Lloyd's Register Group Limited is a technical and business services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and engineering. The organisation dates to 1760, its stated aims are to enhance the safety of life and the environment, by helping its clients to ensure the quality construction and operation of critical infrastructure. As Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a maritime organisation. During the late 20th century, it diversified into other industries including oil and gas, process industries and rail. Through its 100% subsidiary Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Ltd, it is a major vendor of independent assessment services, including management systems certification for quality certification to ISO9001, ISO14001 and OSHAS18001. Lloyd's Register is unaffiliated with Lloyd's of London. In July 2012, the organisation converted from an industrial and provident society to a company limited by shares, named Lloyd’s Register Group Limited, with the new Lloyd’s Register Foundation as the sole shareholder.
At the same time the organisation gifted to the Foundation a substantial bond and equity portfolio to assist it with its charitable purposes. It will benefit from continued funding from the group’s operating arm, Lloyd’s Register Group Limited; the organisation was named after a 17th-century coffee house in London, frequented by merchants, marine underwriters, others, all men associated with shipping. The coffee house owner, Edward Lloyd, helped them to exchange information by circulating a printed sheet of all the news he heard. In 1760, the Register Society was formed by the customers of the coffee house who assembled the Register of Shipping, the first known register of its type. Between 1800 and 1833, a dispute between shipowners and underwriters resulted in each group publishing a list—the "Red Book" and the "Green Book". Both parties came to the verge of bankruptcy, they reached agreement in 1834 to unite and form Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping, establishing a General Committee and charitable values.
In 1914, with an international outlook, the organisation changed its name to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. The Society printed the first Register of Ships in 1764 in order to give both underwriters and merchants an idea of the condition of the vessels they insured and chartered: ship hulls were graded by a lettered scale, ship's fittings were graded by number, thus the best classification "A1", from which the expression A1 or A1 at Lloyd's is derived, first appeared in the 1775–76 edition of the Register. The Register, with information on all seagoing, self-propelled merchant ships of 100 gross tonnes or greater, is published annually. A vessel remains registered with Lloyd's Register until she is sunk, hulked, or scrapped; the Register was published by the joint venture company of Lloyd's Register-Fairplay, formed in July 2001 by the merger of Lloyd's Register's Maritime Information Publishing Group and Prime Publications Limited. Lloyd's Register sold its share of the venture to IHS Markit in 2009.
Lloyd's Register provides quality assurance and certification for ships, offshore structures, shore-based installations such as power stations and railway infrastructure. However, Lloyd's Register is known best for the classification and certification of ships, inspects and approves important components and accessories, including life-saving appliances, marine pollution prevention, fire protection, radio communication equipment, deck gear, cables and anchors. LR's Rules for Ships are derived from principles of naval architecture and marine engineering, govern safety and operational standards for numerous merchant and owned vessels. LR's Rules govern a number of topics including: Materials used for construction of the vessel Ship structural requirements and minimum scantlings, depending on ship type Operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary machinery Operation and maintenance of emergency and control systemsSpecific editions of the rules are available to cater for merchant ships, naval ships, special purpose vessels and offshore structures.
A ship is known as being in class if she meets all the minimum requirements of LR's Rules, such a status affects the possibility of a ship getting insurance. Class can be withdrawn from a ship if she is in violation of any regulations and does not maintain the minimum requirements specified by the company. However, exceptional circumstances may warrant special dispensation from Lloyd's Register. Any alteration to the vessel, whether it is a structural alteration or machinery, must be approved by Lloyd's Register before it is implemented. Ships are inspected on a regular basis by a team of Lloyd's Register surveyors, one of the most important inspections being a ship's load line survey – due once every five years; such a survey includes an inspection of the hull to make sure that the load line has not been altered. Numerous other inspections such as the condition of hatch and door seals, safety barriers, guard rails are performed. Upon completion the ship is allowed to be operated for another year, is issued a load line certificate.
