Malay Residential School of Kuala Kangsar; the school was the brainchild of inspector of schools for the Federated Malay States. In a letter to the resident-general dated 24 February 1904 he wrote about "establishing at a suitable locality in the F. M. S. A special residential school for the education of Malays of good family and for the training of Malay boys for admission to certain branches of Government service".
Its formation was supported by the rulers of the Federated Malay States: Sultan Idris Murshidul ‘Adzam Shah I of Perak, Sultan Alaiddin Sulaiman Shah of Selangor, Yam Tuan Tuanku Muhammad Shah of Negeri Sembilan and Sultan Ahmad Mu’adzam Shah of Pahang. William Hargreaves, headmaster of Penang Free School, was appointed as the first headmaster to lead the establishment of the school with 40 pioneering students. Since 1965, the Malay College has been led by Malay headmasters; as it was founded to educate the Malay elite, being royal children and the sons of Malay nobility, few of its early students were from commoner families. However, during Tun Abdul Razak Hussein's tenure as Minister of Education in 1947, as a result of rising Malay nationalism, he democratized the intake; this is because of his experience as an alumnus there, where he found out the aristocrats that gained admittance to this college were below par compared to their less-privileged peers in Victoria Institution and Raffles Institution.
Their status as aristocrats had caused them to not be independent and to have no willingness to strive for a better future. Today, only selected Malay boys aged 13 to 17 from around Malaysia are educated there; some of the well known teachers include Anthony Burgess. The Straits Echo on 15 April 1905 reported that a few boys were placed in cozy dormitories in Hargreaves’ rented house, while the others were stabled in small houses occupied by the Malayan Railway clerks; the second half of the school, conducted by Mr Vanrenen was held in a fowl house. There were 40 boys in the first intake; the sanction for the building of a permanent school became official on 23 December 1905. On Saturday, 11 December 1909, the Big School was opened by the Sultan of Perak, the auspicious date marked the change in the name of the school from the Malay Residential School of Kuala Kangsar to the Malay College of Kuala Kangsar; the change seems to have seen greater emphasis on the original aim of MCKK. A report from 1910 said: "From this school the Government have great hopes that the sons of Malays of the Raja and higher class will be educated and trained on the lines of an English Public School and be fitted to take a share in the Government of their Country."
Since its inception, more than 5,000 boys have entered the gates of MCKK. The first Malay College Magazine was published in 1939; the compulsory white uniforms were introduced in 1949, before that, the students wore. The Koleq samping designed and woven in Terengganu consisting of black and red was introduced in 1939 to be worn with white Malay baju & seluar and black kopiah was made the optional Malay uniform, it was only made compulsory in 1959 by NJ Ryan. The Headmaster changed the names of the 3 Houses to the four names of FMS Rulers in 1905, he was the same Headmaster who raised the UMNO flag on Federation Day, 01,02,1948, when the Koleq boys assembled to celebrate the demise of the Malayan Union and to sing the "new Malay National Anthem" as described by Hashim Sam Latiff. Koleq adopt that tune to be the MCKK Anthem using the words in the Ode to the MCKK penned by teacher-cum-poet/writer/composer Ant
Sekolah Menengah Sains Johor, is a boarding school located in Kluang, Malaysia. Established on 23 May 1973, SMSJ is the first boarding school or Sekolah Berasrama Penuh built in the state of Johor. SMSJ is the 16th SBP built in Malaysia under the 2nd Malaysia Plan. In 2011, the school celebrates its 38th year of operation; the school is known as Sains Johor and an alumnus of this school is known as a SAJOHA. SMSJ was established in the year 1973 under the Second Malaysia Plan; the foundation of the construction was officiated by the Director of Education, Tun Hamdan bin Sheikh Tahir. Students of the first batch was placed temporarily in English College Johore Bahru until the completion of the school's infrastructure in the month of April 1974; the first principal was Tuan Syed Ahmad Omar Al-Atas and since 13 principals have been on duty. Situated at a mere one kilometre from Kluang, the school covers an area of 32 acres and it provides ample facilities for secondary students. From the year 1974 to 1984, the school received Form 6 students and from the year 1985 until 1989, the school carried out GCE A-Level.
After that, the school maintains receiving only Form 1 to Form 5 students until now. The main field, was completed in 1976 and the second field, was completed in 1988; the fields trainings. Since 1996, the school reserved two classes for students majoring in Technical Science and three classes for students majoring in Pure Science. SCORE was named a smart school in 1999. In 2011, the school received the Cluster School title, in 2012, the school was designated as one of the high performance schools in Malaysia. Form 5 Form 4 Form 3 Form 2 Form 1 Year by year, SMSJ continues to excel in both PMR and SPM, the two major public examinations in Malaysia; the school proves itself to be worthy when it succeed to produce a high percentage of straight "A" scorers for both examinations. The PMR record was broken in the year 2011 with a school average grade value of 1.01 placing SMSJ on the 7th place among all the other residential schools. The SPM record in the other hand is still being held by the 2008 batch with a school average grade of 1.906 placing SMSJ on the 7th place among all other residential schools.
Datuk Ahmad Maslan - Deputy Minister of International Trade and Industry Official website
Sekolah Seri Puteri
Sekolah Seri Puteri is a premier all-girls boarding school located in Cyberjaya, Malaysia. In 2010, Sekolah Seri Puteri was awarded the prestigious Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi or High Performance School title; the school specialises in wind basketball. In the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia 2013, the national examination taken by all fifth-year secondary school students in Malaysia, SSP obtained a grade value average of 1.26. Sekolah Seri Puteri was founded on 6 May 1968, the original name was Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Perempuan Jalan Kolam Ayer, Kuala Lumpur, it was established to provide secondary education for students from across Malaysia. Built on a 19-acre site at Jalan Kolam Ayer owned by a technical school, the school opened with 144 Form 4 students, 10 teachers, three non-academics who assisted Puan Khalidah Adibah Amin, the first principal. In 1969, the school started contracting teachers from Bangladesh to fill vacancies in the science and mathematics departments; the first group of 102 Form 6 students was admitted in May 1971.
Form 1 students were first admitted in 1975. In 1975, pre-university matriculation courses from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia were first attended by 88 students. In 1976, the wind orchestra, Seri Puteri Winds, was formed by the third principal Puan Hajah Badiah Bt Hj, Abdul Manan, the vice-principal Wilma Lesurf; the school celebrated its tenth anniversary on 16 September 1978. At this event, the fourth school principal, Puan Zainab Bt Haji Mohd Yusop named the school as Sekolah Seri Puteri, signifying "beauty and leadership"; the school emblem was introduced in the same year. On 1 May 2003, Sekolah Seri Puteri moved from Jalan Kolam Ayer to its current location in Cyberjaya; the grand opening of the new facility was held on 10 April 2007. Sultanah Nur Zahirah, the thirteenth Raja Permaisuri Agong of Malaysia, officiated at the opening. Sekolah Seri Puteri occupies a 20-acre site in the Cyberjaya Flagship Zone on high ground overlooking an artificial lake, Putrajaya Lake. Development of Sekolah Seri Puteri began on 5 April 2001, with a total construction cost of RM 56 Million.
Construction ended on 26 January 2003. The school can support staff; the main building contains a large hall and sports facilities, classrooms and workshops blocks. The site includes a student residence, a teachers residence, a dining hall. A great hall holds 1,200 people, a lecture hall seats 255 people. In 2013, the school hosted the Fully Residential School International Symposium with the theme "Go Green, Initiatives for the Future"; the keynote speaker was the prime minister of Dato' Najib Razak. In 2011, the school's wind orchestra, Seri Puteri Winds, was featured in the flashmob-style reality programme Refleksi Orkestra in conjunction with Radio Televisyen Malaysia's golden jubilee concert, Orkestra RTM 50. In 2013, SP Winds won the gold medal at the 24th Australian International Music Festival in Sydney; this accomplishment earned the school three entries in the Malaysian Book of Records: "first Malaysian government residential school to qualify for the Australian International Music Festival" "first Malaysian government residential school to play at the Sydney Opera House, Australia" "first Malaysian government residential school to win a gold medal in AIMF" The alumni association of SSP is known as Persatuan Alumni Sekolah Seri Puteri.
Harlina Halizah Siraj – Head, Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Mastura Ma'sud – Lawyer Azlina Jamaluddin - Lawyer Sawiah Jusoh – Chief Executive Officer Success Precession Wellbeing Ltd, United Kingdom. Safiah Atan – Senior Biotechnology Researcher, Malaysian Rubber Board Jamia Azdina Jamal-Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, National University Malaysia Azlina Mehtab-Lawyer Sharifah Fauziyah Syed Mohtar-Director, Pharmaniaga Bhd Shafida Abd Hamid-Dean, Kuliyyah of Science, IIUM. List of schools in Selangor Blown away by wind orchestra Official website
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
Sekolah Berasrama Penuh or Fully Residential School is a school system established in Malaysia to nurture outstanding students to excel in academics and extracurricular activities. Since 2008, SBPs are directly administered by Fully Residential and Excellent Schools Management Division, Ministry of Education. SBP began with Richard Olaf Winstedt as deputy. "The Selangor Raja School" was established as a starting step to produce the Malay elite from among the palaces and princes, through the English medium education. In 1894, the school was closed for renovation and was reborn in a new form in 1905 at Kuala Kangsar, which to this day known as the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. Sultan Idris Shah I of Perak, in the Conference of Rulers in 1903 which criticised the policy of British administration in the education of the Malays, saying it was "to produce better Malay farmers or fishermen only". Sultan of Perak himself has offered on-site locations for MCKK, with the purpose "for the education of the Malays of good family and for the training of Malay boys for admission to certain branches of the government service".
In 1947, "Malay Girl College" was established in Kuala Lumpur moved to Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, known as Tunku Kurshiah College until now, named after the first Raja Permaisuri Agong. In September 1955, an Education Committee was established which led to the conception of the Razak Report in 1956. Razak Report approved and produced the Education Ordinance 1957; the Razak Report recommended the formation of six units of Sekolah Berasrama Penuh, namely Sekolah Dato'Abdul Razak, Sekolah Tun Fatimah, Sekolah Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Sekolah Menengah Sultan Abdul Halim, Sekolah Sultan Alam Shah and Sekolah Seri Puteri. In 1955, Kolej Islam Malaya was embodied in the former palace on the site, donated by Sultan Hisamuddin in Klang, Selangor. In 1966, the college was moved to Jalan Universiti in Selangor. In 1967, after the customisation work was completed, the college relocated to Klang and was named Kolej Islam Klang. In 1972, the college administration was taken over by the Ministry of Education and the name was changed to Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah.
Between 1973 to 1975, 10 SBPs were built. The projects that needed to be implemented in the Second Malaysia Plan were stated as "important projects in the plan is the establishment of ten pilot residential science secondary schools added to provide educational opportunities for pupils from rural areas to pursue their education in science subjects." To date, Malaysia has 69 SBPs: 11 premier schools, 43 science secondary schools, 12 integrated SBPs and 3 federal Islamic secondary school. 6 of SBPs are all-boys and another 6 are all-girls. The latest SBP opened in Malaysia was Gua Musang Science Secondary School; the 69th SBP in Malaysia was opened in 2014. A number of SBPs are either under planning or ongoing construction under Eleventh Malaysia Plan; the history of SBP is a rich one, certain fields are considered the hallmark of SBP schools. These include: Fully Residential School Excellence Day Prime Minister's Trophy Debate Championship SBP Wind Orchestra Competition SBP 7's Rugby Annual Championship Islamic Leadership Conference Malaysia International Young Inventors Olympiad Fully Residential Schools' International Symposium Malay Gamelan and Caklempong Competition As in 2018, Malaysia has 69 residential schools which are divided into five zones, namely Northern Zone, Central Zone, Southern Zone, Eastern Zone and SQL Zone.
Education in Malaysia MARA Junior Science College Official website
Johor known as Johore, is a state of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula. Johor has land borders with the Malaysian states of Pahang to the north and Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest. Johor shares maritime borders with Singapore to the south and Indonesia to both the east. Johor Bahru is the capital city and the economic centre of the state, Kota Iskandar is the seat of the state government, Muar serves as the royal town of the state; the old state capital is Johor Lama. As of the 2015 census, the state's population is 3,553,600. Johor has diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate; the state's mountain ranges form part of the Titiwangsa Range, part of the larger Tenasserim Range connected to Thailand and Myanmar, with Mount Ophir being the highest point in Johor. The state had early contact with Funan based on the exchange of gifts. After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and Majapahit. Several decades with the emergence of the Malaccan Empire, Islam spread throughout the Malay Archipelago.
After the fall of the empire to the Portuguese, remnants of the Malaccan royal family moved to a river in the southern Malay Peninsula known to the locals as the Johor River and establishing a new sultanate, which became the Johor Empire. Their attempts to retake Malacca resulted in a three-way war between Johor, the Portuguese, Aceh, another rising sultanate in northern Sumatra. With the arrival of the Dutch East India Company, Johor ended the Portuguese rule and restore its own rule to many of its former dependencies in Sumatra, although Malacca continued to be held by foreign powers. Through an internal dispute within the Johor sultanate and the presence of the East India Company in the northern Malay Peninsula, Dutch trade changed from being involved in local disputes to conquering much of Sumatra and signing the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 with the British to prevent further conflicts with the latter. Under the treaty, the Malay Archipelago was divided under two spheres of influence. Under British rule, priority was given towards education and development and the Johor royal administration itself was reformed under a British-style monarchy.
The three-year occupation by the Japanese in World War II halted modernisation. After the war, Johor became part of the temporary Malayan Union before being absorbed into the Federation of Malaya under certain terms and gaining full independence through the federation, subsequently Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Johor has high diversity in ethnicity and language; the state is known for its traditional dance of zapin. The head of state is the Sultan of Johor; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the state administration divided into administrative districts. Islam is the state religion per the 1895 Constitution of Johor, but other religions can be practised. Both Malay and English have been accepted as official languages for the state since 1914; the economy is based on services and manufacturing. The area was first known to the northern inhabitants of Siam as Gangganu or Ganggayu due to the abundance of gemstones near the Johor River. Arabic traders referred to it as جَوْهَر, a word borrowed from the Persian گوهر, which means "precious stone" or "jewel".
As the local people found it difficult to pronounce the Arabic word in the local dialect, the name subsequently became Johor. Meanwhile, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama called the area Ujong Medini as it is the southernmost point of mainland Asia. Another name, through Portuguese writer Manuel Godinho de Erédia, made reference to Marco Polo's sailing to Ujong Tanah in 1292. Both Ujong Medini and Ujong Tanah had been mentioned since before the foundation of the Sultanate of Malacca. Throughout the period, several other names co-existed such as Galoh and Wurawari. Johor is known by its Arabic honorific as دارالتّعظيم or "Abode of Dignity". A bronze bell estimated to be from 150 A. D. was found in Kampong Sungai Penchu near the Muar River. The bell is believed to have been used as a ceremonial object rather than a trade object as a similar ceremonial bell with the same decorations was found in Battambang Province, suggesting that the Malay coast came in contact with Funan, with the bell being a gift from the early kingdom in mainland Asia to local chieftains in the Malay Peninsula.
Another important archaeological find was the ancient lost city of Kota Gelanggi, discovered by following trails described in an old Malay manuscript once owned by Stamford Raffles. Artefacts gathered in the area have reinforced claims of early human settlement in the state; the claim of Kota Gelanggi as the first settlement is disputed by the state government of Johor, with other evidence from archaeological studies conducted by the state heritage foundation since 1996 suggesting that the historic city is located in Kota Tinggi District at either Kota Klang Kiu or Ganggayu. The exact location of the ancient city is still undisclosed, but is said to be within the 14,000-hectare forest reserve where the Lenggiu and Madek Rivers are located, based on records in the Malay Annals that, after conquering Gangga Negara, Raja Suran from Siam of the Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom had sailed to Ganggayu. Since ancient times, most of the coastal Malay Penin