Space Sciences Laboratory
The Space Sciences Laboratory is an Organized Research Unit of the University of California, Berkeley. Founded in 1959, the lab is located in the Berkeley Hills above the university campus, it has developed and continues to develop many projects in the space sciences, including the search for extraterrestrial life. The Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley, California was initiated in 1958 by a committee of faculty members who recognized that emerging rocket and satellite technology opened up new investigative realms for the physical and engineering sciences; the committee, chaired first by Professor Otto Struve of the Department of Astronomy and subsequently by Professor Edward Teller of the Department of Physics and the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, explored with faculty members the opportunities associated with space research as well as the impact of escalating national space exploration programs on graduate study and research. The committee proposed the formation of a Space Sciences Laboratory which, as a campus-wide multidisciplinary organization, would serve to integrate the space sciences on campus and stimulate new faculty-student research programs.
The Regents, acting on the recommendation of Chancellor Glenn T. Seaborg and President Clark Kerr, authorized the formation of the Laboratory in 1959; the Laboratory began its operations in January 1960 with the appointment of its first director, Professor Samuel Silver. Starting life in a corner of the old Leuschner Observatory on the main campus, the active interest of faculty members in the space sciences led to a rapid deployment of the physical and biological research programs; the modest quarters were soon inadequate for the group of research associates and graduate students. An large project on space physiology initiated by Professors Hardin B. Jones and Cornelius A. Tobias required much more space than available on campus, forcing the Laboratory to move to the Ford Assembly Building in Richmond, California, a property acquired by the University several years earlier; the space physics program directed by Professor Kinsey A. Anderson and involving experiments carried by balloons and satellites outgrew its quarters requiring a move off campus as well.
The Laboratory rented a store at 2119 University Avenue, just west of the University, converted it into a figurative beehive of research activities. At the peak of its use, the "Market" as this facility was known, housed electronic shops, the machine shop, the data processing equipment, environmental test equipment, research projects on the moon and the planets, the interplanetary medium, the upper atmosphere of the earth. Housed here were social scientists who were studying the physical scientists and the problems of organization and administration of research; the NASA Facilities Grant precipitated the construction of SSL's original buildings. The growth of multiple programs represented the fulfillment of one of laboratory's goals, namely to stimulate faculty and student participation in space research, but the second major objective, that of developing the multidisciplinary substance and unique character of space research, could not be realized in a physically fragmented laboratory. With the construction of the new buildings, that goal was achieved.
The building grant was awarded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1962 and the building dedicated on Thursday, October 27, 1966. The Space Sciences Laboratory is an Organized Research Unit of the University of California, Berkeley, it is led by Berkeley faculty and Senior Fellows at the laboratory, reports its activities to the Vice Chancellor for Research of UC Berkeley. In its early years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration followed the policy of funding university research on an individual project basis, it was not until 1961, when Mr. James E. Webb became the Administrator of NASA, that the agency formulated a broad and far-reaching program of space research and exploration; the Office of Grants and Research Contracts instituted two programs: the Sustaining Grant Program and the Facilities Program. The Berkeley campus was one of the first universities to receive grants under these two programs; the Sustaining Grant, which provided the Space Sciences Laboratory with a core of funds for interdisciplinary research in the physical, biological and social sciences, gave the Laboratory a foundation on which to build faculty programs and to generate new areas of graduate training through research.
The grant was invaluable in developing the space sciences program on the Berkeley campus. The Laboratory is located in a wooded site in the Berkeley Hills; the building is directly adjacent to the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and above the Lawrence Hall of Science. The architects designed the building to fit the setting and give the people inside a feeling of ready enjoyment of their natural surroundings. SSL developed and maintains the SETI@home project which pioneered the application of distributed computing to the space sciences, it created the related projects Stardust@home and BOINC. It is home to the Space Physics Research Group, it serves as a ground station for those missions. Some of the satellites it has developed are: The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellite constellation The Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer The Infrared Spatial Interferometer It does science education outreach via the Center for Science Education
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
Ladder logic was a written method to document the design and construction of relay racks as used in manufacturing and process control. Each device in the relay rack would be represented by a symbol on the ladder diagram with connections between those devices shown. In addition, other items external to the relay rack such as pumps, so forth would be shown on the ladder diagram. Ladder logic has evolved into a programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit diagrams of relay logic hardware. Ladder logic is used to develop software for programmable logic controllers used in industrial control applications; the name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them. While ladder diagrams were once the only available notation for recording programmable controller programs, today other forms are standardized in IEC 61131-3. Ladder logic is used to program PLCs, where sequential control of a process or manufacturing operation is required.
Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers became more sophisticated it has been used in complex automation systems; the ladder logic program is used in conjunction with an HMI program operating on a computer workstation. The motivation for representing sequential control logic in a ladder diagram was to allow factory engineers and technicians to develop software without additional training to learn a language such as FORTRAN or other general purpose computer language. Development and maintenance were simplified because of the resemblance to familiar relay hardware systems. Implementations of ladder logic may have characteristics, such as sequential execution and support for control flow features, that make the analogy to hardware somewhat inaccurate. Ladder logic can be thought of as a rule-based language rather than a procedural language. A "rung" in the ladder represents a rule; when implemented with relays and other electromechanical devices, the various rules execute and immediately.
When implemented in a programmable logic controller, the rules are executed sequentially by software in a continuous loop, or "scan". By executing the loop fast enough many times per second, the effect of simultaneous and immediate execution is achieved. Proper use of programmable controllers requires an understanding of the limitations of the execution order of rungs; the language itself can be seen as a set of connections between logical actuators. If a path can be traced between the left side of the rung and the output, through asserted contacts, the rung is true and the output coil storage bit is asserted or true. If no path can be traced the output is false and the "coil" by analogy to electromechanical relays is considered "de-energized"; the analogy between logical propositions and relay contact status is due to Claude Shannon. Ladder logic has contacts that break circuits to control coils; each coil or contact corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory.
Unlike electromechanical relays, a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a single bit, equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts. So-called "contacts" may refer to physical inputs to the programmable controller from physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches via an integrated or external input module, or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere in the program; each rung of ladder language has one coil at the far right. Some manufacturers may allow more than one output coil on a rung. Rung input: checkers —— Normally open contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is energized. —— Normally closed contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is not energized. Rung output: actuators —— Normally inactive coil, energized whenever its rung is closed. —— Normally active coil, energized whenever its rung is open. The "coil" may represent a physical output which operates some device connected to the programmable controller, or may represent an internal storage bit for use elsewhere in the program.
A way to recall these is to imagine the checkers as a push button input, the actuators as a light bulb output. The presence of a slash within the checkers or actuators would indicate the default state of the device at rest; the above realizes the function: Door motor = Key switch 1 AND Key switch 2 This circuit shows two key switches that security guards might use to activate an electric motor on a bank vault door. When the open contacts of both switches close, electricity is able to flow to the motor which opens the door; the above realizes the function: Door motor = Close door AND NOT. This circuit shows a push button that closes a door, an obstruction detector that senses if something is in the way of the closing door; when the open push button contact closes and the closed obstruction detector is closed, electricity is able to flow to the motor which closes the door. The above realizes the function: Unlock = Interior unlock OR Exterior unlock This circuit shows the two things that can tr
Solid State Logic
Solid State Logic is a manufacturer of high-end mixing consoles and recording studio hardware headquartered in Begbroke, England. Founded in 1969, SSL has since expanded to its present 15 acre science park in England; the company invents and manufactures technology for the manipulation of sound and the production and delivery of video. SSL employs over 160 people worldwide and has regional offices in Los Angeles, New York and Tokyo, with additional support provided by an international network of distributors. One of the first SSL consoles was a 4000B installed at The Townhouse Studios on Goldhawk Road in London; the earliest 4000E console was at Battery Studios London. RG Jones in London followed by Eden Studios and Sarm Studios. Eden had a 48-channel console with integral automation using 8" floppy drives. Sarm East had a 40-channel console with remote automation with 8" floppy drives. Both consoles had Total Recall enabling console settings to be recalled & remade with a high degree of accuracy.
SSL analogue and digital audio consoles are used in both pre- and post-production for film, audio and broadcast sound. Notably, in May 2001, Studio 3 at Abbey Road Studios was refurbished with a 96-channel SSL 9000 J series console, the largest SSL console in Europe. Westlake Recording Studios in West Hollywood, which makes extensive use of SSL consoles, was fitted out with an SSL 9000 K console in its main studio in 2013. SSL produces rackmount audio hardware for use in recording studios. In 2005, musician Peter Gabriel and broadcast entrepreneur David Engelke became majority shareholders of the company; the change of ownership has seen some changes in strategy for the company including new product releases to address the fast-changing state of the pro-audio marketplace. The company was sold to Audiotonix Group in 2017. There are over 3,000 SSL systems in service around the world, their equipment has been used by classical musicians and popular artists such as Nine Inch Nails, Bryan Adams, Peter Gabriel, Whitney Houston, Jean-Michel Jarre and Sting and Underworld, The 1970s recording scene was dominated by large format consoles feeding multi-track tape machines manufactured by companies such as MCI and Studer.
Both the equipment and the environment they were used in were expensive to source and maintain making studio recording a high entry cost business. A series of developments have eroded this position; the first major change was the advent of music sequencer technology. Prior to its introduction all synchronisation was achieved by adding SMPTE time code to analogue tape; this acted as a reference point so that individual tracks could be synchronised. With the advent of MIDI hardware, devices could be used to synchronise any MIDI device and MIDI Time Code or MTC became an alternative method of synchronising studio activity. Continuing development in this area has led to computer-controlled sequencing; the development of converter technology transforming analogue signals into digital signals has spawned a variety of supporting technical developments. DSP or Digital Signal Processing technology has led both to the advent of digital mixing desks and DSP-based computer recording platforms such as Pro Tools.
As such, this technology has created both a cheaper and lower maintenance alternative to the analogue mixing desk and a cheaper alternative to the multitrack analogue tape machine. The advent of early computer-controlled sequencers such as Cakewalk has led to the design of native Digital Audio Workstation or DAW platforms. Native DAW platforms such as Performer and more recent Digital Performer by Mark of the Unicorn, Steinberg's Cubase and Nuendo, Apple's Logic Pro and Cakewalk's Sonar now have significant market share as well as professional studio users, though the most broadly accepted system is Avid's Pro Tools, they are popular with home recording enthusiasts and artists making demos that might in the past have required expensive studio time. Furthermore, mixes can be achieved using a computer only; the high cost and hence small market for large format consoles led to pioneers such as Automated Processes Inc, to experiment with modular equipment design. API's product offering of single items in the signal chain such as pre-amps and compressors all based around a flexible central power supply proved popular with buyers who wanted high quality but could not afford to buy a minimum of 24 channels at once.
In 2003, SSL entered the rackmount market with semi-modular offering from its 9000K console including its first channel strip. By moving to surface mount technology, SSL have been able to offer selected features of their large format consoles at prices more affordable to smaller studios and committed home recording enthusiasts. 2005 saw the release of further rack mount units such as the X-rack. The XLogic G Series Compressor unit is a 1U rack mounting stereo compressor, it utilises the classic SSL G Series center compressor design elements within a Super-Analogue design topology. In late 2004, SSL launched an integrated analogue console and DAW controller. Bearing in mind the considerable, £50,000+ entry level price tag for this smallest of SSL desks, the unit has proved popular. SSL now lists over 300 studios using the AWS900. 2006 saw the release of its successor, AWS 900+. In late 2006, SSL launched the Duality, a large format console, similar to an XL9000K, with the control surface features of the AWS 900.
Further releases in 2006 inc
South Salt Lake, Utah
South Salt Lake is a city in Salt Lake County, United States and is part of the Salt Lake City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 23,617 at the 2010 census. Jesse Fox Jr. developed the area South Salt Lake refers to as Central Park around 1890. Mr. Fox chose the name after seeing Central Park there, he was impressed by its design within an urban environment. Despite South Salt Lake being rural at the time, he decided to name the area Central Park. In 1925 the LDS Central Park Ward was named after the development. In 1936, an attempted annexation by Salt Lake City failed due to concerns over funding and implementation of a sewer system. On August 14, 1936 a resolution creating the Town of Central Park was approved by the Board of County Commissioners - however, this did last long, as voters decided to disincorporate the town in 1937. In a close vote, voters approved incorporation of South Salt Lake. On September 29, 1938, still in need of a sewer system, South Salt Lake voted to incorporate as the Town of South Salt Lake, with Robert R. Fitts as the first town president.
The town was lacking many other basic amenities at the time that would be easier to implement with incorporation, such as a post office and fire department. In 1939, the Works Progress Administration began construction of a sewer system, with a cost of $462,000; the original boundary of South Salt Lake was from 500 East to 300 West and 2100 South to Mill Creek on the south. On August 1, 1950 the population had increased enough for South Salt Lake to be designated as a third class city; this changed the form of government to a city council. The town president of the time, Marlow Callahan, became the first mayor of the City of South Salt Lake. In the 1990s, South Salt Lake annexed portions of an unincorporated portion of Salt Lake County to the south, nearly doubled in land area and population. On January 4, 2010, Cherie Wood became South Salt Lake's first female mayor. During her administration, South Salt Lake has seen extensive redevelopment efforts. In 2012, a Chinatown development opened on a lot in the city near State Street.
It is the only Chinatown in the Intermountain West. In addition to having many Asian-themed restaurants, it has a large Asian-themed supermarket. In 2017, after nearly 7 years of planning, ground was broken on a new mixed-use development known as The Crossing between State St. and Main St. just south of 2100 South, intended to serve as South Salt Lake's "downtown". This development is oriented around mass transit, with an S-Line streetcar stop adjacent to the development, 1 stop away from the Central Pointe TRAX Station; the first phase includes a townhome development. This downtown development is planned to have 2,500 family housing units, 1.5 million square feet of retail, 3 million square feet of office and commercial space, additional greenspace and trails. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.9 square miles, all land. The city is bordered by the Jordan River on the west, 500 East and 700 East on the east, 2100 South on the north, 3900 South on the south.
West Valley City lies to the west, Salt Lake City to the north and northeast, Millcreek to the east and south. Because of its location next to the Jordan River and well away from the mountains, it is flat, only ranging in elevation from about 4,330 feet to 4,380 feet. According to estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, as of 2017, there were 24,956 people in South Salt Lake; the racial makeup of the county was 52.4% non-Hispanic White, 8.3% Black, 2.5% Native American, 11.4% Asian, 2.1% Pacific Islander, 3.6% from two or more races. 21.0 % of the population were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2010, there were 23,617 people, 9,160 housing units, with a total of 8,554 households; the population density was 3,401.1 people per square mile with a land area of 6.94 miles. The racial makeup of the city was 69.5% White, 4.4% African American, 2.6% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 1.0% Pacific Islander, 4.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 29.1% of the population. There were 8,554 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.2% were non-family house holds.
34% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 77.8% over the age of 18, 11.5% from 20 to 24, 12.5% from 25 to 29, 6.1% from 45 to 49, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 121.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 127.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,547 and the median income for a family was $37,632. Males had a median income of $27,432 versus $22,275 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,786. According to US Census Bureau data, the number of persons below the poverty level in 2009-2013 was 29.7%, over twice the Utah average. According to the Deseret News, ground breaking on the new Chinatown occurred in 2011 for a Chinese-themed shopping mall with a "... 27,000 square foot Asian grocery store, 65,000 square foot indoor mall including 38 Asian-themed shops and 12,000 square feet Asian-themed strip mall".
The strip mall is now open. Margaret Yee, a 1962 graduate said that "... 10,000-plus Chinese nationals living in the area have wanted for a long time...." By late 2012, the Chinato
StarCraft II StarLeague
The StarCraft II StarLeague known as SSL or S2SL in short, is a large StarCraft II tournament hosted by SPOTV GAMES, played offline in South Korea. This tournament is held in parallel with the Global StarCraft II League as qualifiers for the StarCraft World Championship Series held yearly at BlizzCon. Prior to the 2015 season, the StarCraft World Championship Series only had one StarCraft II individual league in South Korea, the GSL. On October 31, 2014 Blizzard Entertainment announced changes to the WCS system and that SPOTV GAMES would be holding a second individual league that would reward players with WCS points, it was announced on January 15, 2015 that Naver, Korea's largest search engine, would sponsor the first SSL tournament. The following two tournaments in the year were sponsored by a casual footwear company; the SSL is made up of two events, the Main Event, renamed in 2017 to Premier, Challenge. The latter serves as a de facto qualifier for the former. Throughout its three year history, the SSL has gone through multiple large format changes of both leagues.
In all three seasons of 2015, the 16 players in the Main Event start off divided into four groups of four. Matches are best of three in the group stage and the top two players from each group move onto the playoffs round whereas the bottom two players in each group fall down to Challenge League for the following season. Players that advance to the playoffs stay in the main event the following season. Matches in the quarterfinals are best of five and the semifinals and finals are best of seven. SSL Challenge is an event serving as a de facto qualifier for the main event. Players that qualify for the league and players that were eliminated early from the main event face off in a best of five match; the winners of each match move on to the main event and the losers fall out of the league and have to participate in the general qualifiers again. There was no SSL Challenge in Season 1 of 2016. Instead, qualifiers seeded directly into the main event; the main event consisted of a sixteen player double elimination bracket with one round of the winners' and two of the losers' bracket being best of three matches, the next two rounds in both brackets being best of five, the remaining four matches deciding the placement of the top four players being best of seven games.
In Season 2, the main event's format reverted to that of 2015, with a group stage and playoffs starting with best of five quarterfinals best of seven semifinals and finals. SSL Challenge returned for Season 2 of the SSL, it included 24 players in four round robin groups of six. Each match was two games long, the top three of each group advanced to the Main Event; each match consisted of an "away" game for each player. The "home" player chose the map, played, away wins were given more weight in how standings were determined, being deciding factors in cases where overall map wins for two players in a group were equal. In 2017, the SSL Main Event was renamed to SSL Premier and once again brought about large format changes to the league. Unlike 2016, the format remains constant between seasons. 10 players play in a large round robin of the regular season, called the Pennant Race. At the end of the Pennant Race the bottom two players are relegated to Challenge and seventh place go on to play in day one of Fast Lane, eighth place goes on to play in day two of Fast Lane, fifth place is directly seeded into next season's Premier.
The top four players advance to the Post Season. In the Post Season, the third and fourth place finishers play a best of five to advance to face the second place finisher in a best of five; the winner of that advances to the finals to face the first place finisher of the Pennant Race. Due to this large format change, the prize pool structure was modified to have every match give out money, with placement only accounting for a small portion of the total prize pool of the event. Challenge experienced large format changes in 2017. 10 players participate in the first stage in two five player groups with best of three matches. The top three of each group advance to the second stage, the bottom four being eliminated, where all six are in one round robin group with best of five matches; the top finisher of the second stage is seeded directly into next season's Premier. Second and third place advance to the first day of Fast Lane, fourth place advances to the second day of Fast Lane, fifth and sixth are eliminated.
Due to the extensive format changes, Challenge awards money for each match instead of overall placement. Fast Lane was added in 2017 to have the lower but not lowest finishers of Premier face the higher but not highest finishers of Challenge, it is a two day event consisting of two four player groups. In day one, the sixth and seventh place finishers of Premier and the second and third place finishers of Challenge face off in a four player group; the top two advance to next season's Premier. In day two, the previous day's bottom two players are joined by the eighth place finisher of Premier and the fourth place finisher of Challenge; the top two once again advance to Premier, while the bottom two are relegated to next season's Challenge. The prize pool for each tournament in 2015 awarded a total of 75,000,000 KRW for the main event. In addition, all players that lose in the Challenge League and do not proceed to the main event are awarded 200,000 KRW each; the prize pool for each season in 2016 awarded a total of 134,000,000 KRW for the main event.
In 2017, the tournament once again underwent big prize pool changes. The total prize pool per SSL season in 2015 was 75,000,000 KRW; the total prize pool per SSL season in 2016 was 134,000,000 KRW. Additionally, du
SSL Space Systems/Loral, LLC, of Palo Alto, California, is a wholly owned manufacturing subsidiary of Maxar Technologies. SSL designs and builds satellites and space systems for a wide variety of government and commercial customers, its products include high-powered direct-to-home broadcast satellites, commercial weather satellites, digital audio radio satellites, Earth observation satellites and spot-beam satellites for data networking applications. The company was founded as the Western Development Laboratories of Philco; the Space Systems Division was made a stand-alone Division of Aeronutronic/Ford Aerospace/ and was acquired by Loral Corp. in 1990 for $715 million from Ford Motor Company, renamed Space Systems/Loral. All other divisions of Ford Aerospace including Western Development Labs now located in San Jose were acquired by Loral at that time. In 2012 Space Systems/Loral was acquired by the Canadian aerospace company MacDonald Dettwiler for $875 million. SSL’s major competitors are Boeing Satellite Systems, Lockheed Martin, Thales Alenia Space, Airbus Defence and Space and JSC Information Satellite Systems.
In 1960, the Courier 1B, built by Philco, became the world's first active repeater satellite. SSL has pioneered research in electric propulsion systems, lithium-ion power systems and the use of advanced composites on commercial satellites, which permit significant increases in the size and power of a satellite’s payload and extends the satellite’s on-orbit lifetime. SSL has developed new service-enhancing technologies such as super power systems for direct-to-user applications and ground-based beam forming, a technology that uses both satellite and terrestrial assets to provide mobile users with increased coverage and capacity capabilities; as of December 2016, there are 87 SSL-built geosynchronous satellites in orbit. SSL manufactures satellites based on its SSL 1300 series platform in Palo Alto. Satellites in the series include ProtoStar I, ICO G1, SIRIUS FM-6 and SES NEW SKIES NSS-12; as of September 2015 there were 80 satellites based on the 1300 series platform on orbit, with 1 more ready for launch and 21 others under construction.
The company designed and built AsiaSat 8, launched on 5 August 2014, AsiaSat 6, which went into orbit on 7 September 2014. The two satellite launches cost AsiaSat $110 million; the satellites were expected to last 15 years, contain high-powered C-band transponders providing video and broadband services to the Asia-Pacific region. SSL and Constellation Services International have proposed a reusable space tug based on the 1300 platform and a pressure-fed, low-cost Aquarius Launch Vehicle; the tug would be used to bring supplies to the International Space Station as part of the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program. NASA decided to pursue another proposal for this project. SSL, continues to provide Battery Orbital Replacement Units, Battery Charge Discharge Units, Sequential Shunt Units for the ISS. SSL designed and delivered a propulsion system based on their 1300 platform for the NASA LADEE mission. On April 17, 2014, between 9:30 p.m and 10:22 p.m. PDT, after completing its goal to collect lunar dust and study the moon's atmosphere, NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer spacecraft completed a planned de-orbit, bringing an end to the mission to study the structure and composition of the thin lunar atmosphere.
Using a private company to provide the propulsion system leverages the capability of commercially proven technology for U. S. Government missions. In June 2017, SSL was awarded the contract to design and build the satellite servicing spacecraft vehicle for the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ’s Robotic Servicing of Geosynchronous Satellites program, designed to inspect and augment geosynchronous satellites and plans to include a refueling payload to extend the life of satellites that are low on propellant. SSL joined the Naval Research Laboratory, the Charles Draper Laboratory and Maxar's robotics divisions in Brampton and Pasadena to develop the servicer; the servicer is designed to refuel commercial satellites, global satellite operator SES is the first commercial customer to sign up to use the services for a satellite life extension mission. In January 2019, SSL's decided to abandon its participation in the program because of financial difficulties and participation in the program required the company to fund the cost of the development by more than the typical 33%.
SSL's customers include AsiaSat, Bank Rakyat Indonesia Tbk. Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation, Bulgaria Sat, DirecTV, EchoStar, Globalstar, Google's Skybox Imaging, Hughes Network Systems, ICO Global Communications, Japan MTSAT, JSC Gascom, Loral Skynet, NASA/NOAA, Optus, PanAmSat, Pasifik Satelit Nusantara, QuetzSat, Satmex, SES S. A. SES World Skies, Shin Satellite, Sirius Satellite Radio, Sky Perfect JSAT Corporation, Star One, Telesat Canada, ViaSat, WildBlue, XM Satellite Radio. Aerospace manufacturer List of spacecraft manufacturers Technology companies based in the San Francisco Bay Area SSL company website SSL at Answers.com