Lloyd's Register provide a list of regulations to the public. List of regulations: The Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships January 2016 The Rules and Regulations For The Classification Of Special Service Craft The Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Naval Ships January 2015 The Rules for the Manufacture, Testing an
The Austro-Hungarian Navy or Imperial and Royal War Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Ships of the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff. Existing between 1867 and 1918, the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine came into being after the formation of Austria-Hungary in 1867, ceased to exist upon the Empire's defeat and subsequent collapse at the end of World War I. Prior to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Navy was referred to as the Imperial Austrian Navy or the Austrian Navy, it saw action in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, the Second Egyptian–Ottoman War, the First and Second Wars of Italian Independence, the Second Schleswig War, the Seven Weeks War as well as the simultaneous Third War of Italian Independence. Following Austria's defeat to Prussia and Italy during the Seven Weeks War, the Empire reformed itself into a dual monarchy with the Habsburg monarch ruling as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire, as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 transformed the Austrian Navy into the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Neglected by the Empire in its early years, the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine grew throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries to become one of the largest navies in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas. By 1914 the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine had a peacetime strength of 20,000 personnel; the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine saw action in the Boxer Rebellion, the first shots of World War I were fired by the Austrian monitor Bodrog, which bombarded Belgrade on 29 July 1914, the day after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Participating in both surface and submarine warfare in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas during the war, the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine achieved notable victories during the Bombardment of Ancona and the Battle of the Strait of Otranto in 1917. However, the Otranto Barrage - established first by France and maintained by Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States - prevented the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine from participating in many naval engagements after 1915.
Tasked with defending Austria-Hungary's 1,130 nautical miles of coastline and 2,172.4 nautical miles of island seaboard for the duration of the war, the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine chose to rely more on Austria-Hungary's U-boats to engage in offensive naval operations rather than risk the destruction of Austria-Hungary's battleships, other surface vessels. In June 1918, the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine attempted to break the Otranto Barrage with a massive naval attack which included four dreadnought battleships three pre-dreadnoughts, the four cruisers, four destroyers, four torpedo boats, numerous submarines and airplanes, but the attack was called off after the battleship Szent István was sunk by an Italian torpedo boat on 10 June. Five months with the Austro-Hungarian Empire facing collapse and defeat in the war, the Empire decided to transfer most of its navy to the newly-declared State of Slovenes and Serbs on 31 October bringing the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine to an end. Three days the Empire's military authorities signed the Armistice of Villa Giusti, pulling the disintegrating empire out of the war.
With the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon, the First Austrian Republic and the Kingdom of Hungary were treated as the successors to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious Allies in 1920. As a result, both Austria and Hungary were deprived of their coasts, the former Empire's most important ports such as Trieste, Pola and Ragusa, were annexed into Italy and Yugoslavia; the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine's main ships meanwhile were turned over to the Allies where most of them were scrapped throughout the 1920s, though some of its ships remained in use through the 1930s and beyond, such as the Bodrog which remained in the service of multiple countries until the 1960s and is presently being converted into a museum ship.
While not formally established until the 18th century, the origins of the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine can be traced back to 1382, with the incorporation of Trieste into the Duchy of Austria. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became a maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice which occupied the Adriatic port city during intermittent periods between 1283 and 1372. Under the terms of the Peace of Turin in 1381, Venice renounced its claim to Trieste and the leading citizens of Trieste petitioned Leopold III, Duke of Austria, to make Trieste part of his domains; the agreement incorporating Trieste into the Duchy of Austria was signed at the castle of Graz on 30 September 1382. While Austria had a port with the incorporation of Trieste, the city was granted a large degree of autonomy and successive Dukes of Austria paid little attention to the port or the idea of deploying a navy to protect it; until the end of the 18th century, there were only limited attempts to establish an Austrian navy.
