SNCASO was a French aircraft manufacturer, formed in November 16, 1936, from the merger of the factories of Blériot of Suresnes, Bloch of Villacoublay and Courbevoie, SASO of Bordeaux-Mérignac, UCA of Bordeaux-Bègles, Société Aérienne Bordelaise of Bordeaux-Bacalan and Lioré et Olivier of Rochefort. Additionally, SNCASO built a factory in Déols in 1936. SNCASO took over SNCAO's assets in 1941. On March 1, 1957, SNCASO merged with SNCASE. SO.30 Bretagne SNCASO SO.60C - 1950s abandoned project for a twin-engine jet airliner SO.80 Biarritz SO.90 Corse SO.95 Corse II SO.177 SO.1100 Ariel SO.1110 Ariel SO.1120 Ariel SO.1220 Djinn SO.1310 Farfardet SO.3050 SO.4000 SO.4050 Vautour SO.6000 Triton SO.6020 Espadon SO.7010 Pégase SO.7050 Deauville SO.7055 Deauville SO.7060 Deauville SO.8000 Narval SO.9000 Trident I SO.9050 Trident II SO. M-1 SO. M-2 SO. P-1 Ferblantine SNCASO page on AviaFrance
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The SNCAO 30 was a French single-engined monoplane flying boat two-seat trainer. Although it was ordered into production for the French Navy, only two prototypes were built. In the late 1930s Loire-Nieuport commenced development of the Loire-Nieuport LN-30 as a private venture to meet a requirement of the French Navy for a two-seat flying boat trainer; the resultant design, renamed SNCAO 30 when Loire-Nieuport was nationalised and became part of Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques de l'ouest, was a single-engined pusher monoplane of wooden construction, with the crew of two sitting side-by side in an open cockpit. Its wing was carried on struts above the fuselage, with the Salmson 9ABa radial engine mounted above the wing; the first prototype, built at the SNCAO factory at Saint Nazaire, made its maiden flight on 13 September 1938, these resulting in a number of modifications, including adding dihedral to the outer wing panels, placing a cowling around the engine and replacing its twin tail with a single large fin, the prototype flying again in this form on 21 September 1938, with a second prototype flying on 19 May 1939.
The aircraft was disappointing, being nose-heavy and with its engine suffering from severe vibration and overheating. Despite these problems, as there was no better alternative, an order for production of 12 aircraft, designated SNCAO 300, was placed on 19 March 1940. Production was ended by the Nazi German invasion of France, with no production aircraft being completed. Data from War Planes of the Second World War: Volume Five Flying Boats General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 9.2012 m Wingspan: 13 m Height: 3.208 m Wing area: 26.50 m2 Empty weight: 1,375 kg Gross weight: 1,790 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 9ABa none-cylinder radial engine, 210 kW Performance Maximum speed: 192 km/h.
The arms industry known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering and servicing of military material and facilities. Arms-producing companies referred to as arms dealers, defence contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states and for civilians. Departments of government operate in the arms industry and selling weapons and other military items. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition - whether or publicly owned - are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination. Products of the arms industry include guns, ammunition, military aircraft, military vehicles, electronic systems, night-vision devices, holographic weapon sights, laser rangefinders, laser sights, hand grenades and more; the arms industry provides other logistical and operational support. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimated military expenditures as of 2012 at $1.8 trillion.
This represented a relative decline from 1990, when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry; the combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms-trade. According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009; the five biggest exporters in 2010–2014 were the United States, China and France, the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan. Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces; some countries have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by their own citizens for self-defence, hunting or sporting purposes. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many regions affected by political instability.
The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries. Governments award contracts to supply their country's military; the link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described in 1961 as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces and politics become linked to the European multilateral defence procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, as with the contract for the international Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, with the decision made on the merits of the designs submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place. During the early modern period, United Kingdom and some states in Germany became self-sufficient in arms production, with diffusion and migration of skilled workers to more peripheral countries such as Portugal and Russia.
The modern arms industry emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a product of the creation and expansion of the first large military-industrial companies. As smaller countries could no longer produce cutting-edge military equipment with their indigenous resources and capacity, they began to contract the manufacture of military equipment, such as battleships, artillery pieces and rifles to foreign firms. In 1854, the British government awarded a contract to the Elswick Ordnance Company of industrialist William Armstrong for the supply of his latest breech loading rifled artillery pieces; this galvanised the private sector into weapons production, with the surplus being exported to foreign countries. Armstrong became one of the first international arms dealers, selling his weapon systems to governments across the world from Brazil to Japan. In 1884, he opened a shipyard at Elswick to specialise in warship production—at the time, it was the only factory in the world that could build a battleship and arm it completely.
