Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Sodom is a German thrash metal band from Gelsenkirchen, formed in 1981. They have gone through many line-up changes, leaving bassist/vocalist Tom Angelripper as the only constant member; the band is composed of Angelripper, guitarists Frank "Blackfire" Gosdzik and Yorck Segatz, drummer Stefan "Husky" Hüskens. Along with Kreator and Tankard, Sodom has been referred to as one of the "Big Four" of Teutonic thrash metal. While three of those bands created a sound that would influence death metal and black metal, Sodom's early music style would influence many late 1980s and early 1990s black metal bands more than others. To date, Sodom has released fifteen studio albums, three live albums, two compilation albums and seven EPs, they achieved their first commercial success with their third studio album Agent Orange, one of the first thrash metal albums to enter the German album charts, where it reached number 36. Their most recent studio album, Decision Day, was released in 2016. Sodom is one of the best-selling thrash metal acts of all time, having sold over eight million records.
The band is working on a new album, tentatively due for release in 2019 or 2020. Sodom's original line-up consisted of Tom Angelripper, Bloody Monster, Arius "Blasphemer", Aggressor; the band was initiated by Tom as a desperate attempt to get out of having to work in coal mines in his home town of Gelsenkirchen. Though the band became a real working unit yet only when Chris Witchhunter had joined the band on drums, having had experience in writing music in some of his previous school-projects and thus coaching the remaining two members how to write proper songs. Taking inspiration from bands such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Motörhead, Kiss, Accept, Rainbow, AC/DC and UFO, the group continued as a three-piece in the Motörhead-fashion and released two demos which led to a record deal with Steamhammer. Aggressor left the band shortly before releasing the In the Sign of Evil EP, was replaced by Grave Violator, who himself did not last long, left following the recording of In the Sign of Evil.
Michael "Destructor" Wulf was found as a replacement, after which the band went and recorded Obsessed by Cruelty, their full-length debut featuring music, in the vein of In The Sign of Evil. Wulf did not last in the band long, went and joined Kreator. For the most part, Sodom was at first not taken with various press sources describing them as "a second-rate Venom clone with semi-inventive lyrics". One member would change that. Frank "Blackfire" Gosdzik came in to fill the guitar spot. Frank convinced Tom that thrash metal was moving beyond horror/occult/satanic themes of bands like Venom to embrace political and war themes. Tom was interested in various wars yet remained a peacenik. New inspiration culminated into Frank's full-length debut with Persecution Mania; the new lyrical approach and increased musicianship on the part of Frank gave the band great acclaim. They subsequently toured Europe with the likes of Whiplash and Coroner. After touring for the better part of 1987 and 1988, the band returned to the studio to make another album.
The final product, Agent Orange, sold 100,000 copies in Germany alone. This made Sodom famous, giving them worldwide critical acclaim, secured their place alongside Kreator and Destruction as one of the great Teutonic thrash metal bands. To this date, Agent Orange has sold more than any other German thrash-metal album in the world. In support of the album, Sodom went on tour with a then-relatively unknown Sepultura. Problems were brewing inside of the band, however. Tom and Chris descended further into alcoholism. Furthermore, Frank had grown tired of composing music that his band-mates would perform poorly live. Mille Petrozza offered Frank a position with his band Kreator, after they lost their second guitarist, Frank accepted. Angelripper went out looking for a replacement and found Michael Hoffman of German thrashers Assassin. With this line-up, the album Better off Dead was released in 1990. During the South American tour however, Hoffman decided to stay in Brazil and was therefore forced to quit.
Andy Brings replaced him, a new album was recorded, Tapping the Vein, with more of a death metal sound. This proved to be the last album with the drummer Witchhunter: He was kicked out of the band, Atomic Steif of both Holy Moses and Living Death became his replacement behind the drum kit. On September 15, 1991, Sodom played in Bulgaria; the show was notable for the band because the audience of fifteen thousand people was one of the largest they had as a headliner. It was notable for the audience because it was the first show of a Western metal band in Bulgaria after the fall of communism; the group recorded the album. The death metal influences were out. Get What You Deserve had an arguably grotesque album cover, many fans did not take to the band's new direction; this period marked the beginning of less international visibility for the band as thrash lost its commercial viability for the remainder of the 1990s
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Moonspell is a Portuguese heavy metal band. Formed in 1992, the group released their first EP Under the Moonspell in 1994 and followed up with their debut album Wolfheart a year later, they became one of the most recognizable metal bands from Portugal and a key figure in gothic metal. Moonspell reached the Portuguese top first with their album Sin/Pecado, were, along with Metallica and Iron Maiden, the only metal band to reach the first place of the Portuguese charts after the release of their album, Memorial, in 2006. With Memorial, Moonspell became the first Portuguese metal band to have a record certified gold status, they are popular in Germany, where their albums enter the Top 100 Chart. Although they had been playing since 1989 under the name of "Morbid God", the band became Moonspell in 1992, the same year they released the promo track "Serpent Angel". After the release of mini-album Under the Moonspell, Moonspell signed with Century Media for six CDs. Wolfheart was recorded in Germany with producer Waldemar Sorychta and was released in 1995 and was followed by a European tour.