During the Thirty Years War, Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein was awarded the Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Güstrow as well as given the title "Admiral of the North and Baltic Seas" by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II in 1628 after scoring several military victories against Denmark–Norway in northern Germany. However, Wallenstein failed to captur
Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port, it has a population of 633,471. Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage; the near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the industrialized Ruhr; the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was located at the present-day Hoogstraat. On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands and Germany, to urbanize; the port of Rotterdam grew but into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success; when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe; some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad; the statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s, it remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by: the Beneluxtunnel. The former railway lift bridge De Hef is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland and the south of Rotterdam; the city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid. From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built behind di
A cargo ship or freighter ship is a merchant ship that carries cargo and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are specially designed for the task being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, come in all sizes. Today, they are always built by welded steel, with some exceptions have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped. Cargo ships/freighters can be divided into six groups, according to the type of cargo they carry; these groups are: General cargo vessels Container ships Tankers Dry bulk carriers Multi-purpose vessels Reefer shipsGeneral cargo vessels carry packaged items like chemicals, furniture, motor- and military vehicles, garments, etc. Tankers carry other liquid cargo. Dry bulk carriers carry coal, grain and other similar products in loose form. Multi-purpose vessels, as the name suggests, carry different classes of cargo – e.g. liquid and general cargo – at the same time.
A Reefer ship is designed and used for shipping perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled fruits, fish, dairy products and other foodstuffs. Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers. Cargo ships fall into two further categories that reflect the services they offer to industry: liner and tramp services; those on a fixed published schedule and fixed tariff rates are cargo liners. Tramp ships do not have fixed schedules. Users charter them to haul loads; the smaller shipping companies and private individuals operate tramp ships. Cargo liners run on fixed schedules published by the shipping companies; each trip a liner takes is called a voyage. Liners carry general cargo. However, some cargo liners may carry passengers also. A cargo liner that carries 12 or more passengers is called a combination or passenger-run-cargo line; the earliest records of waterborne activity mention the carriage of items for trade. The desire to operate trade routes over longer distances, throughout more seasons of the year, motivated improvements in ship design during the Middle Ages.
Before the middle of the 19th century, the incidence of piracy resulted in most cargo ships being armed, sometimes quite as in the case of the Manila galleons and East Indiamen. They were sometimes escorted by warships. Piracy is still quite common in some waters in the Malacca Straits, a narrow channel between Indonesia and Singapore / Malaysia, cargo ships are still targeted. In 2004, the governments of those three nations agreed to provide better protection for the ships passing through the Straits; the waters off Somalia and Nigeria are prone to piracy, while smaller vessels are in danger along parts of the South American, Southeast Asian coasts and near the Caribbean Sea. The words cargo and freight have become interchangeable in casual usage. Technically, "cargo" refers to the goods carried aboard the ship for hire, while "freight" refers to the compensation the ship or charterer receives for carrying the cargo; the modern ocean shipping business is divided into two classes: Liner business: container vessels, operating as "common carriers", calling a published schedule of ports.
A common carrier refers to a regulated service where any member of the public may book cargo for shipment, according to long-established and internationally agreed rules. Tramp-tanker business: this is private business arranged between the shipper and receiver and facilitated by the vessel owners or operators, who offer their vessels for hire to carry bulk or break bulk to any suitable port in the world, according to a drawn contract, called a charter party. Larger cargo ships are operated by shipping lines: companies that specialize in the handling of cargo in general. Smaller vessels, such as coasters, are owned by their operators. A category designation appears before the vessel's name. A few examples of prefixes for naval ships are "USS", "HMS", "HMCS" and "HTMS", while a few examples for prefixes for merchant ships are "RMS", "MV", "MT" "FV" Fishing Vessel and "SS". "TS", sometimes found in first position before a merchant ship's prefix, denotes that it is a Turbine Steamer. Famous cargo ships include the Liberty ships of World War II based on a British design.
Liberty ship sections were prefabricated in locations across the United States and assembled by shipbuilders in an average of six weeks, with the record being just over four days. These ships allowed the Allies to replace sunken cargo vessels at a rate gr
The Nieuwe Waterweg is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook of Holland: the Maasmond, where the Nieuwe Waterweg connects to the Maasgeul. It is the artificial mouth of the river Rhine; the Nieuwe Waterweg, which opened in 1872 and has a length of 20.5 kilometres, was constructed to keep the city and port of Rotterdam accessible to seafaring vessels as the natural Meuse-Rhine branches silted up. The Waterway is a busy shipping route since it is the primary access to one of the busiest ports in the world, the Port of Rotterdam. At the entrance to the sea, a flood protection system called. There are no tunnels across the Nieuwe Waterweg. By the middle of the 19th century, Rotterdam was one of the largest port cities in the world because of transshipment of goods from Germany to Great Britain; the increase in shipping traffic created a capacity problem: there were too many branches in the river delta, making the port difficult to reach.
In 1863, a law was passed that allowed for the provision of a new canal for large ocean-going ships from Rotterdam to the North Sea. Hydraulic engineer Pieter Caland was commissioned to design a canal cutting through the "Hook of Holland” and to extend the Mouth of Rhine to the sea; the designs for this were done back in 1731 by Nicolaas Samuelsz Cruquius but the implementation could no longer be postponed to prevent the decline of the harbour of Rotterdam. Construction began on 31 October 1863; the first phase consisted of the expropriation of farm lands from Rozenburg to Hoek van Holland. During the second phase two dikes were built parallel to each other. Caland proposed to extend the dikes 2 km into the sea to disrupt the coastal sea currents and decrease silt deposits in the shipping lane. Upon the completion of the dikes, the third phase began by the digging of the actual waterway; this was completed three years later. The large amounts of removed soil were in turn used to reinforce other dikes.
The last phase consisted of the removal of the dam separating the new waterway from the sea and river. In 1872, the Nieuwe Waterweg was completed and Rotterdam was accessible; because of the currents and erosion, the shipping lane has been widened somewhat. Yet because of the draft of today's supertankers, it needs to be dredged constantly. In 1997, the last part of the Delta Works, the Maeslantkering, was put in operation near the mouth of the Nieuwe Waterweg; this storm surge barrier protects Rotterdam against north westerly Beaufort Force 10 to 12 storms. The Nieuwe Waterweg gives the Port of Rotterdam its deep-water access to the North Sea. From Hook of Holland it stretches for 20.5 kilometres where the waterway continues as the Nieuwe Maas. The first Nieuwe Waterweg—a breach through the dunes at Hook of Holland—was only 4.3 kilometres long, but in around 1877 the channel was made much larger and wider and the current Nieuwe Waterweg was created. The width of the channel is between 480 and 675 metres and it is dredged to a depth of 14.5–16 metres below Amsterdam Ordnance Datum.
It is this channel, together with the dredged channels in the North Sea and Eurogeul, that allows ships like the MS Berge Stahl and MV Vale Rio de Janeiro to enter Europoort. The Dutch government agency Rijkswaterstaat is responsible for maintaining the channel; the point where the Nieuwe Waterweg enters into the North Sea, between Hook of Holland on the north bank and the Maasvlakte to the south, is called the Maasmond. It is marked with two navigation light-towers called the Paddestoelen; the Nieuwe Waterweg connects, to the Maasgeul. This dredged channel in the North Sea is being widened to 840 metres to facilitate the largest container vessels for the new Maasvlakte 2 that opened in 2013
South Holland is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about 1,300/km2, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2, of which 585 km2 is water, it borders North Holland to the north and Gelderland to the east, North Brabant and Zeeland to the south. The provincial capital is The Hague. Archaeological discoveries in Hardinxveld-Giessendam indicate that the area of South Holland has been inhabited since at least ca. 7,500 years before present by nomadic hunter-gatherers. Agriculture and permanent settlements originated around 2,000 years based on excavations near Vlaardingen. In the classical antiquity, South Holland was part of the Roman Province of Germania Inferior, the border of the Roman Empire ran along the Old Rhine and reached the North Sea near Katwijk; the Romans built fortresses along the border, such as Praetorium Agrippinae near modern-day Valkenburg, Matilo near modern-day Leiden, Albaniana near modern-day Alphen aan den Rijn.