The factory produced warships for many navies, including the Imperial Japanese Navy. Several Armstrong cruisers played an important role in defeating the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. In the American Civil War in 1861 the North had a distinct advantage over the south as it relied on using the breech-loading rifle against the muskets of the south; this began the transition to industrially produced mechanised weapons such as the Gatling gun. This industrial innovation in the defence industry was adopted by Prussia in 1866 & 1870-71 in its defeat of Austria and France respectively. By this time the machine gun had begun entering into the militaries; the first example of its effectiveness was in 1899 during the Boer War and in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War. However, Germany were leaders in innovation of weapons and used this innovation nearly defeating the allies in World War I. In 1885, France decided to capitalize on this lucrative form of trade and repealed its ban on weapon exports.
The regulatory framework for the period up to the First World War was characterized by a laissez-faire policy that placed little obstruction in the way of weapons exports. Due to the carnage of World War I
Issy-les-Moulineaux is a commune in the southwestern suburban area of Paris, lying on the left bank of the river Seine. It is one of Paris entrances and is located 6.6 km from Notre-Dame Church, considered Kilometre Zero of France. On 1 January 2010, Issy-les-Moulineaux became part of the Communauté d'agglomération Grand Paris Seine Ouest, which merged into the Métropole du Grand Paris in January 2016. Issy-les-Moulineaux has moved its economy from an old manufacturing base to high value-added service sectors and is at the heart of the Val de Seine business district, the largest cluster of telecommunication and media businesses in France hosting the headquarters of most major French TV networks. Issy-les-Moulineaux was called Issy; the name Issy comes from Medieval Latin Issiacum or Isciacum meaning "estate of Isicius", a Gallo-Roman landowner, although some think the name comes from a Celtic radical meaning "under the wood". Local legend recounted on the city's official website mentions alternative origin of the name arising from a temple of the Egyptian goddess Isis said to be under the site of the Church of Saint Stephen.
In 1893 Issy became Issy-les-Moulineaux. Les Moulineaux was the name of a hamlet on the territory of the commune named Les Moulineaux due to the windmills that stood there; the town was once the location of the Château d'Issy, destroyed in 1871, former home of the Princes of Conti. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Issy-les-Moulineaux was annexed to Paris, forms now the neighborhood of Javel, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. Issy-les-Moulineaux is home to a community of 5,000 Armenians that have established themselves in the area since the 1930s; the community has two Armenian churches, an athletic club, a school, a monument dedicated to the Armenian Genocide, a street named after Armenia called Rue d'Armenie, Rue d'Erevan named after Armenia's capital Yerevan. Issy-les-Moulineaux became twin cities with Echmiadzin, Armenia in December 1989. In the late 19th century, an expansive field in Issy had been dedicated to military exercises.
This land, owned by the French Army, was made into an airfield in the 1900s during the pioneering era of aviation. Issy-les-Moulineaux soon became a hot spot for aviation in France, the most active airfield in Paris, the site of many flight experiments. Photographers, newspaper reporters and intelligence agents from other countries gathered there to report on developments; the airfield of Issy-les-Moulineaux was the starting point of the 1911 Paris to Madrid air race. One of the competing planes crashed into the audience during take-off, killing the French Minister of War Henri Maurice Berteaux, it hosted the trap shooting events for the 1924 Summer Olympics. The firm of Appareils d'Aviation Les Frères Voisin, the world's first commercial airplane factory, located in Boulogne-Billancourt, transformed itself into a luxury automobile manufacturing company named Avions Voisin in 1920. Most of Voisin's manufacturing facilities were relocated in neighboring Issy-les-Moulineaux. Avions Voisin closed its doors in 1940.
The last fixed wing flight occurred in 1953. It is operated by Aeroports de Paris. Since the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015, Issy forms one canton: Canton of Issy-les-Moulineaux. Mayors of Issy-les-Moulineaux: 1903–1908: Auguste Gervais 1908–1911: Henri Mayer 1911–1919: Léon-Victor Clément 1919–1922: Justin Oudin February – May 1923: Saint-Martin May – October 1923: Eugène Demarne 1923–1935: Justin Oudin 1935–1939: Victor Cresson 1945–1949: Fernand Maillet 1949–1953: Jacques Madaule May – July 1953: Fernand Maillet 1953–1973: Bonaventure Leca 1973–1980: Raymond Menand 1980 – present: André Santini Eurosport, the Canal+ Group, Coca-Cola France, France 24, Microsoft France and Europe and Technicolor SA are based in Issy-les-Moulineaux. Issy-les-Moulineaux is served by two stations on Paris Métro line 12: Corentin Celton and Mairie d'Issy, two stations on Paris RER line C: Issy – Val de Seine and Issy and three stations on Île-de-France tramway Line 2: Les Moulineaux, Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Issy – Val de Seine.
Multiple RATP bus lines have their arrival/departure station in the city. Multiple Vélib' and Autolib' stations allow subscribers of those services to share bicycles or electric cars. There was a cable car project, abandoned in February 2008; the commune has 16 public elementary schools. Four public junior high schools, one public senior high school, three private schools. Junior high schools: Collège de la Paix Collège Henri Matisse Collège Georges Mandel Collège Victor HugoLycée Eugène-Ionesco is the community's public senior high school. Private schools: Groupe scolaire La Salle Saint Nicolas École Arménienne « TARKMANTCHATZ » - An Armenian school École Sainte-Clotilde Mickael Brisset, footballer Peter Leo Gerety, Roman Catholic Arh Bishop Christelle Diallo, basketball player Rahavi Kifoueti, footballer Jean Jansem, painter Leïla Bekhti, actress Ali, rapper Robert Charpentier, cyclist Manu Larcenet, comics writer Gilles Vincent, writer Weiden in der Oberpfalz, Germany, since 1954 Frameries, since 1979 Macerata, Italy, since 1982 Hounslow, United Kingdom, since 1982 Dapaong, since 1989 Echmiadzin, sinc
Bouguenais is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France near Nantes. Bouguenais is home to the Nantes Atlantique Airport. Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne, a regional airline, was headquartered on the grounds of Nantes Atlantique Airport. Régional was formed on 30 March 2001 with the merger of Regional Airlines, Flandre Air, Proteus Airlines. Before the formation of Régional, Regional Airlines had its headquarters on the grounds of the airport. Regional Airlines was the largest of the three companies that were merged into the current Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne. In 2013 the airline merged into HOP! List of the mayors of Bouguenais since 1900. 2007-2014: Michèle Gressus 1993-2007: Françoise Verchère 1971-1993: François Autain 1947-1971: Henri Robichon 1945-1947: Alexandre Gendron 1944-1945: Georges Gaborieau 1941-1944: Élie Leaute 1940-1941: Joseph Bureau 1912-1925: Louis Moreau 1900-1912: Sébastien Guérin Primary schools in the commune include: Preschools:Bourg: Maternelle Chateaubriand, Ecole Jean Zay, École de la Croix-Jeannette Couëts: Maternelle Françoise Dolto, Maternelle Célestin Freinet, Maternelle Fougan de Mer Elementary schools:Bourg: Élémentaire Chateaubriand, Ecole Jean Zay, École de la Croix-Jeannette Couëts: Élémentaire Urbain le Verrier, Élémentaire Fougan de Mer There is a private school group, Groupe scolaire Notre-Dame - Saint-Pierre, with École Notre-Dame and École Saint-Pierre.
There is one public junior high school, Collège et SEGPA de la Neustrie, one public high school, Lycée Professionnel Pablo Neruda, a private alternative school, Lycée Professionnel Hôtelier Privé Daniel Brottier. Communes of the Loire-Atlantique department INSEE statistics Home page Webpage about Bouguenais
Loire Aviation was a French aircraft manufacturer in the inter-war period, specializing in seaplanes, based in Saint-Nazaire, France. Loire was founded in 1925 as a division of Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire, a shipbuilding company based at St Nazaire. ACL were interested in diversifying into the new area of naval aviation, combining its knowledge of metal work and naval construction to produce seaplanes for the French mail service; the company started as a joint venture between ACL and Gourdou-Leseurre, contracting to build 257 GL 32’s under licence at a new factory at St Nazaire. In 1928 they disassociated and in 1930 the company became Loire Aviation, working on own designs by designers Asselot and Guegand Kerguistel. During this period Loire built some 232 units of the Loire 11 seaplane and aircraft for other companies, as well as a range of other aircraft under the Loire marque. In 1933 the company united with Nieuport, though both companies maintained their own factories and test sites.
This led to some complications. The two companies underwent a full merger in 1935 to form the Société Anonyme Loire-Nieuport, or Loire-Nieuport. In 1936 Loire-Nieuport was nationalized and united with Breguet of Bouguenais, near Nantes, to form the Société Nationale des Constructions Aéronautiques de l'Ouest. Loire 11 Loire 30 Loire 43 Loire 45 Loire 46 Loire 50 Loire 501 Loire 60 Loire 70 Loire 102 Loire 130 Loire 210 Loire 250 Loire 300 Loire 301 Loire 501 Loire-Nieuport 10 Loire-Nieuport 161 Loire-Nieuport LN.401 This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding French Wikipedia article as of 18 July 2011 Media related to Loire Aviation at Wikimedia Commons