SOAP is a messaging protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks. Its purpose is to provide extensibility, neutrality and independence, it uses XML Information Set for its message format, relies on application layer protocols, most Hypertext Transfer Protocol, although some legacy systems communicate over Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, for message negotiation and transmission. SOAP allows developers to invoke processes running on disparate operating systems to authenticate and communicate using Extensible Markup Language. Since Web protocols like HTTP are installed and running on all operating systems, SOAP allows clients to invoke web services and receive responses independent of language and platforms. SOAP provides the Messaging Protocol layer of a web services protocol stack for web services, it is an XML-based protocol consisting of three parts: an envelope, which defines the message structure and how to process it a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes a convention for representing procedure calls and responsesSOAP has three major characteristics: extensibility neutrality independence As an example of what SOAP procedures can do, an application can send a SOAP request to a server that has web services enabled—such as a real-estate price database—with the parameters for a search.

The server returns a SOAP response, e.g. prices, features. Since the generated data comes in a standardized machine-parsable format, the requesting application can integrate it directly; the SOAP architecture consists of several layers of specifications for: message format Message Exchange Patterns underlying transport protocol bindings message processing models protocol extensibilitySOAP evolved as a successor of XML-RPC, though it borrows its transport and interaction neutrality from Web Service Addressing and the envelope/header/body from elsewhere. SOAP was designed as an object-access protocol in 1998 by Dave Winer, Don Box, Bob Atkinson, Mohsen Al-Ghosein for Microsoft, where Atkinson and Al-Ghosein were working; the specification was not made available until it was submitted to IETF 13 September 1999. According to Don Box, this was due to politics within Microsoft; because of Microsoft's hesitation, Dave Winer shipped XML-RPC in 1998. The submitted Internet Draft did not reach RFC status and is therefore not considered a "standard" as such.

Version 1.1 of the specification was published as a W3C Note on 8 May 2000. Since version 1.1 did not reach W3C Recommendation status, it can not be considered a "standard" either. Version 1.2 of the specification, became a W3C recommendation on June 24, 2003. The SOAP specification was maintained by the XML Protocol Working Group of the World Wide Web Consortium until the group was closed 10 July 2009. SOAP stood for "Simple Object Access Protocol" but version 1.2 of the standard dropped this acronym. After SOAP was first introduced, it became the underlying layer of a more complex set of web services, based on Web Services Description Language, XML schema and Universal Description Discovery and Integration; these different services UDDI, have proved to be of far less interest, but an appreciation of them gives a complete understanding of the expected role of SOAP compared to how web services have evolved. SOAP specification can be broadly defined to be consisting of the following 3 conceptual components: protocol concepts, encapsulation concepts and network concepts.

SOAP This is a set of rules formalizing and governing the format and processing rules for information exchanged between a SOAP sender and a SOAP receiver. SOAP nodes These are physical/logical machines with processing units which are used to transmit/forward and process SOAP messages; these are analogous to nodes in a network. SOAP roles Over the path of a SOAP message, all nodes assume a specific role; the role of the node defines the action. For example, a role "none" means that no node will process the SOAP header in any way and transmit the message along its path. SOAP protocol binding A SOAP message needs to work in conjunction with other protocols to be transferred over a network. For example, a SOAP message could use TCP as a lower layer protocol to transfer messages; these bindings are defined in the SOAP protocol binding framework. SOAP features. However, it can be extended to add features such as security etc.. There are rules to be followed. SOAP module A collection of specifications regarding the semantics of SOAP header to describe any new features being extended upon SOAP.

A module needs to realize zero or more features. SOAP requires modules to adhere to prescribed rules. SOAP message Represents the information being exchanged between 2 SOAP nodes. SOAP envelope As per its name, it is the enclosing element of an XML message identifying it as a SOAP message. SOAP header block A SOAP header can contain more than one of these blocks, each being a discrete computational block within the header. In general, the SOAP role information is used to target nodes on the path. A header block is said to be targeted at a SOAP node if the SOAP role for the header block is the name of a role in which the SOAP node operates. (ex: A SOAP header block

USS Uncas (SP-689)

The third USS Uncas USS SP-689, was an armed motorboat that served in the United States Navy as a patrol vessel from 1917 to 1918. Uncas was built as a wooden-hulled civilian motorboat in 1917 by the Greenport Basin and Construction Company at Greenport on Long Island, New York; the U. S. Navy acquired her from her owner, Charles L. Poor of New York City, on 28 June 1917 for use as a patrol boat during World War I, she was commissioned the same day as USS Uncas. Assigned to the 3rd Naval District, Uncas conducted local patrol operations in the New York City area out of Section Base No. 6 at Bath Beach, New York, for the duration of the war. In April 1918, her name was changed to USS SP-689 to avoid confusion with the tug USS Uncas, in commission at the same time. SP-689 was returned to her owner on 31 December 1918; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Department of the Navy Naval Historical Center Online Library of Selected Images: U.

S. Navy Ships: USS Uncas, 1917-1918. Renamed SP-689; the civilian motorboat Uncas NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive: Uncas

Burkes Pass

Burkes Pass is a mountain pass and at its base, a small town on State Highway 8 at the entrance to the Mackenzie Country in South Canterbury, New Zealand. It is named after Michael John Burke, a graduate of Dublin University, who discovered the passageway which leads up into the Mackenzie Country in 1855; this was an alternative route to the Mackenzie Pass, which the notorious alleged sheep stealer, James Mckenzie, had used to take his sheep into the Otago goldfields. Burke may not have been the first European to cross the Pass called after him. G Dunnage camped in the vicinity in 1855. A dray track was cut through Burkes Pass in 1857-58. Settlers and bullock teams soon found The Long Cutting was the easier of the two passageways to negotiate, becoming the main thoroughfare for travellers in to the Mackenzie, a vast land known by Maori for its plentiful supply of wekas on the plains and eels in the streams and lakes. With travel slow and arduous, the need for a resting place for weary travellers soon became evident.

A 640-acre site, on the west side of the top of The Long Cutting, was set aside in 1859 to establish a central depot for coal and food supplies. It was a bleak, exposed site, between Sterickers Mound, near Sawdon Creek, the foot of the spur from Mount Burgess. James Noonan<South Canterbury- A Record of Settlement, O. A Gillespie, 1958 p 280> ignored the official township site building the first hotel in 1861 at Cabbage Tree Creek in the valley behind where the remains of the hotel built in 1869 are today. A town, first known as Cabbage Tree Creek Clulee, Burkes Pass, sprang up around the hotel. For more than half a century a colourful cavalcade passed through the town, Burkes Pass becoming the social and sporting centre for the Mackenzie Country pioneers, its heyday was 1890 to 1910 when there was a population of a three-teacher school. However, the promised railway, to cement Burkes Pass’s future as the capital of the Mackenzie, never arrived, it stopped at Fairlie in 1884. The final blow was in 1891 when the Mount Cook Road Board, in a 4-3 vote, decided to relocate to Fairlie.

The Burkes Pass Scenic Reserve, administered by the Department of Conservation, is a former stock droving reserve one kilometre to the west of the pass. The ecological values are threatened by introduced rabbits, lupin and wilding conifers; the Burkes Pass Heritage Trust