A city was founded near Forum Hadriani. It was built according to the grid plan, facilitated a square, a court, a bathhouse and several temples. After the departure of the Romans, the area belonged to the Frisian Kingdom, after which it was conquered by the Frankish king Dagobert I in 636. In 690, the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord arrived near Katwijk and was granted permission to spread Roman Catholicism by the Frankish king Pepin II, he accordingly founded a church in Oegstgeest, after which the entire area was Christianised. The area was appointed to East Francia in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, after which the king granted lands to Gerolf, who had helped him claim the lands; this was the birth of the County of Holland. Gerolf was succeeded by Dirk I, who continued to rule Holland under the Frankish king. In 1248, count William II ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal, finished by his son and successor Floris V; the first city in South Holland to receive city rights was Dordrecht, which did so in 1220.
The city retained a dominant position in the area until it was struck by a series of floods in the late 14th century. The same century saw a series of civil wars, the Hook and Cod wars, concerning the succession of count William IV. Both his daughter Jacqueline and his brother John, the latter supported by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, claimed the throne; the conflict ended with John victorious. Overall, the area of South Holland remained agrarian throughout the late Middle Ages; this changed around 1500. During the Eighty Years' War, the area of South Holland was the scene of the Capture of Brielle, the Siege of Leiden and the assassination of William the Silent; the United Netherlands declared their independence in 1581, Holland emerged as the country's dominant province, with important trading cities such as Leiden, Delft and Dordrecht. In 1575, the Netherlands' first university was founded in Leiden by William the Silent; the Hague, which had originated around the castle of the counts of Holland, became its new political centre.
Both the States of Holland and the States General seated in the Binnenhof. The Dutch Golden Age blossomed in the 17th century; the south of Holland, back often referred to as the Zuiderkwartier, was the birthplace and residence of scientists such as Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and Christiaan Huygens, philosophers such as Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle, painters such as Johannes Vermeer, Rembrandt van Rijn and Jan Steen. The province of South Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813; this was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed and the old order was swept away by a series of constitutional changes in the following years. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed; the republic was reorganised into eight departments with equal populations. The south of Holland was split up into three departments; the islands in the south were merged with Zeeland and the west of North Brabant to form the Department of the Scheldt and Meuse.
The north of the area became the Department of the Delf. A small region in the east of the area became part of the Department of the Rhine, which spanned much of Gelderland and Utrecht. In 1801, the old borders were restored; the reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of a division of Holland, creating less dominant provinces. In 1807, Holland was reorganised once again; this time, the department was split in two. The south, what would become South Holland, was called the Department of Maasland; this did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire, Maasland was renamed Bouches-de-la-Meuse. After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so; when the 1814 Constitution was introduced, most borders were restored to their situation before the French period. The north and south of Holland were reunited as the province of Holland. However, the division hadn't been undone. Since its re-establishment in 1814, Holland had always had two King's Commissioners, one for the north and one for the south.
Though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still treated differently in s
HMS Audacity was a British escort carrier of the Second World War and the first of her kind. She was the German merchant ship Hannover, which the Royal Navy captured in the West Indies in March 1940 and renamed Sinbad Empire Audacity, she was converted and commissioned as HMS Empire Audacity as HMS Audacity. She was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat in late 1941. Hannover was a 5,537 GRT cargo liner built by Bremer Vulkan Schiff- und Maschinenbau and launched on 29 March 1939, she was owned by Norddeutscher Lloyd and plied between Germany and the West Indies on the banana run. Hannover's port of registry was Bremen; when World War II began, Hannover sought refuge in Netherlands Antilles. In March 1940, under Kapitän Wahnschaff, Hannover attempted to return to Germany as a blockade runner, she was sighted between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico on the night of 7/8 March by the light cruiser Dunedin and the Canadian destroyer HMCS Assiniboine. Hannover was ordered to stop, but ignored the order and tried to reach the neutral waters of the Dominican Republic.