Although the album had little or no recognition at the beginning. During the tour, guitarist Mantus was replaced by Ricardo Amorim. For 1996's Irreligious, the band again recorded with producer Waldemar Sorychta. While the previous album was considered black metal, this one fell into the genre of gothic metal; the song "Opium" became the first Moonspell single. It quoted one of Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa's heteronyms, Álvaro de Campos, on his poem "Opiário", its music video featured the character of the poet writing in a bar with the band playing. Along with the release of the album in a convent, the Convento do Beato, there were factors that helped the band sell 10,000 copies of the album in their homeland. After conflicts with the band involving lawsuits, bass player Ares left the band and was replaced by Sérgio Crestana. Sin/Pecado was released in 1998, it had a bigger experimental nature than its predecessors. The song "2econd Skin" was released as a single. At the time they released the one and only Hermeticum.
Dæmonarch was a side project composed by all Moonspell members except drummer Mike Gaspar. The album was seen as a return to their black metal roots and its lyrics were all written by singer Fernando Ribeiro between the age of 14 and 16. Sin/Pecado was followed in 1999 by The Butterfly Effect, recorded in London and produced by Andy Reilly; this album is considered to be experimental in nature as well. Featuring "down-tuned guitar riffs, eerie synthesizer passages", the album was composed by guitarist/keyboard player Pedro Paixão and was not well received by metal critics. Darkness and Hope was released in 2001 and was produced by Hiili Hiilesmaa, producer of Sentenced and HIM; the album reached 79th on German charts and special editions included covers of Madredeus, Ozzy Osbourne's "Mr. Crowley" and Joy Division's "Love Will Tear Us Apart". "Nocturna" was released as a single and music video. In 2003, the band released The Antidote, with Niclas Etelävuori from Amorphis playing as a session musician on the bass guitar.
The album was released with a book with the same title written by Portuguese writer José Luís Peixoto. Both the CD and book share the same concept and story and each song in the CD is sister to a chapter in the book that enhances the story in the lyrics. "Everything Invaded" was released as a single and music video. The band toured extensively around the world, playing at Rock in Rio Lisbon in 2004, a concert that brought them to more mainstream attention in Portugal. From this album on, the tours feature Aires Pereira on the bass. During 2003 the band recorded a cover of the jazz standard "I'll See You in My Dreams" for the soundtrack of the Portuguese short zombie horror film of the same name. There is an official music video, filmed in one day during the production of the short and under a €2,000 budget; the song was issued as a single in 2004, featuring the full and edited versions. Memorial was released in 2006. Recorded with the producer of their first three albums Waldemar Sorychta, who recorded the bass guitar parts, it was the first to be released under their new label SPV Steamhammer.
The album topped the Portuguese album chart on its first week and broke into the German Top 100 at number 68. Memorial achieved gold status in Portugal after selling 10,000 copies, making Moonspell the first Portuguese doom metal band to achieve that. Although the album is heavier than the previous, it was well received and its release was featured in various Portuguese news broadcasts. A new release of the album was released in December 2006 and featured a DVD with live performances and the music videos made for the album. Music videos for "Finisterra" and "Luna" were released; the band worked on releasing a DVD entitled Lunar Still/13 Years of Doom, but had some issues of a legal nature and was forced to delay the release expected in September 2005. It was pushed to 9 December 2008 with a new title: Lusitanian Metal. On November 2, 2006, Moonspell won an MTV Europe Music Award in the category of Best Portuguese Act; the Great Silver Eye, a best-of album, was released on June 26, 2007. In 2007, Moonspell released Under a re-recording of early songs.
