Operation Steel Box
Operation Steel Box, known as Operation Golden Python, was a 1990 joint U. S. -West German operation which moved 100,000 U. S. chemical weapons from Germany to Johnston Atoll. At U. S. Army Site 59 coor,49.265018,7.712617 near Clausen, West Germany 100,000 GB and VX filled American chemical munitions were stored in 15 concrete bunkers. These munitions were managed by the 330th Ordnance Company and guarded by the 110th Military Police Company both headquartered in nearby Munchweiler, the propellants for these munitions were stored in Leimen Site 67. The BG and VX munitions had undergone a refurbishment in 1980 -1982, the weapons in this depot were scheduled to be moved due to an agreement between the U. S. and West Germany. The 1986 agreement, between Ronald Reagan and Helmut Kohl, provided for the removal of 155 mm and 8 inch unitary chemical projectiles. Operation Steel Box began on July 26,1990 and ended on September 22,1990, the move from the storage facility to an intermediate facility at Miesau utilized trucks and trains, civilian contractors, and U. S.
and West German military personnel. The weapons were repacked and shipped by truck from their storage facility until they reached the railway in Miesau, the truck transport portion of the mission involved 28 road convoys which delivered the munitions the 30 miles from Clausen to Miesau. The munitions were carried by special train from Miesau to the port of Nordenham. The train transport was well publicized and escorted by 80 U. S. and West German military, at the port the munitions were loaded onto two modified ships, the SS Gopher State and the SS Flickertail State, by the Armys Technical Escort Unit. The ships were operated by the U. S, Military Sealift Command, and upon leaving Nordenham they sailed for 46 straight days. The ships arrived at Johnston Atoll and on November 18 unloaded the last of their cargo containers and emergency response were both concerns during Steel Box. Besides the police and military escort for the trains, the convoys had restricted airspace overhead. Along the route, emergency response teams were on stand-by, while the ships were in port U. S.
Navy EOD Detachments provided underwater hull sweeps to ensure limpet mines were not attached to the ships. The 46-day trip at sea was non-stop, with refueling taking place along the route, the ships were escorted by the U. S. Navy guided missile cruiser USS Bainbridge CGN-25 and USS Truxtun CGN-35. The transport ships avoided the Panama Canal, for security reasons, and took the route around Cape Horn, there were no reported chemical agent leaks or security breaches during the transport phase of Steel Box. The 1990 shipments of nerve agents from Germany to JACADS caused several South Pacific nations to express unease, at the 1990 South Pacific Forum in Vanuatu, the island nations of the South Pacific indicated that their concern was that the South Pacific would become a toxic waste dumping ground. Other concerns raised included the security of the shipments, which were refueled at sea and escorted by U. S. guided missile destroyers, while they were en route to Johnston Atoll. In Australia, Prime Minister Bob Hawke drew criticism from some of these nations for his support of the chemical weapons destruction at Johnston Atoll
Newport News, Virginia
Newport News is an independent city located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 180,719, in 2013, the population was estimated to be 183,412, making it the fifth-most populous city in Virginia. Newport News is included in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, the area now known as Newport News was once a part of Warwick County. Warwick County was one of the eight original shires of Virginia, formed by the House of Burgesses in the British Colony of Virginia by order of King Charles I, the county was largely composed of farms and undeveloped land until almost 250 years later. In 1881,15 years of development began under the leadership of Collis P. With the new railroad came a terminal and coal piers where the colliers were loaded, within a few years and his associates built a large shipyard. In 1896, the new incorporated town of Newport News, which had briefly replaced Denbigh as the county seat of Warwick County, had a population of 9,000. In 1958, by mutual consent by referendum, Newport News was consolidated with the former Warwick County, the more widely known name of Newport News was selected as they formed what was Virginias third largest independent city in population.
The location on the harbor and along the James River facilitates a large boating industry which can take advantage of its miles of waterfront. Newport News serves as a junction between the rails and the sea with the Newport News Marine Terminals located at the East End of the city. Served by major east-west Interstate Highway 64, it is linked to others of the cities of Hampton Roads by the circumferential Hampton Roads Beltway, part of the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport is in the city limits. The original area near the mouth of the James River was first referred to as Newportes Newes as early as 1621, the source of the name Newport News is not known with certainty. Several versions are recorded, and it is the subject of popular speculation locally, the new governor ordered them to turn around, and return to Jamestown. Under this theory, the community was named for Newports good news, another possibility is that the community may have derived its name from an old English word news meaning new town.
At least one source claims that the New arose from the settlements being rebuilt after a fire. Another source gave the name as New Port Newce, named for a person with the name Newce. The namesake, Sir William Newce, was an English soldier, there he had established Newcestown near Bandon, County Cork. He sailed to Virginia with Sir Francis Wyatt in October 1621 and was granted 2,500 acres of land and his brother, Capt. Thomas Newce, was given 600 acres at Kequatan, now called Elizabeth Cittie
Keystone State-class crane ship
The Keystone State-class crane ships are seven auxiliary crane ships of the U. S. Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force. The ships can be activated to support military sea transportation needs. These self-sustaining ships are useful in ports that have limited, damaged or undeveloped port facilities, when activated, they come under operational control of Military Sealift Command. The US Navy converted ten cargo ships to ships, three Gopher State clase and seven Keystone State class, the first of which was completed in 1984. Five of the ships were deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1990-91, USNS Gopher State acted as a temporary Army prepositioning ship in 1994. Four of the ten ships have been deactivated and transferred to the reserve fleet. Builder, Defoe SB Co, Bay City, Dillingham SR, Norshipco, Tampa SY, Keith Ship Repair, beam,76.1 feet Displacement,31,500 tons full load. Property Management and Archive Record System United States Navy Fact File
Military Sealift Command
The Military Sealift Command is a United States Navy organization that controls the replenishment and military transport ships of the Navy. The United States Military Sealift Command has the responsibility for providing sealift and it first came into existence on 9 July 1949 when the Military Sea Transportation Service became solely responsible for the Department of Defenses ocean transport needs. The MSTS was renamed the Military Sealift Command in 1970, Military Sealift Command ships are made up of a core fleet of ships owned by the United States Navy and others under long-term-charter augmented by short-term or voyage-chartered ships. Some ships may have Navy or Marine Corps personnel on board to carry out communication and special mission functions, ships on charter or equivalent, retain commercial colors and bear the standard merchant prefix MV, SS, or GTS, without hull numbers. Five programs comprise Military Sealift Command, Combat Logistics Force, Special Mission, Service Support, the Combat Logistics Force’s role is to directly replenish ships that are underway at sea, enabling them to deploy for long periods of time without having to come to port.
The Special Mission program operates vessels for military and federal government tasks, such as submarine support and missile flight data collection. The Prepositioning program sustains the US militarys forward presence strategy by deploying supply ships in key areas prior to actual need, also, MSC realigned two of its four mission-driven programs and adding a fifth program. The Prepositioning and Sealift programs are unchanged by the 2012 reorganization, as of June 2013, Military Sealift Command operated around 110 ships, and employed 9,800 people. The Combat Logistics Force is the part of the MSC most associated with supporting the Navy. In 1972, a study concluded that it would be cheaper for civilians to man USN support vessels such as tankers, the CLF is the American equivalent of the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary. These MSC ships are painted gray and can be easily identified by the blue. The Combat Logistics Force was formerly called the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force, some of its ships were transferred to the new Service Support program.
Special mission ships work for several different US Navy customers, including the Naval Sea Systems Command and these ships like those of the NFAF are painted haze gray with blue and gold stack bands. Some of its ships were transferred to the new Service Support program, as a key element of sea basing, afloat prepositioning provides the military equipment and supplies for a contingency forward deployed in key ocean areas before need. The MSC Prepositioning Program supports the US Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, Prepositioning ships remain at sea, ready to deploy on short-notice the vital equipment and supplies to initially support military forces in the event of a contingency. The Prepositioning Program consists of 34 at-sea ships plus 2 aviation support ships kept in reduced operating status and these ships wear civilian livery, and are only designated USNS if government-owned, those chartered from civilian owners are either SS or MV. It consists of four government-operated ships formerly in the Special Mission program, Sealift is divided into three separate project offices, Tanker Project Office, Dry Cargo Project Office and the Surge Project Office.
As a result of a 2012 organization, MSCs 12 worldwide MSC ship support units will now report to the MSC operational area commands in their areas of responsibility
Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works is a major American shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine. Since its founding in 1884, BIW has built private and military vessels, the shipyard has built and sometimes designed battleships, frigates and destroyers, including the Arleigh Burke class, which are currently among the worlds most advanced surface warships. Since 1995, Bath Iron Works has been a subsidiary of General Dynamics, during World War II, ships built at BIW were considered by sailors and Navy officials to be of superior toughness, giving rise to the phrase Bath-built is best-built. Bath Iron Works was incorporated in 1884 by General Thomas W. Hyde, after the war, Hyde bought a local shop that helped make windlasses and other iron hardware for the wooden ships built in Baths many shipyards. He expanded the business by improving its practices, entering new markets, by 1882, Hyde Windlass was eyeing the new and growing business of iron shipbuilding, two years later, it incorporated as Bath Iron Works.
On February 28,1890, BIW won its first contract for complete vessels, the Machias, one of these 190-foot gunboats, was the first ship launched by the company. In 1892, the yard won its first commercial contract for a steel vessel, in the 1890s, the company built several yachts for wealthy sailors. In 1899, General Hyde, suffering from the Brights Disease that would kill him that year, resigned from management of the shipyard, leaving his sons Edward and that year the shipyard began construction of the Georgia, the only battleship to be built in Bath. The ship dominated the yard for five years until its launching in 1904, the yard faced numerous challenges because of the weight of armor and weapons. In sea trials, the Georgia averaged 19.26 knots for four hours, making her the fastest ship in her class, the company continued to rely on Navy contracts, which provided 86% of the value of new contracts between 1905 and 1917. The yard produced fishing trawlers and yachts throughout the first half of the century, at peak production during World War II, the shipyard launched a destroyer every 17 days.
Bath Iron Works ranked 50th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts, in 1981, Falcon Transport ordered two tankers, the last commercial vessels built by BIW. In 1988, the USS Samuel B, commissioned two years earlier at Bath, survived a mine explosion that tore a hole in its engine room and flooded two compartments. Over the next two years, BIW repaired the Roberts in unique fashion, the guided missile frigate was towed to the companys dry dock in Portland and put up on blocks, where its damaged engine room was cut out of the ship. Meanwhile, workers in Bath built a 315-ton replacement, when it was ready, the module was floated south to Portland, placed on the dry dock, slid into place under the Roberts, jacked up, and welded into place. In 2001, BIW wrapped up an effort to build an enormous concrete platform. Instead of being built on a way so that they could slide into the Kennebec at launch. This greatly reduced the work involved in building and launching the ships, the 750-foot,28, 000-ton dry dock was built by Chinas Jiangdu Yuchai Shipbuilding Company for $27 million
National Defense Reserve Fleet
The NDRF is managed by the U. S. Department of Transportations Maritime Administration. It is a different entity from the United States Navy reserve fleets, NDRF vessels are at the fleet sites at James River, Virginia–the James River Reserve Fleet, Texas–the Beaumont Reserve Fleet, and Suisun Bay, and at designated outported berths. Former anchorage sites included Stony Point, New York - the Hudson River Reserve Fleet, North Carolina, Alabama, Astoria and Olympia, Washington. Through the 2010s, the oldest, most decrepit hulls at Suisun Bay will be stripped of materials, broken up in Texas. Twenty of the most polluting mothball ships are slated for recycling by 2012, at its peak in 1950, the NDRF had 2,277 ships in lay-up. In July 2007, it held 230 ships, primarily dry cargo ships with some tankers, military auxiliaries, by the end of August,2015, it held 100. The NDRF was established under Section 11 of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 to serve as a reserve of ships for national defense, NDRF vessels were used in seven wars and crises.
During the Korean War,540 vessels were out to move military forces. During a worldwide tonnage shortfall in 1951–53, more than 600 ships were reactivated to carry coal to Northern Europe, from 1955 through 1964, another 600 ships were used to store grain for the Department of Agriculture. Another 223 cargo ships and 29 tankers were activated during a tonnage shortfall after the Suez Canal was closed in 1956, during the Berlin crisis of 1961,18 vessels were activated and remained in service until 1970. Another 172 vessels were activated for the Vietnam War and these are crewed with a reduced crew but kept available for activation within four, ten or twenty days. An additional 28 ships are held under United States Maritime Administration custody for other Government agencies on a cost-reimbursable basis. Vessels with military utility or logistic value are held in status and are in a preservation program that is designed to keep them in the same condition as when they enter the fleet. The internal spaces are dehumidified to slow the corrosion of metal, DC power is distributed through anodes to the exterior underwater portions of the hull, creating an electric field that suppresses corrosion and preserves the surface of the hull.
External painting and other work is generally deferred since it does not affect the ability to activate and operate the vessel. MARAD is authorized as the government’s disposal agent through the NDRF program for merchant type vessels equal to or greater than 1,500 gross tons. A state agency can file an application to request title to a vessel as-is where-is from the NDRF for the purpose of creating an artificial reef, of the 132 non-retention vessels in the NDRF, there are 117 that are being prepared for disposal. The NDRF program can give and lend historic artifacts to maritime-heritage organizations, battleships and aircraft carriers which have been stricken or those awaiting final disposition may be transferred to MARAD locations for berthing
Farrell lines Incorporated was named in 1948 after James A. Farrell, Jr. and John J. Farrell, sons of James Augustine Farrell, president of US Steel. The company was known as American South African Lines. It was a passengerline and cargo line in service from New York City to South Africa stopping at Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban. The ships were well-appointed and carried about 180 passengers, in heraldic terms, the house flag is field per saltire red and blue, overlaid by a white saltire. 1925 New York to West Africa, South Africa 1935 New York to East Africa 1965 U. S, East Coast to Australia and New Zealand 1975 U. S. West Coast to Australia and New Zealand The ships funnel 1925 -1946 Buff 1946 -2000 Buff with black top and depiction of houseflag FRLU Note, Marks ending in U are for container owners. The Isthmian Steamship Company was created in 1910 as a subsidiary of U. S. Steel and was designed to mitigate the costs of shipping U. S. James A. Farrell grew up the son of a captain. Farrells foray into the industry was a great success.
He saved U. S. Steel Corporation substantial sums of money, by 1928, Farrell was involved in several shipping ventures and operated three of the most influential companies in the industry, Argonaut Lines, Robin Lines, and the American South African Lines. James A. Farrell Sr. had two sons to whom he imparted his knowledge and business savvy. Both sons and James Jr. went on to two of the three major shipping investments. James Jr. was president of ASAL while John was principal stockholder, in 1940, John abolished Argonaut Lines and transferred its vessels to ASAL. Shortly thereafter, James Jr. served in World War II in Naval Intelligence, the two were able to create a powerful management team and operated the main U. S. flag and passenger service between Africa and the United States. By 1948, ASAL was the line operated by the Farrell family. Determined to leave their imprint on the legacy, the Farrell brothers worked tirelessly to improve their brand. In 1965, they acquired the Australia-U. S, East Coast service from United States Lines.
At this time the brothers ceased offering passenger services, fixing their focus entirely onto the movement of cargo, following their 1965 acquisition, growth came along rapidly, and in the early 1970s the company began the transition to containerized cargo handling
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
SS Gopher State (T-ACS-4)
SS Gopher State is a crane ship in ready reserve for the United States Navy. The ship was named for the state of Minnesota, which is known as the Gopher State. Gopher State was laid down on 26 July 1971, as the container ship SS Export Leader, ON545126, IMO7226689, built by Bath Iron Works, Maine, hull no. 358, she was launched on 8 July 1972, and delivered to MARAD22 January 1973 and she was sold to Farrell Lines in 1978 without name change. The ship was returned to MARAD in 1986 and laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, in 1987 she was converted to a type Crane Ship by Norfolk Shipbuilding & Drydock, Virginia. Completed on 12 October 1987, she was placed in service as SS Gopher State and assigned to the Ready Reserve Force, Gopher State is in ready reserve, laid up at Newport News, Virginia. As of December 2016, she is in Drydock No.3 in Boston, the Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U. S. Flee. The Navy of the Nuclear Age, 1947-2007
Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in equivalent units. Typical loads are a mix of 20-foot and 40-foot ISO-standard containers, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, and modern container ships can carry over 19,000 TEU. Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial vessels on the ocean, there are two main types of dry cargo, bulk cargo and break bulk cargo. Bulk cargoes, like grain or coal, are transported unpackaged in the hull of the ship, break-bulk cargoes, on the other hand, are transported in packages, and are generally manufactured goods. Before the advent of containerization in the 1950s, break-bulk items were loaded, lashed and unloaded from the one piece at a time. However, by grouping cargo into containers,1,000 to 3,000 cubic feet of cargo, or up to about 64,000 pounds, is moved at once and each container is secured to the ship once in a standardized way.
Containerization has increased the efficiency of moving traditional break-bulk cargoes significantly, reducing shipping time by 84%, in 2001, more than 90% of world trade in non-bulk goods was transported in ISO containers. In 2009, almost one quarter of the dry cargo was shipped by container. The first ships designed to carrying standardized load units were use in the late 18th century in England, in 1766 James Brindley designed the box boat Starvationer with 10 wooden containers, to transport coal from Worsley Delph to Manchester by Bridgewater Canal. Before the Second World War first container ships were used to carrying baggages of the passenger train from London to Paris, Golden Arrow/Fleche dOr. These containers were loaded in London or Paris and carried to ports, Dover or Calais, on cars in the UK. The earliest container ships after the Second World War were converted to tankers, in 1951, the first purpose-built container vessels began operating in Denmark, and between Seattle and Alaska.
The first commercially successful container ship was Ideal X, a T2 tanker, owned by Malcom McLean, in 1955, McLean built his company, McLean Trucking into one of United States biggest freighter fleets. In 1955, he purchased the small Pan Atlantic Steamship Company from Waterman Steamship, on April 26,1956, the first of these rebuilt container vessels, Ideal X, left the Port Newark in New Jersey and a new revolution in modern shipping resulted. Container vessels eliminate the individual hatches and dividers of the general cargo vessels. The hull of a container ship is a huge warehouse divided into cells by vertical guide rails