Kapitanleutnant Walther von Schwieger was a U-boat commander in the Imperial German Navy during First World War. In 1915, he sank the passenger liner RMS Lusitania with the loss of 1,198 lives, in 1903 he joined the Imperial German Navy and from 1911 onwards he served with the U-boat Service. In 1912 he took over the command of the U-14, after the outbreak of World War I in 1914 he was promoted to Kapitänleutnant and given command of the U-20. He torpedoed SS Hesperian on 4 September and SS Cymric on 8 May 1916, on 31 May 1917, his U-boat U-88 sank the Miyazaki Maru during that ships voyage from Yokohama to London, causing the loss of eight lives. Schwieger was killed in action on 5 September 1917 and his U-boat U-88 hit a British mine while being chased by HMS Stonecrop. It sank north of Terschelling at 53°57′N 4°55′E with a loss of all hands, during his wartime career, Schwinger captained three different submarines, on a total of 34 missions. He sank 49 ships, weighing 183,883 gross register tons and he was the sixth most successful submarine commander of World War I.
WWI U-boat commanders, Walther von Schwieger and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat. net
The stern is the back or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail. The stern lies opposite of the bow, the foremost part of a ship, the term only referred to the aft port section of the ship, but eventually came to refer to the entire back of a vessel. The stern end of a ship is indicated with a navigation light at night. Sterns on European and American wooden sailing ships began with two forms, the square or transom stern and the elliptical, fantail, or merchant stern. This frame is designed to support the beams that make up the stern. In 1817 the British naval architect Sir Robert Seppings first introduced the concept of the round or circular stern, the square stern had been an easy target for enemy cannon, and could not support the weight of heavy stern chase guns. The United States began building the first elliptical stern warship in 1820, USS Brandywine became the first sailing ship to sport such a stern.
In naval architecture, the term transom has two meanings, in this sense, a transom stern is the product of the use of a series of transoms, and hence the two terms have blended. But until a new form of stern appeared in the 19th century, the stern was a floating house—and required just as many timbers, windows. The stern frame provided the structure of the transom stern, and was composed of the sternpost, wing transom. If the stern had transoms above the transom, they would no longer be affixed to the sternpost. The first of these might be called a counter transom, next up was the window sill transom, above that, the larger the vessel, the more numerous and wider the transoms required to support its stern. Stern timbers – These timbers are mounted vertically in a series, each timber typically rests or steps on the transom and stretches out. Those not reaching all the way to the taffrail are called short stern timbers, the two outermost of these timbers, located at the corners of the stern, are called the side-counter timbers or outer stern timbers.
The flat surface of any transom stern may begin either at or above the waterline of the vessel. The geometric line which stretches from the transom to the archboard is called the counter. The visual unpopularity of Seppings circular stern was soon rectified by Sir William Symonds, in this revised stern, a set of straight post timbers stretches from the keel diagonally aft and upward. It rests on the top of the sternpost and runs on either side of the rudder post to a point well above the vessels waterline, the finished stern has a continuous curved edge around the outside and is raked aft
RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner that a German submarine sank in World War I, causing a major diplomatic uproar. The ship was a holder of the Blue Riband, and briefly the worlds largest passenger ship until the completion of her sister ship Mauretania, the Cunard Line launched Lusitania in 1906, at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade. She made a total of 202 trans-Atlantic crossings, German shipping lines were aggressive competitors in the transatlantic trade, and Cunard responded by trying to outdo them in speed and luxury. Both Lusitania and Mauretania were fitted with new turbine engines. They were equipped with lifts, wireless telegraph, and electric light, and provided 50% more passenger space than any other ship, the Royal Navy had blockaded Germany at the start of World War I. When RMS Lusitania left New York for Britain on 1 May 1915, on the afternoon of 7 May, a German U-boat torpedoed Lusitania,11 mi off the southern coast of Ireland and inside the declared war zone.
A second, internal explosion sent her to the seabed in 18 minutes, with the deaths of 1,198 passengers, because the Germans sank, without warning, what was officially a non-military ship, many accused them of breaching the internationally recognized Cruiser Rules. It was no longer possible, for submarines to give warning due to the British introduction of Q-ships in 1915 with concealed deck guns, the sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States as 128 American citizens were among the dead. The sinking helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany, after World War I, successive British governments maintained there were no munitions on board the Lusitania and the Germans were not justified in treating the ship as a naval vessel. In 1897 the NDL liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse captured the Blue Riband from Cunards Campania, NDL soon wrested the prize back in 1903 with the new Kaiser Wilhelm II and Kronprinz Wilhelm. Cunard saw their passenger numbers affected as a result of the so-called Kaiser-class ocean liners, in 1902, IMM, NDL, and HAPAG entered into a Community of Interest to fix prices and divide among them the transatlantic trade.