Night Eternal was released on May 16, 2008. The lead single off the album, Scorpion Flower, features Dutch singer Anneke van Giersbergen. Moonspell performed the "Blackest of the Black" tour with Danzig, Winds of Plague, Dimmu Borgir and Skeletonwitch. Moonspell toured Europe with Cradle of Filth, Gorgoroth and Asrai in December 2008, took part
Metalcore is a fusion genre combining elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk. The word is a portmanteau of the two genres. Among other styles blending metal and hardcore, such as crust punk and grindcore, metalcore is noted for its use of breakdowns, which are slow, intense passages conducive to moshing. Pioneering metalcore bands—such as Integrity, Earth Crisis and All Out War —are described as leaning more toward hardcore, with their style sometimes being called metallic hardcore, whereas bands—such as Killswitch Engage, All That Remains, Trivium, As I Lay Dying, Bullet for My Valentine, Parkway Drive—are described as leaning more towards metal. Pantera and Sepultura have been influential to the development of metalcore in the 2000s, which saw many bands in the genre achieve commercial success. Black Flag and Bad Brains, among the originators of hardcore and emulated Black Sabbath. British punk rock groups such as Discharge and the Exploited took inspiration from heavy metal; the Misfits put out the Earth A.
D. album. Nonetheless and metal cultures and music remained separate through the first half of the 1980s. Cross-pollination between metal and hardcore birthed the crossover thrash scene, which gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984; the term "metalcore" was used to refer to these crossover groups. Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, D. R. I. and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Slayer. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which began in 1984, included groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front and Warzone; the Cro-Mags were among the most influential of these bands, drawing from Bad Brains, Motörhead and Black Sabbath. Cro-Mags embraced straight edge and Krishna consciousness. Another New York metal-influenced straight edge group of this time period is the Crumbsuckers. 1985 saw the development of the hardcore breakdown, an amalgamation of Bad Brains' reggae and metal backgrounds, which encouraged moshing. Agnostic Front's 1986 album Cause for Alarm, a collaboration with Peter Steele, was a watershed in the intertwining of hardcore and metal.
Between 1984 and 1995, a wave of metallic hardcore bands emerged, including Hogan's Heroes, Earth Crisis, Shai Hulud, Strife, Vision of Disorder Hatebreed, Disembodied. Integrity drew influence from the hardcore band G. I. S. M. and the thrash metal band Slayer, with others like Septic Death, Motörhead and Joy Division. Earth Crisis and Hatebreed borrowed from hardcore punk and death metal. Earth Crisis's albums Firestorm, Destroy the Machines and Gomorrah's Season Ends were influential to the development of the genre. Biohazard and Overcast were important early metalcore groups. Journalist Lars Gotrich wrote, "Along with key records by The Dillinger Escape Plan and Botch, Give Them Rope is an underground milestone that helped what was soon called'metalcore'. At the risk of sounding too reductive—metalcore was the natural progression where extreme metal and hardcore met, but with spiraling time signatures that somehow felt more aggressive." Shai Hulud's 1997 album Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion became influential in the latter part of the decade.
In the early 2000s, metalcore started to gain more prominence, with several independent metal labels, including Century Media and Metal Blade, signing metalcore bands. A new subgenre, melodic metalcore influenced by Swedish melodic death metal, has formed and came to the forefront of metalcore's rise to popularity. By 2002, Killswitch Engage's Alive or Just Breathing, was the prominent album that thrust metalcore into the spotlight. In 2004 into Shadows Fall's The War Within, Atreyu's The Curse debuted at numbers 21, 20, 36 on the Billboard album chart. In 2006, Atreyu's third studio album, A Death-Grip on Yesterday debuted at Number 9 on the Billboard 200, only to be followed up by 2007's Lead Sails Paper Anchor, which debuted at Number 8. All That Remains' single "Two Weeks" peaked at number 9 at the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in the U. S; the song peaked on the Modern Rock Tracks chart at number 38. In 2007, the songs "Nothing Left" by As I Lay Dying and "Redemption" by Shadows Fall were nominated for a Grammy award in the "Best Metal Performance" category.
An Ocean Between Us itself was a commercial success, debuting at number 8 on the "Billboard 200". In 2008 Welsh metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine's second album, Scream Aim Fire, went straight to number 4 on the Billboard 200, surpassed in 2010 by their third album Fever, which debuted at number 3 selling more than 71,000 copies in its first week in the United States and more than 21,000 in the United Kingdom. Bullet for My Valentine's 2006 album The Poison was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Underoath's fifth album Define the Great Line, released in 2006, peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200 charts, selling 98,000 copies in its first week. Trivium have met with success, making the top 25 positions on charts in several countries, including the United States, top 10 positions in both Australia and the United Kingdom. Hatebreed, God Forbid, As I Lay Dying have charted; the Devil Wears Prada achieved some commercial success with their album, With Roots Above and Branches Below, peaking at number 11 on the Billboard 200 upon its release.
Underoath's album Lost in the Sound of Separation rea
Saxon are an English heavy metal band formed in 1977, in Barnsley. As one of the leaders of the new wave of British heavy metal, they had eight UK Top 40 albums in the 1980s including four UK Top 10 albums and two Top 5 albums; the band had numerous singles in the UK Singles Chart and chart success all over Europe and Japan, as well as success in the United States. During the 1980s, Saxon established themselves as one of Europe's greatest metal acts; the band tour and have sold more than 23 million albums worldwide. They are considered one of the classic metal acts, have influenced a number of bands such as Metallica, Slayer, Testament, Overkill, Mötley Crüe, Helloween, Running Wild, Metal Church, Armored Saint, Dream Theater, Skid Row, Celtic Frost, King Diamond and Death Angel. Saxon began with a lineup formed by former Coast members Peter "Biff" Byford on vocals, Paul Quinn and former Sob member Graham Oliver on guitars, Steve "Dobby" Dawson on bass; the band changed their name to Saxon shortly afterwards.
They started out by gaining support slots on tour with more established bands such as Motörhead. In 1979, the band signed to the French record label Carrere run by Freddy Cannon in the UK and released their eponymous debut album. In 1980, the band's follow-up album Wheels of Steel, was released and charted at #5 in the UK, it spawned two hit singles: the title track, the crowd favourite "747". The album provided the band with success and they began a series of long-lasting tours across the UK. On 16 August, Saxon appeared at the first Monsters of Rock Festival where they received a positive reception from the crowd; the band's set was recorded but was not released until 2000. In April, Saxon made the first of many appearances on Top of the Pops, where they performed the hit single "Wheels of Steel". Strong Arm of the Law was released in the year, charting at #11 in the UK, it is considered by many fans to be their best album, it helped to keep the band's popularity increasing. Two singles were released from this album: the title track and Dallas 1PM, the latter written about the assassination of U.
S. President John F. Kennedy. Sold out tours of Europe and the UK followed as the album charted in several European countries; the band had gained great success in Japan where the single Motorcycle Man had stayed in the charts for 6 months. In 1981, the band released their fourth album Denim And Leather which they dedicated to their fan base; the album is still popular today and the title track "Denim And Leather" is regarded as a metal anthem. The album featured many other fan favourites such as "Princess of the Night", "Never Surrender" and "And the Bands Played On" which were all UK Top 20 hits. Denim And Leather followed its predecessor's success and went Gold in several European countries including the UK. By this time the band was seen as the leaders of the NWOBHM movement with future greats Iron Maiden and Def Leppard following close behind. Just as the band was about to embark on a long tour to follow the success of Denim And Leather, drummer Pete Gill left the band after injuring his hand.
The band had to replace him with Nigel Glockler of Toyah, who had to learn the entire set within a day and a half just before the tour was about to begin. Glockler is still with the band today. A series of headlining tours around the UK and a sold out tour in Europe with support act Ozzy Osbourne, resulted in The Eagle Has Landed. Planned as a double live album, the record company decided to release it as a single live album despite protests from the band; the Eagle Has Landed is still regarded. Saxon played the 1982 Monsters Of Rock Festival again and became the first band to appear there twice; as the NWOBHM movement began to fade, 1983's Power & the Glory, their highest selling album to date, saw Saxon cement themselves as the leading metal act in Europe along with Iron Maiden and Judas Priest. The "Power and Glory Tour" was an arena tour that began in Europe, was a huge success; the US leg of the tour with support act Accept proved to be successful and Saxon found themselves becoming a major act in the US as the album, in its first week of release, sold more than 15,000 copies in Los Angeles alone.
The emerging glam metal scene in America would however prevent the band's conquest of the American market, as the genre was increasing in mainstream popularity. The cover art of the album was produced by Hollywood film director Ridley Scott. In late 1983 Saxon left Carrere. Saxon signed with EMI Records with their first release on the label being Crusader. Though still heavy, critics felt the album had a more commercial sound, fans began to wonder what direction the band was taking. Despite its commercial sound, the title track became a fan favourite; the album sold over 2 million copies and the 1984 world tour "The World Crusade" was a success both in Europe and America. In the US they had Mötley Crüe and Krokus as support for many shows of the tour as the band spent one year on the road. By this time the band was considered as headliners for 1984's Monsters of Rock at Donington, but scheduling issues and record label disputes kept the band from participating. With the release of Innocence Is No Excuse in 1985, the band continued to take a more commercial direction and this created a division amongst fans as the band's once raw, heavy sound had been watered down to gain more attraction to the large US market.
The album has, gained more appreciation both from fans and critics as time has passed since its initial release. A huge sold out world tour in support of the album followed, but tensions
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers