A sea captain, ship's captain, master, or shipmaster, is a high-grade licensed mariner who holds ultimate command and responsibility of a merchant vessel. The captain is responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the ship and its people and cargo, including its seaworthiness and security, cargo operations, crew management, legal compliance; the captain ensures that the ship complies with local and international laws and complies with company and flag state policies. The captain is responsible, under the law, for aspects of operation such as the safe navigation of the ship, its cleanliness and seaworthiness, safe handling of all cargo, management of all personnel, inventory of ship's cash and stores, maintaining the ship's certificates and documentation. One of a shipmaster's important duties is to ensure compliance with the vessel's security plan, as required by the International Maritime Organization's ISPS Code; the plan, customized to meet the needs of each individual ship, spells out duties including conducting searches and inspections, maintaining restricted spaces, responding to threats from terrorists, hijackers and stowaways.
The security plan covers topics such as refugees and asylum seekers and saboteurs. On ships without a purser, the captain is in charge of the ship's accounting; this includes ensuring an adequate amount of cash on board, coordinating the ship's payroll, managing the ship's slop chest. On international voyages, the captain is responsible for satisfying requirements of the local immigration and customs officials. Immigration issues can include situations such as embarking and disembarking passengers, handling crew members who desert the ship, making crew changes in port, making accommodations for foreign crew members. Customs requirements can include the master providing a cargo declaration, a ship's stores declaration, a declaration of crew members' personal effects, crew lists and passenger lists; the captain has special responsibilities when the ship or its cargo are damaged, when the ship causes damage to other vessels or facilities. The master acts as a liaison to local investigators and is responsible for providing complete and accurate logbooks, reports and evidence to document an incident.
Specific examples of the ship causing external damage include collisions with other ships or with fixed objects, grounding the vessel, dragging anchor. Some common causes of cargo damage include heavy weather, water damage and damage caused during loading/unloading by the stevedores. All persons on board including public authorities and passengers are under the captain's authority and are his or her ultimate responsibility during navigation. In the case of injury or death of a crew member or passenger, the master is responsible to address any medical issues affecting the passengers and crew by providing medical care as possible, cooperating with shore-side medical personnel, and, if necessary, evacuating those who need more assistance than can be provided on board the ship. There is a common belief that ship captains have been, are, able to perform marriages; this depends on the country of registry, however most do not permit performance of a marriage by the master of a ship at sea. In the United States Navy, a captain’s powers are defined by its 1913 Code of Regulations stating: "The commanding officer shall not perform a marriage ceremony on board his ship or aircraft.
He shall not permit a marriage ceremony to be performed on board when the ship or aircraft is outside the territory of the United States." However, there may be exceptions "in accordance with local laws and the laws of the state, territory, or district in which the parties are domiciled" and "in the presence of a diplomatic or consular official of the United States, who has consented to issue the certificates and make the returns required by the consular regulations." Furthermore, in the United States, there have been a few contradictory legal precedents: courts did not recognize a shipboard marriage in California's 1898 Norman v. Norman but did in New York's 1929 Fisher v. Fisher and in 1933's Johnson v. Baker, an Oregon court ordered the payment of death benefits to a widow because she had established that her marriage at sea was lawful. However, in Fisher v. Fisher the involvement of the ship's captain was irrelevant to the outcome. New Jersey's 1919 Bolmer v. Edsall said a shipboard marriage ceremony is governed by the laws of the nation where ownership of the vessel lies.
In the United Kingdom, the captain of a merchant ship has never been permitted to perform marriages, although from 1854 any which took place had to be reported in the ship's log. Filipino and Spanish law, as narrow exceptions, recognise a marriage in articulo mortis solemnized by the captain of a ship or chief of an aeroplane during a voyage, or by the commanding officer of a military unit. Japan allows ship captains to perform a marriage ceremony at sea, but only for Japanese citizens. Malta and Bermuda permit captains of ships registered in their jurisdictions to perform marriages at sea. Princess Cruises, whose ships are registered in Bermuda, has used this as a selling point for their cruises, while Cunard moved the registration of its ships Queen Mary 2, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth from Southampton to Bermuda in 2011 to allow marriages to be conducted on their ships; some captains obtain other credentials, which allow them to perform marriages in some jurisdictions where they would otherwise not be permitted to do so.
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
French destroyer Yatagan
Yatagan was a Framée-class destroyer built for the French Navy around the beginning of the 20th century. Yatagan served on fishery protection duties during World War I. While thus engaged, she collided with the British steamer Teviot and sank in the English Channel off Dieppe, France, on 3 November 1916. Chesneau, Roger & Kolesnik, Eugene M.. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-133-5. Couhat, Jean Labayle. French Warships of World War I. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0445-5. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5
French battleship Suffren
Suffren was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the French Navy, launched in July 1899. She was named after French Vice Admiral Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez; the ship was intended to be a modified version of the Iéna design with more firepower and better armour. Before World War I Suffren had an eventful career as she twice collided with French ships and twice had propeller shafts break, she was sent to the Dardanelles after the beginning of the war to reinforce British forces there. Suffren joined the British ships in multiple bombardments of the Ottoman fortifications at the mouth of the Dardanelles, she was moderately damaged during the major action of 18 March 1915 and had to be sent to Toulon for repairs. Upon their completion she returned to provide gunfire support for the Allied forces during the Gallipoli Campaign; the ship provided covering fire as the Allies withdrew from the peninsula and accidentally sank one of the evacuation ships. After repairs she was assigned to the French squadron assigned to prevent any interference by the Greeks with Allied operations on the Salonica front.
While en route to Lorient for a refit Suffren was torpedoed off Lisbon on 26 November 1916 and sunk with all hands. To save time Suffren was only intended to be an updated version of Iéna with modest improvements in armament and armour, but the number of improvements grew as the project was discussed by the Naval Council so that she was a new design, only retaining some of Iéna's layout; the biggest changes were the mounting of the bulk of the secondary armament in turrets, rather than Iéna's casemates, the constant thickness of the waterline belt armour compared to Iéna's belt which thinned towards the ends of the ship. Stowage of shells for the main armament increased from 45 to 60 rounds per gun. Suffren was larger than Iéna being 125.91 metres long overall. She had a beam of a draft of 7.39 metres forward and 8.22 metres aft. She was only heavier than the Iéna and displaced 12,432 metric tons at normal displacement, 12,892 metric tons at full load. Suffren displaced over 700 metric tons more than the earlier ship.
She was fitted with bilge keels to reduce her rolling. Suffren used one engine per shaft; the centre shaft drove the wing propellers were four-bladed. Each propeller was 4.39 metres in diameter. The engines were powered by 24 Niclausse boilers that had a working pressure of 18 kg/cm2; the engines were rated at 16,200 indicated horsepower and produced 16,809 ihp and gave a top speed of 17.91 knots on sea trials, just less than her designed speed of 18 knots. The ship carried a maximum of 1,233 metric tons of coal which allowed her to steam for 3,086 nautical miles at a speed of 12 knots. 52.15 metric tons of fuel oil was carried to be sprayed on the coal to improve its burn rate. The ship's 80 V electrical power was provided by three 1200-ampere dynamos. Like the Iéna which preceded her, the Suffren carried her main armament of four 40-calibre Canon de 305 mm Modèle 1893/96 guns in two twin-gun turrets, one each fore and aft; the guns had a maximum elevation of 15°. They fired 340-kilogram projectiles at the theoretical rate of one round per minute.
They had a muzzle velocity of 780 metres per second which gave a range of 12,000 metres at maximum elevation. Suffren carried 60 rounds for each gun; the ship's secondary armament consisted of ten 45-calibre Canon de 164 mm Modèle 1893 guns. Six of these were carried in single turrets on each side of the superstructure and the remaining four were mounted in individual casemates below them on the 1st Deck; the casemates were sponsoned out over the tumblehome of the sides. The guns fired 52-kilogram shells at a muzzle velocity of 865 metres per second to a maximum range of 9,000 metres, their theoretical rate of fire was between three rounds per minute. She carried 1906 shells for these guns. Suffren carried eight 45-calibre Canon de 100 mm Modèle 1893 guns in shielded mounts on the shelter deck and on the superstructure; these guns fired a 12-kilogram projectile at 710 metres per second, which could be trained up to 20° for a maximum range of 9,500 metres. Their theoretical maximum rate of fire was six rounds per minute, but only three rounds per minute sustained.
The ship carried 2264 shells for these guns. Twenty 50-calibre Canon de 47 mm Modèle 1885 Hotchkiss guns were mounted as anti-torpedo boat guns, they were mounted on the superstructure. They fired a 1.49-kilogram projectile at 610 metres per second to a maximum range of 4,000 metres. Their theoretical maximum rate of fire was fifteen rounds per minute, but only seven rounds per minute sustained. Suffren carried 15,000 rounds for these 47-millimetre guns. Two 37-millimetre Modèle 1885 Hotchkiss guns were mounted on the upper bridge, they fired a shell weighing about.48 kilograms at a muzzle velocity of about 610 m/s to a range about 3,200 metres. Their rate of fire was about 25 rounds per minute. Four 450 mm torpedo tubes were carried. Two tubes were submerged, abaft the forward turret, fixed at a 30° angle to the beam; the two above-water tubes had a central pivot and limited traver
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
SS Chester A. Congdon
The Chester A. Congdon was a bulk steel freighter named after the lawyer and capitalist of the same name, it sank on November 6, 1918 in Lake Superior near Isle Royale. The wreckage remains at the bottom of the lake, in 1984 was placed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Chester A. Congdon was constructed in 1907 by the Chicago Ship Building Co. of South Chicago Illinois under the name Salt Lake City for Holmes Steamship Company of Cleveland, Ohio. The ship was 552 feet long, having a 56-foot beam and 26 foot draft, with a gross tonnage of 6530 tons and a net tonnage of 4843 tons; the ship was powered by a 1,765HP triple expansion steam engine with two Scotch boilers. In 1911, the Salt Lake City was sold to the Acme Transit Company of Ohio. In early 1912, the ship was purchased by the Continental Steamship Company and renamed the Chester A. Congdon, after the Duluth, Minnesota lawyer and industrialist Chester Adgate Congdon; the ship's record was uneventful, but it was grounded twice, once in 1912 and once in 1915.
On November 6, 1918, the Congdon departed from Thunder Bay, Ontario with 380,000 bushels of wheat aboard. That day, the Congdon ran aground in the fog at Canoe Rocks, near Isle Royale, which were subsequently renamed Congdon Shoal; the captain dispatched a boat to nearby Passage Island to request assistance and sent a second boat back to Thunder Bay. All crew members were rescued, an attempt to salvage the cargo resulted in only about 20% being saved. A storm on November 8 broke the freighter in two, it sank. Although another salvage operation was mounted in 1918, nothing more was recovered from the wreck; the Congdon is significant in that her wreck was the first on Lake Superior to be valued at over a million dollars, was the largest loss up to that time in both dollar value and net tonnage. The wreckage of the Congdon sits in 50–200 feet of water, with the bow section on the south side of the reef and the stern on the north side; the stern section is in deeper water than the bow, represents a more technical dive.
The bow section of the Congdon sank upright, the pilot house on the bow is still intact, a rare occurrence. Many of the ship's furnishings were salvaged. 160 dives were made to the Congdon in 2009 out of 1062 dives made to wrecks in the Isle Royale National Park. Daniel J. Lenihan, Shipwrecks of Isle Royale National Park: The Archeological Survey, Lake Superior Port Cities, ISBN 0-942235-18-5, archived from the original on 2010-11-25, retrieved 2010-12-14 Daniel Lenihan.