St Pancras railway station
St Pancras railway station known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden. It is the terminus for Eurostar continental services from London via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel to Belgium and the Netherlands, it provides East Midlands Trains and Thameslink services to Corby and Nottingham on the Midland Main Line and Southeastern high-speed trains to Kent via Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International, local Thameslink cross-London services. It stands between the British Library, the Regent's Canal and King's Cross railway station, with which it shares a London Underground station, King's Cross St. Pancras; the station was constructed by the Midland Railway, which had an extensive network across the Midlands and the North of England, but no dedicated line into London. After rail traffic problems following the 1862 International Exhibition, the MR decided to build a connection from Bedford to London with their own terminus.
The station was constructed with a single-span iron roof. Following the station's opening on 1 October 1868, the MR constructed the Midland Grand Hotel on the station's façade, praised for its architecture and is now a Grade I listed building along with the rest of the station. By the 1960s, St Pancras was surplus to requirements and services were diverted to King's Cross and Euston but there was fierce opposition to its proposed closure and demolition of the station and hotel; the station was reinvented in the late 20th century as the terminal for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in an urban regeneration plan across East London. The complex underwent a £800 million refurbishment, opened by Queen Elizabeth II in November 2007. A security-sealed terminal area was constructed for Eurostar services to continental Europe via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel, with platforms for domestic trains to the north and south-east of England; the restored station has 15 platforms, a shopping centre, a coach facility.
St Pancras is owned by London and Continental Railways and managed by Network Rail, a subsidiary of Network Rail. St Pancras is at the southern end of the London Borough of Camden on a site orientated north/south, deeper than it is wide; the south is bounded by Euston Road, its frontage is the St Pancras Renaissance Hotel, while the west is bounded by Midland Road which separates it from the British Library and the east by Pancras Road which separates it from King's Cross station. The British Library is on the former goods yard site. Behind the hotel, the train shed is elevated 5 m above street level and the area below forms the station undercroft; the northern half of the station is bounded to the east by Camley Street, with Camley Street Natural Park across the road. To the north-east is King's Cross Central known as the Railway Lands, a complex of intersecting railway lines crossed by several roads and the Regent's Canal. Several London bus routes serve St Pancras, including 10, 59, 73, 205 and 390.
The station's name comes from the St. Pancras neighbourhood, which originates from the fourth-century Christian boy martyr Pancras of Rome; the station was commissioned by the Midland Railway, who had a network of routes in the Midlands, in south and west Yorkshire and Lancashire but no route of its own to London. Before 1857 the MR used the lines of the L&NWR for trains into the capital. In 1862, traffic for the second International Exhibition suffered extensive delays over the stretch of line into London over the GNR's track; this was the stimulus for the MR to build its own line to London from Bedford, which would be just under 50 miles long. Samuel Carter was solicitor for the parliamentary bill, sanctioned in 1863; the station was designed by William Henry Barlow and constructed on a site, a slum called Agar Town. Though coal and goods were the main motivation to build the station, the Midland realised the prestige of having a central London terminus, decided it must have a front on Euston Road.
The company purchased the eastern section of land on the road's north side owned by Earl Somers. The approaching line to the station crossed the Regent's Canal at height allowing the line reasonable gradients. Initial plans were for a two or three span roof with the void between station and ground level filled with spoil from tunnelling to join the Midland Main Line to the St. Pancras branch. Instead, due to the value of the land in such a location the lower area was used for freight, in particular beer from Burton; as a result, the undercroft was built with columns and girders, maximising space, set out to the same plans as those used for beer warehouses, with a basic unit of length that of a beer barrel. The contract for the construction of the station substructure and connecting lines was given to Messrs. Waring, with Barlow's assistant Campion as supervisor; the lower floor for beer warehousing contained interior columns 15 ft wide, 48 ft deep carrying girders supporting the main station and track.
The connection to the Widened Lines ran below the station's bottom level, in an east-to-west direction. To avoid the foundations of the roof interfering with the space beneath, to simplify the design, and
St. Pius X Seminary
The Seminary of St. Pius X, or St. Pius X Seminary, is a Filipino Roman Catholic secondary school and seminary in the Lawaan hills, Roxas City, Capiz, in the Philippines, run by the Catholic priests of the Archdiocese of Capiz; the seminary and its surrounding areas comprise some three hectares of rocky hills. The late Cardinal Sin was the first rector of the school. In 1999, the college of St. Pius X Seminary transferred to Cagay, Roxas City and named the school Sancta Maria, Mater et Regina, Seminarium to honor the Blessed Virgin Mary. SPXS decided to retain and maintain its High School and Pre-College until 2012, Pre-College was transferred in SMMRS; the erection of the Diocese of Capiz on 28 May 1951 brought a need to train priests. But the meager financial resources of the young diocese made the proposed project a difficult one, considering that the Bishop had no permanent residence yet. However, the late Bishop Antonio Frondosa, remained undaunted. Donors contributed to the Bishop's residence, for the 3.3 hectare lot for the seminary site.