The partners acquired a 51% stake in the Dutch Holland America Line, IMM made offers to purchase Cunard which, along with the French CGT, were now their principal rivals. Cunard declined the offer, even though they lacked the resources to respond with new ships. Cunard chairman Lord Inverclyde thus approached the British government for assistance, by an agreement signed in June 1903, Cunard was given a loan of £2.6 million to finance two ships, repayable over 20 years at a favourable interest rate of 2. 75%. The ships would receive an operating subsidy of £75,000 each plus a mail contract worth £68,000. In return the ships would be built to Admiralty specifications so that they could be used as cruisers in wartime. Cunard established a committee to decide upon the design for the new ships, of which James Bain, parsons maintained that he could design engines capable of maintaining a speed of 25 knots, which would require 68,000 shaft horsepower. Turbines offered the advantages of generating less vibration than the engines and greater reliability in operation at high speeds
German gold mark
The Goldmark was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned. Before unification, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16⅔ grams of pure silver. Although the Mark was based on rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the Mark of 3 Mark =1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion. Southern Germany had used the Gulden as the unit of account. Bremen had used a gold based Thaler which was converted directly to the Mark at a rate of 1 gold Thaler =3.32 Mark, Hamburg had used its own Mark prior to 1873. This was replaced by the Goldmark at a rate of 1 Hamburg Mark =1.2 Goldmark, from 1 January 1876 onwards, the Mark became the only legal tender. The name Goldmark was created to distinguish it from the Papiermark which suffered a loss of value through hyperinflation following World War I.
The goldmark was on a standard with 2790 Mark equal to 1 kilogram of pure gold. From 1900 to 1933, the United States adhered to a standard as well. The goldmark therefore had a value of approximately U. S. $0.25, the monetary hegemon of the time when the goldmark was in use, was the Pound Sterling, with £1 being valued at 20.43 goldmarks. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 was 20 billion German goldmarks, most of that money came from loans from New York bankers. Following the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, payments of reparations were officially abandoned, the interest on those debts was paid off on 3 October 2010, the 20th anniversary of German reunification. Occasionally Commemorative coins were minted, in cases the obverse. Many of the states issued coins in very small numbers. Also, in all states coinage became very limited after the First World War began. Well preserved examples of such low mintage coins can be rare, the Principality of Lippe was the only state not to issue any gold coins in this period.
1 Pfennig 2 Pfennig 5 Pfennig 10 Pfennig 20 Pfennig 25 Pfennig Silver coins were minted in.900 fineness to a standard of 5 grams silver per Mark, production of 2 and 5 Mark coins ceased in 1915 while 1 Mark coins continued to be issued until 1916
SM U-19 (Germany)
SM U-19 was a German Type U19 U-boat built for the Imperial German Navy. Her construction was ordered on 25 November 1910, and her keel was laid down on 20 October 1911 and she was launched on 10 October 1912, and commissioned into the Imperial German Navy on 6 July 1913. From 1 August 1914, to 15 March 1916, U-19 was commanded by Constantin Kolbe, during this period she had the unfortunate distinction of becoming the first U-boat casualty of World War I when she was rammed by HMS Badger on 24 October 1914. Her hull was damaged, but she survived and was repaired. On 22 January 1915 the Durward was near the Maas lightship when they saw the U19 on the surface and they tried to escape, but as they could only manage 12 knots they were unable to do so. The captain and crew were given ten minutes to leave the ship, the mate asked the second officer whether he could return to the ship to collect his clothes. He replied Sorry, old man, it cant be done, I am in the mercantile marine myself, having been in the North German Lloyd service but now I am doing a bit for my country.