When Dunedin and Assiniboine intercepted Hannover, Captain Wahnschaff ordered the seacocks opened and the ship set on fire. A boarding party from Dunedin closed Hannover was taken under tow. However, it took four days for the salvage crew to put out the fire. Hannover was towed to Jamaica, arriving on 11 March. Acting Lieutenant A. W. Hughes of Dunedin was mentioned in despatches for his part in securing Hannover. Damage was confined to her electrical system. Hannover was given a UK Official Number and assigned new Code Letters, her port of registry was changed to Kingston, under the British flag. Her cargo included 29 barrels of pickled sheep pelts, which were offered for sale by tender in August 1940 as a result of being declared as prize. Sinbad was renamed Empire Audacity as one of the Empire ships of the Ministry of War Transport and was commissioned as an "Ocean Boarding Vessel" on 11 November, her port of registry was changed to London. She was placed under the management of Cunard White Star Line Ltd.
On 22 January 1941, she was sent to Blyth Dry Docks & Shipbuilding Co Ltd, Blyth to be rebuilt as an escort carrier. Britain did not have enough aircraft carriers and shipping was vulnerable to attacks by U-boats in the Mid-Atlantic Gap, where there was no air cover, it was decided by the Admiralty that small carriers were part of the solution, a number of merchantmen—including Empire Audacity—were converted. Empire Audacity was the largest ship handled at Blyth, more used to ships of 300 ft length; the townsfolk of Blyth wondered why the superstructure of a good ship was being scrapped at a time when Britain was short of ships. Empire Audacity was commissioned on 17 June 1941, she was the first escort carrier of the Royal Navy. HMS Empire Audacity worked up in the Clyde; the first deck landing was by a Grumman Martlet of 802 Naval Air Squadron on 10 July. A detachment of aircraft were based on Empire Audacity from 19–21 July. All her aircraft had to be stored on the flight deck, as the hasty conversion into an escort carrier did not include a hangar deck.
The Admiralty disliked her merchant name, HMS Empire Audacity was renamed HMS Audacity on 31 July 1941. Since no serious problems came to light in her trials, Audacity was put into full service, embarking eight Martlets of No. 802 Squadron FAA. The use of only fighters was a major departure from practice, where the main component was anti-submarine patrol aircraft, but she was used to support Gibraltar convoys and the only perceived threat was the German long-range Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor reconnaissance/bomber aircraft. Audacity participated in four convoys during her short career. OG 74Convoy OG 74 sailed from Britain on 13 September 1941. A week on 21 September the convoy was attacked by a German Condor bomber, whose bombs struck the convoy rescue ship Walmer Castle. A fighter from the Audacity was able to shoot down the bomber; the damage to the Walmer Castle was extensive, she had to be sunk by an escorting corvette. HG 74Convoy HG 74 arrived at the Clyde on 17 October; the trip was uneventful.
OG 76Convoy OG 76 sailed on 28 October bound for Gibraltar. During the voyage, Martlets from Audacity shot down four Condors, one being the first aerial victory for Eric "Winkle" Brown. One Martlet was lost. HG 76Convoy HG 76 sailed from Gibraltar on 14 December. Audacity had only four Martlet aircraft serviceable; the convoy came under attack from 12 U-boats. Martlets from Audacity shot down two Condors. U-131 shot down a Martlet, but was unable to dive after the attack, was scuttled by her crew, who were taken prisoner; as Audacity left the convoy on the night of 21 December, one of the merchantmen fired a "snowflake" flare which revealed her in silhouette to the German U-boats. The submarines had been given specific orders to sink her as she had caused a lot of trouble for the Germans both at sea and in the air; the first torpedo fired by U-751 under Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Bigalk hit her in the engine room and she began to settle by the stern. The next two torpedoes caused an explosion of the aviation fuel blowing off her bow.
Audacity sank some 500 mi west of Cape Finisterre at 43°45′N 19°54′W. She sank in 70 minutes. 73 of her crew were killed. Her survivors were picked up by the corvettes Convolvulus and Pentstemon, one of the survivors being pilot Eric Brown; the German commander had confused her with a 23,000 long tons Illustrious-class aircraft carrier, the sinking of, announced by Nazi propaganda sources. In reality the Audacity was an escort carrier of 12,000 long tons. Audacit