The first cornerstone of the Capiz Diocesan Seminary was laid on 13 August 1953, the Bishop's residence was inaugurated on the same day. On 3 September 1953, feast of St. Pius X, the first half of the seminary was blessed by Auxiliary Bishop Teofilo Camomot and Archbishop Jose Ma. Cuenco. Bishop Frondosa issued circular No. 3/57 on 31 May 1957 announcing the opening of the new diocesan seminary and appointing Fr. Jaime Sin as its first rector. Seven priests staffed the school in its first years with five lay teachers, 33 seminarians. On completion, the seminary was blessed on 13 June 1959, its curriculum, Classical Secondary Courses, was recognized by the Department of Education on 21 April 1961. In 1999, the college of St. Pius X Seminary transferred to Cagay, Roxas City and named the school Sancta Maria, Mater et Regina, Seminarium to honor the Blessed Virgin Mary. SPXS decided to maintain its High School and Pre-College. St. Pius X is the patron saint of the school, but every section is obliged to have a corresponding patron saint.
Batches who enter their first year with 36 or more seminarians are divided into two sections, two patron saints per section. Fourth year seminarians are required to name their batch with a unique, notable name which they will carry on until college or for the rest of their lives; the St. Pius X Seminary Alumni Association, Inc. or known as PIANS, is a non-profit and non-stock corporation whose membership is composed of all persons who have studied for at least one year in St. Pius X Seminary. It's not an ordinary alumni association because the seminary is not an ordinary educational institution created and incorporated under a national law, regulated by the appropriate government agencies, such as the Philippines' Department of Education and English Speaking Campaign, but was created under the laws of the Church and regulated by the Vatican, administered by the bishop through his priests. Further, its purpose is not only to educate but to train boys and young men for the presbytery and the future leaders of the Church.
Since the opening of the seminary 61 years ago, there are ordinations every year. Six Pians have become bishops. Though the association is composed of Pians, it is not a religious or ecclesiastical organization or corporation like the Children of Mary, Knights of Columbus and Couples for Christ. Eleandro "Budoy" Madrona — Congressman of Romblon. Jocelyn Bolante — Politician who served as an Undersecretary of the Department of Agriculture of the Philippines. Vicente "Vic" Bermejo — Former provincial governor of Capiz and former mayor of Roxas City. Felipe Neri Yap — Mayor of Ivisan, Capiz. Gideon Ike Patricio — Mayor of the Municipality of Pilar Gerard Montojo — Mayor of the Municipality of Romblon. Most Rev. Victor B. Bendico, D. D. — Bishop of Baguio. Most Rev. Jose Corazon Tala-oc, D. D. — Bishop of Kalibo Most Rev. Jose F. Advincula, Jr. D. D. — 3rd Metropolitan Archbishop of Capiz. Most Rev. Warlito I. Cajandig, D. D. — Bishop of Vicar Apostolic of Calapan, Oriental Mindoro. Most Rev. Mel Rey Uy, D. D. - Bishop of Lucena Fr.
Erno Diaz — first Filipino Pastor in the Archdiocese of New York and now director of the Chapel of San Lorenzo Ruiz in New York City. Atty. Florentino D. Mabasa, Jr.- Outstanding Aklanon Awardee Geoffrey M. Martinez - President & CEO of CareHealth Plus Systems International Inc. Dr. Raymund O. Conlu M. D - Nuclear Medicine, St. Luke's Medical Center, BGC. Capt. Donaldo "Don" Mendoza — Asst. Dir. Gen for CAAP. Michael Alfred V. Ignacio — Trade Diplomat/ Trade Representative and Director for Commercial Affairs. Manila Economic and Cultural Office, Taipei. Fernando V. Beup Jr. — DFA Director, Office of Strategy Planning and Policy Coordination, Formerly 2nd Secretary and Consul, Philippine Embassy in India. Melvin Cordenillo Almonguera. — 2nd Secretary and Consul, Philippine Embassy in Brunei. Jaime Cardinal Sin†, was a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila known for his instrumental role in the People Power Revolution, which toppled the regime of Ferdinand Marcos and installed Corazon Aquino as president of the Philippines.
He was the first rector of St. Pius X Seminary. Most Rev. Raul Quimpo Martirez, D. D. JCL, STB, BSE, Bishop-Emeritus of San Jose de Antique and Outstanding Aklanon Awardee Most Rev. Vicente Navarra, D. D. Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Bacolod. List of Roman Catholic Seminaries Capiz Roxas City
Space Exploration Technologies Corp. doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by entrepreneur Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs and enabling the colonization of Mars. SpaceX has since developed the Falcon launch vehicle family and the Dragon spacecraft family, which both deliver payloads into Earth orbit. SpaceX's achievements include the first funded liquid-propellant rocket to reach orbit, the first private company to launch and recover a spacecraft, the first private company to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station, the first propulsive landing for an orbital rocket, the first reuse of an orbital rocket, the first private company to launch an object into orbit around the sun. SpaceX has flown 16 resupply missions to the International Space Station under a partnership with NASA. NASA awarded SpaceX a further development contract in 2011 to develop and demonstrate a human-rated Dragon, which would be used to transport astronauts to the ISS and return them safely to Earth.
SpaceX conducted the maiden launch of its Crew Dragon spacecraft on a NASA-required demonstration flight on March 2, 2019 and is set to launch its first crewed Crew Dragon in 2019. On 11 March at 8:45 a.m. EST, the Spacex Crew Dragon completed its first uncrewed flight that splash-landed in the Atlantic; the flight named SpX-DM1 has demonstrated the Crew Dragon's ability to safely transport crew to ISS and back.. SpaceX announced in 2011 that it was beginning a reusable launch system technology development program. In December 2015, the first Falcon 9 was flown back to a landing pad near the launch site, where it accomplished a propulsive vertical landing; this was the first such achievement by a rocket for orbital spaceflight. In April 2016, with the launch of CRS-8, SpaceX vertically landed the first stage on an ocean drone ship landing platform. In May 2016, in another first, SpaceX again landed the first stage, but during a more energetic geostationary transfer orbit mission. In March 2017, SpaceX became the first to re-launch and land the first stage of an orbital rocket.
In September 2016, CEO Elon Musk unveiled the mission architecture of the Interplanetary Transport System program, an ambitious funded initiative to develop spaceflight technology for use in crewed interplanetary spaceflight. In 2017, Musk unveiled an updated configuration of the system, now named Starship and Super Heavy, planned to be reusable and will be the largest rocket on its debut scheduled for the early 2020s. In 2001, Elon Musk conceptualized Mars Oasis, a project to land a miniature experimental greenhouse and grow plants on Mars. "This would be the furthest that life’s traveled" in an attempt to regain public interest in space exploration and increase the budget of NASA. Musk tried to buy cheap rockets from Russia but returned empty-handed after failing to find rockets for an affordable price. On the flight home, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed. According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor Steve Jurvetson, Musk calculated that the raw materials for building a rocket were only three percent of the sales price of a rocket at the time.
By applying vertical integration, producing around 85% of launch hardware in-house, the modular approach from software engineering, SpaceX could cut launch price by a factor of ten and still enjoy a 70% gross margin. In early 2002, Musk was seeking staff for his new space company, soon to be named SpaceX. Musk approached rocket engineer Tom Mueller and Mueller agreed to work for Musk, thus SpaceX was born. SpaceX was first headquartered in a warehouse in California; the company has grown since it was founded in 2002, growing from 160 employees in November 2005 to 1,100 in 2010, 3,800 employees and contractors by October 2013, nearly 5,000 by late 2015, about 6,000 in April 2017. As of November 2017, the company had grown to nearly 7,000. In 2016, Musk gave a speech at the International Astronautical Congress, where he explained that the US government regulates rocket technology as an "advanced weapon technology", making it difficult to hire non-Americans; as of March 2018, SpaceX had over 100 launches on its manifest representing about $12 billion in contract revenue.