Kolbe was relieved by Raimund Weisbach, who had served as torpedo officer on U-20 and had launched the torpedo that sank RMS Lusitania. Weisbach was relieved on 11 August 1916, by Johannes Spiess, Koch turned the boat over on 25 October 1917, to Hans Albrecht Liebeskind, who commanded for less than a month before being relieved on 17 November 1917, by Johannes Spiess again. On 1 June 1918, Hans Albrecht Liebeskind took over again, on 11 November 1918, U-19 was surrendered to the British, and was broken up at Blyth sometime in 1919 or 1920. The main gun of U19 was donated to the people of Bangor and today sits near the War Memorial in the towns Ward Park. To commemorate the centenary of the arrest of Roger Casement, an Irish Republican floral tribute, the following is a verbatim transcription of the recorded activities of SM U-19 known to British Naval Intelligence during 1914-1918, Antony. - Total pages,224 Gröner, Jung, Maass, translated by Thomas, Magowan, Rachel. 4+5, dealing with 1917+18, are hard to find, Guildhall Library, has them all, Vol.
1-3 in an English translation. Room 40, British Naval Intelligence 1914-1918, a Naval History of World War I. Room 40, German Naval Warfare 1914-1918, Room 40, German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Photos of cruises of German submarine U-54 in 1916-1918, great photo quality, comments in German. A44 min. film from 1917 about a cruise of the German submarine U-35, a German propaganda film without dead or wounded, many details about submarine warfare in World War I
Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as an engine or gas engine. In diesel engines, glow plugs may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, the original diesel engine operates on the constant pressure cycle of gradual combustion and produces no audible knock. Low-speed diesel engines can have an efficiency that exceeds 50%. Diesel engines may be designed as either two-stroke or four-stroke cycles and they were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later, in the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US increased.
According to the British Society of Motor Manufacturing and Traders, the EU average for diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total sold, including 70% in France and 38% in the UK. The worlds largest diesel engine is currently a Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C Common Rail marine diesel, the definition of a Diesel engine to many has become an engine that uses compression ignition. To some it may be an engine that uses heavy fuel oil, to others an engine that does not use spark ignition. However the original cycle proposed by Rudolf Diesel in 1892 was a constant temperature cycle which would require higher compression than what is needed for compression ignition. Diesels idea was to compress the air so tightly that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion, to make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. Then in that case the pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres.
In years Diesel realized his original cycle would not work, Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application. Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion, now all that is mentioned is the compression must be high enough for ignition. In 1806 Claude and Nicéphore Niépce developed the first known internal combustion engine, the Pyréolophore fuel system used a blast of air provided by a bellows to atomize Lycopodium
Historically, it was called an automotive, locomotive or fish torpedo, colloquially called a fish. The term torpedo was originally employed for a variety of devices, from about 1900, torpedo has been used strictly to designate an underwater self-propelled weapon. Todays torpedoes can be divided into lightweight and heavyweight classes, and into straight-running, autonomous homers and they can be launched from a variety of platforms. The word torpedo comes from the name of a genus of rays in the order Torpediniformes. In naval usage, the American Robert Fulton introduced the name to refer to a gunpowder charge used by his French submarine Nautilus to demonstrate that it could sink warships. The concept of a torpedo existed many centuries before it was successfully developed. In 1275, Hasan al-Rammah described. an egg which moves itself, in modern language, a torpedo is an underwater self-propelled explosive, —but historically, the term applied to primitive naval mines. These were used on an ad hoc basis during the modern period up to the late 19th century.
An early submarine, the Turtle, attempted to lay a bomb with a fuse on the hull of HMS Eagle during the American Revolutionary War. In the early 1800s, the American inventor Robert Fulton, while in France and he coined the term torpedo in reference to the explosive charges he outfitted his submarine Nautilus. However, both the French and the Dutch governments were uninterested in the submarine, Fulton concentrated on developing the torpedo independent of a submarine deployment. However, the British government refused to purchase the invention, stating they did not wish to introduce into naval warfare a system that would give advantage to weaker maritime nations. Fulton carried out a demonstration for the US government on 20 July 1807. Further development languished as Fulton focused on his steam-boat matters, during the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors. In fact a submarine deployed torpedo was used in an attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New Londons harbor.
Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any boat in this cruel and unheard-of warfare. Torpedoes were used by the Russian Empire during the Crimean War in 1855 against British warships in the Gulf of Finland and they used an early form of chemical detonator. During the American Civil War, the torpedo was used for what is today called a contact mine
Clive Eric Cussler is an American adventure novelist and underwater explorer. His thriller novels, many featuring the character Dirk Pitt, have reached The New York Times fiction best-seller list more than 20 times. Cussler is the founder and chairman of the real-life National Underwater and Marine Agency and he is the sole author or lead author of more than 70 books. Clive Cussler was born in Aurora and grew up in Alhambra and his mother Amys ancestors were from England and his father Eric was from Germany. He was awarded the rank of Eagle Scout when he was 14 and he attended Pasadena City College for two years and enlisted in the United States Air Force during the Korean War. During his service in the Air Force, he was promoted to Sergeant and worked as an aircraft mechanic, as part of his duties Cussler produced radio and television commercials, many of which won international awards including an award at the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival. D. This was the first time in the colleges 123-year history that such a degree had been awarded, in 2002 Cussler was awarded the Naval Heritage Award from the U S Navy Memorial Foundation for his efforts in the area of marine exploration.
Cussler is a fellow of the Explorers Club of New York, the Royal Geographic Society in London, Clive Cussler began writing in 1965 when his wife took a job working nights for the local police department where they lived in California. After making dinner for the children and putting them to bed, he had no one to talk to and nothing to do and his most famous creation is marine engineer, government agent and adventurer Dirk Pitt. The Dirk Pitt novels frequently take on an alternative history perspective, or what if Abraham Lincoln wasnt assassinated, but was kidnapped. The first two Pitt novels, The Mediterranean Caper and Iceberg, were relatively conventional maritime thrillers, Cusslers novels almost always begin with a chapter taking place in the past. This almost always comes in the form of a long-lost artifact which holds the key to the villains or heros objectives. Often in the first chapter, a ship or plane carrying a top-secret, important, or dangerous cargo is lost and never found, Cusslers novels, like those of Michael Crichton, are examples of techno-thrillers that do not use military plots and settings.
Where Crichton strove for realism, Cussler prefers fantastic spectacles. The Pitt novels, in particular, have the quality of the James Bond or Indiana Jones movies. Pitt himself is a larger-than-life hero reminiscent of Doc Savage and other characters from pulp magazines, Cussler has had more than seventeen consecutive titles reach The New York Times fiction best-seller list. As an underwater explorer, Cussler has discovered more than sixty shipwreck sites and has written books about his findings. He is the founder of the National Underwater and Marine Agency, Cussler owns a large collection of classic cars, several of which appear in his novels
Sinking of the RMS Lusitania
The ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 and sank in 18 minutes. The vessel went down 11 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, killing 1,198, Lusitania had the misfortune to fall victim to torpedo attack relatively early in the First World War, before tactics for evading submarines were properly implemented or understood. Argument over whether the ship was a military target raged back. At the time she was sunk, she was carrying a quantity of rifle cartridges and non-explosive shell casings. Several attempts have been made over the years since the sinking to dive to the wreck seeking information about precisely how the ship sank, and argument continues to the present day. When Lusitania was built, her construction and operating expenses were subsidised by the British government, at the outbreak of the First World War, the British Admiralty considered her for requisition as an armed merchant cruiser, and she was put on the official list of AMCs. They were distinctive, so smaller liners were used as transports instead.
Lusitania remained on the official AMC list and was listed as a cruiser in the 1914 edition of Janes All the Worlds Fighting Ships. At the outbreak of hostilities, fears for the safety of Lusitania, during the ships first east-bound crossing after the war started, she was painted in a drab grey colour scheme in an attempt to mask her identity and make her more difficult to detect visually. Among the most recognisable of these liners, some were used as troop transports. Lusitania remained in service, although bookings aboard her were by no means strong during that autumn and winter. One of these was the shutting down of her No.4 boiler room to conserve coal and crew costs, even so, she was the fastest first-class passenger liner left in commercial service. With apparent dangers evaporating, the ships disguised paint scheme was dropped and her name was picked out in gilt, her funnels were repainted in their traditional Cunard livery, and her superstructure was painted white again. One alteration was the addition of a coloured band around the base of the superstructure just above the black paint.