The contracts included both commercial and government customers. In late 2013, space industry media quoted Musk's comments on SpaceX "forcing…increased competitiveness in the launch industry," its major competitors in the commercial comsat launch market being Arianespace, United Launch Alliance, International Launch Services. At the same time, Musk said that the increased competition would "be a good thing for the future of space." SpaceX is the leading global commercial launch provider measured by manifested launches. Musk has stated that one of his goals is to decrease the cost and improve the reliability of access to space by a factor of ten. CEO Elon Musk said: "I believe $500 per pound or less is achievable." A major goal of SpaceX has been to develop a reusable launch system. As of March 2013, the publicly announced aspects of this technology development effort include an active test campaign of the low-altitude, low-speed Grasshopper vertical takeoff, vertical landing technology demonstrator rocket, a high-altitude, high-speed Falcon 9 post-missi
St Pius X College
St Pius X College is an independent, Roman Catholic, secondary day school for boys, located in Chatswood, a North Shore suburb of Sydney, Australia. Located in the heart of the Chatswood central business district, the school is close to Westfield Shopping Centre and Chatswood railway station, it is operated under the auspices of the Trustees of the Christian Brothers and is situated within the borders of the Catholic Diocese of Broken Bay, under the leadership of Bishop David Walker. The College was ranked 101st in the State for the 2005 Higher School Certificate marks, up from 108th the previous year. More in 2013, the school again improved its rank to 73, it is a member of the Independent Schools Association. The college operates as two separate schools: "The Junior School" catering for boys in Years 5 and 6, "The Senior School" catering for boys in Years 7 to 12; the college has implemented an E-Learning program, which provides students with personal learning devices the Microsoft Surface Pro 6 across the school.
These computers hold student text books. St Pius X College started in 1937 as Christian Brothers Chatswood going to the Beginner level, with the first Leaving Certificate class graduating in 1941. St Pius X College used to be a co-educational school, partnered with Mercy College, however during the 20th century the patnership ended and each school became single sex. A major improvement in the 1990s was the development of Oxford Falls as an educational complex. Named the Treacy Centre, the facility comprises a variety of sports fields and venues as well as a number of meeting places and classrooms. In the late 1990s the college undertook rebuilding. During the late 2000s a new building was built, it includes. "Fide et Labore" is written on the shield, Latin for "By Faith and Labour". The current principal is the first lay person to be principal at the school; the school participates in rugby, football, tennis, swimming and athletics. The college participates in debating and public speaking, it is a member of the Catholic Schools Debating Assosciation, the largest debating competition for schools in New South Wales and has since 2015 participated in the Sydney Debating Network.
It enters students into the Legacy Youth Public Speaking and Plain English Speaking Competitions annually. In 2015 the 11 A debating team were runners up in the CSDA debating competition and were awarded the prestigious Aggregate Senior shield for winning the most debates out of any school in the competition. Following this in 2016 the 12 A team were Grand Final winners of the CSDA Senior Opens debating competition winning the Michael Robson Shield as champions of the Senior Competition. Music has always been a large part of extracurricular involvement at St Pius; the various bands include concert bands, jazz bands and guitar ensembles. In order to gain entry to any band, a student must audition. In order to gain access to the Senior Jazz Band and Senior Concert Band a high level of skill is required in the instrument of which a student plays; the bands and choir play for the school as well at the Twilight Concert held every term. The twilight concert begins with the choir. After the choir have performed, the ensembles play next and after which, the Jazz and Concert Bands begin to play.
The concert is held under Baby Brother, however, if the weather is unfavourable, the concert takes place in the school gym. The school has recently been involved with competitive hissing but no words on a performing group as of yet. Performing Arts is an integral part of the College curriculum and students at St Pius X have every opportunity to make the performing arts an involved part of their lives, through participation in many different types of music and drama activities. St Pius X College has the largest active robotics club in Australia with over 100 members; the school's robotic club takes part in robotics competitions. The two major annual competitions are First Lego League; the club consists of members from years five through to twelve. Acceptance is granted through the robotics lessons held in class during year five, entry to the club in years can be granted through applying directly to the robotics coordinator. St Pius’s Outdoor Education program facilitates personal development and teamwork through camps and overnight experiences.
Outdoor Education is offered to all students, these experiences enhance learning, build relationships and respect, develop leadership and teamwork, as well as resilience as boys overcome fear and adversity as they push outside their comfort zones. Connection with nature provides a platform for spiritual growth and experience. Highlights of the Outdoor Education Program include: Milson Island camp Camp Wombaroo Ski trip The Great Aussie Bush Camp Huntington House Terrigal Immersions to Walgett and Bowraville Snowy Hike Bush Retreat to Tallow Beach Duke of Edinburgh practice hikes and expeditions Kokoda preparation Warrumbungles expedition Students in Year 11 have the opportunity of entering the Mock Trial Competition conducted by the Law Society of New South Wales. During the competition our ‘legal team’ competes against other schools defending and prosecuting ‘mock’ cases involving: assault larceny negligenceStudents take on the roles of: barristers clerks court officers magistrates soli
Superphénix or SPX was a nuclear power station prototype on the Rhône river at Creys-Malville in France, close to the border with Switzerland. Superphénix was a 1,242 MWe fast breeder reactor with the twin goals of reprocessing nuclear fuel from France's line of conventional nuclear reactors, while being an economical generator of power on its own. Construction began in 1974 but suffered from a series of cost overruns and enormous public protests. Construction was complete in 1981, but the plant was not connected to the grid until December 1986. In operation, Superphénix demonstrated poor reliability and had a historical capacity factor less than 7%. Many of these problems were solved over time, by 1996 the prototype was reaching its design operational goals; the plant was powered down in December 1996 for maintenance, while it was closed it was subject to court challenges that prevented its restart. In June 1997, the newly elected Prime Minister, Lionel Jospin, announced that Superphénix would be closed permanently.
France had considered the problem of plutonium production just after the end of World War II. At the time, the conventional solution to this problem was to use a graphite moderated air or water cooled reactor fueled with natural uranium; such designs have little economic value in terms of power production, but are simple solutions to the problem of "breeding" plutonium fuel, which can be separated from the original uranium fuel with chemical processing. However, it had long been known that another solution to the breeder reactor design was to replace the graphite with liquid sodium metal; the graphite is used as a moderator, slowing the neutrons released in the nuclear reactions to a speed that makes other uranium atoms sensitive to them. However, if one replaces the natural uranium fuel with one sensitive to fast neutrons highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the reaction can run without the use of a moderator. While this design eliminates the need for a moderator, the core still needs to be cooled.
Ideally the coolant would be both efficient, allowing the core size to be reduced, as well as being transparent to neutrons. The most studied example of such a material is liquid sodium, although salts and other metals have been used; this not only reduces the size of the reactor, but the fast neutrons from a single reaction are capable of causing several breeding reactions. By surrounding the core with additional fertile material such as natural uranium, or nuclear waste from other reactors, the breeding reaction will take place in a larger volume and in otherwise useless materials; this section is known as the blanket. Such a design has the quality that it generates more fuel than it consumes, as long as the breeding ratio is greater than 1; such a design has three major advantages over conventional military designs. The downside is that it has to be fueled with some sort of enriched fuel, although the fissile material being bred in the blanket can be used. Plans for a French fast reactor date as far back as 1958's Rapsodie, followed up in 1964 for a larger design with a power output of 1 GWe.
Construction of the Rapsodie facility started in 1962 and went critical on 28 January 1967. It did not have power producing systems, but its 22 MW of thermal output would translate to 9 MW of electrical output. Experiments on core configurations were carried out in the Masurca facility starting in 1966, design of a larger power-producing facility was well underway. During the 1960s, interest in nuclear power was reaching a crescendo. For France, with little uranium supply of their own, large scale generation would be subject to supply constraints given that nuclear power was experiencing a boom in construction that suggested the available supply would be limited on a worldwide basis. In France's plans, breeders would serve the twin purposes of producing fuel for their conventional light water reactor fleet, as well as producing that fuel from the waste fuel from those reactors, thereby reducing the amount of nuclear waste they would have to dispose of. Only a small number of breeders, estimated to be around 20, would be required to fuel the fleet of about 200 light water reactors.
France began construction of the Phénix demonstration plant in November 1968, only a year after Rapsodie went critical. It was fueled with 931 kg of enriched plutonium, around 77% Pu-239; the fuel load is capable of running for about 90 days maximum, but in practice it ran for two month periods. Due to its design, refueling required the reactor to be shut down; as a result, it had a low capacity factor, on the order of 65%. As a prototype plant, a high CF was not a design goal, although any practical design would have to improve this. Phénix demonstrated a breeding ratio of 1.16, meaning it produced 16% more fuel than it consumed, while producing 233 MWe in normal operation. Phénix ran without problems through the 1970s and'80s, but in the early 1990s it began to demonstrate a number of unexplained behaviours, including large power transients; this had serious safety implications, the reactor was shut down, spending most of the period from 1991 to 1994 being studied while offline. The long offline period required it to be recertified, so the plant underwent a significant refurbishment between 1994 and 2002.
It was recertified in June 2003, but only at a reduced power of 130