By early 1915, a new threat began to materialise, submarines, at first they were used by the Germans only to attack naval vessels, and they achieved only occasional – but sometimes spectacular – successes. Then the U-boats began to attack merchant vessels at times, although almost always in accordance with the old cruiser rules, desperate to gain an advantage on the Atlantic, the German government decided to step up their submarine campaign. On 4 February 1915 Germany declared the seas around the British Isles a war zone and this was not wholly unrestricted submarine warfare since efforts would be taken to avoid sinking neutral ships. Lusitania was scheduled to arrive in Liverpool on 6 March 1915, the Admiralty issued her specific instructions on how to avoid submarines
A diary is a record with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a persons experiences, and/or thoughts or feelings, someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in aspects of human civilization, including government records, business ledgers. In British English, the word may denote a preprinted journal format, today the term is generally employed for personal diaries, normally intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives. The word journal may be used for diary, but generally a diary has daily entries. Although a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is written not with the intention of being published as it stands. In recent years, there is evidence in some diaries that they are written with eventual publication in mind. By extension the term diary is used to mean a printed publication of a written diary, the word diary comes from the Latin diarium.
The word journal comes from the root through Old French jurnal. The earliest use of the word to mean a book in which a record was written was in Ben Jonsons comedy Volpone in 1605. Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of genre of writing. The scholar Li Ao, for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China, in the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna in the 11th century and his diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date, very much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned mostly with inward emotions, one of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal dun bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405–49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Here we find records of even less important everyday occurrences together with reflection, emotional experience.
In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about, many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys is the earliest diarist who is known today, his diaries. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, the practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observers current position. In its simplest form, it consists of a case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45° angle. This form of periscope, with the addition of two lenses, served for observation purposes in the trenches during World War I. Military personnel use periscopes in some gun turrets and in armoured vehicles, more complex periscopes, using prisms and/or advanced fiber optics instead of mirrors, and providing magnification, operate on submarines and in various fields of science. The overall design of the submarine periscope is very simple. If the two telescopes have different individual magnification, the difference between them causes an overall magnification or reduction, johannes Hevelius described an early periscope with lenses in 1647 in his work Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio. Hevelius saw military applications for his invention, in 1854 Hippolyte Marié-Davy invented the first naval periscope, consisting of a vertical tube with two small mirrors fixed at each end at 45°.
Simon Lake used periscopes in his submarines in 1902, sir Howard Grubb perfected the device in World War I. Morgan Robertson claimed to have tried to patent the periscope, he described a submarine using a periscope in his fictional works. Periscopes, in some cases fixed to rifles, served in World War I to enable soldiers to see over the tops of trenches, thus avoiding exposure to enemy fire. The Periscope rifle saw use during the war - this was an infantry rifle sighted by means of a periscope, during World War II, artillery observers and officers used specifically-manufactured periscope binoculars with different mountings. Some of them allowed estimating the distance to a target, prior to periscopes, vision slits were cut in the armour. In the context of armoured fighting vehicles, such as tanks, in this context a periscope refers to a device that can rotate to provide a wider field of view, while an episcope is fixed into position. A protectoscope is a similar periscopic vision device designed to provide a window in armoured plate, a compact periscope allows the vision slit to be blanked off with armoured plate, preventing an ingress point for small arms fire, with only a small difference in vision height.
This design, patented by Rudolf Gundlach in 1936, first saw use in the Polish 7-TP light tank. IV, the Gundlach-Vickers technology was transferred to the American Army for use in its tanks including the Sherman, built to meet British and US requirements. This saw post-war controversy through legal action, After the Second World War, the USSR copied the design and used it extensively in its tanks, Germany made and used copies. The copies were based on lend-lease British vehicles, and many parts remain interchangeable, specialised periscopes can provide sighting or night vision. Periscopes may be referred to by slang, e. g. shufti-scope, periscopes allow a submarine, when submerged at a relatively shallow depth, to search visually for nearby targets and threats on the surface of the water and in the air
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II or William II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and his leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, dictated policy during the First World War with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war-time leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Princes Palace, Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Britains Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, a traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erbs palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. His left arm was about 6 inches shorter than his right arm, historians have suggested that this disability affected his emotional development.
In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, William attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk. During the ceremony the four-year-old became restless and his eighteen-year-old uncle Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred. When Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg and his grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, to her Wilhelm remained a clever, good little child, the great favourite of my beloved Vicky. His mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm and she blamed herself for the childs handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her, riding lessons began when Wilhelm was eight and were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the prince was set on his horse. He fell off time after time but despite his tears was set on its back again, after weeks of this he finally got it right and was able to maintain his balance.
Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and heavily influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter, Hinzpeter, he wrote, was really a good fellow. Whether he was the tutor for me, I dare not decide. The torments inflicted on me, in this riding, must be attributed to my mother. As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium, in January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, studying law and he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn