Live fire exercise
A live-fire exercise or LFX is any military exercise in which a realistic scenario for the use of specific equipment is demonstrated. In the popular lexicon this is applied to tests of weapons or weapon systems that are associated with the various branches of a nation's armed forces, although the term can be applied to the civilian arena as well. Armed services use live-fire exercises as an opportunity to use real ammunition in a realistically created combat situation; the area in which these tests are conducted will be devoid of people to avoid casualties, will be owned by the government which authorized the test. Most live-fire tests are conducted either against derelict equipment, such as tanks and ships, or against remotely controlled drones; the purpose of this type of exercise is twofold: First, it offers recruits the chance to get accustomed to their weapons so that they will know how to properly operate them. This allows soldiers to get reacquainted with the feel and time of using and expending ammunition, rather than simulating the experience.
Live-fire exercises of this type can be observed either by remotely controlled cameras or by long-range telescopic devices, such as binoculars. An army, being the main branch responsible for land combat, is the best known group that conducts live-fire exercises. Most live-fire exercises occur within the military base where the units conducting the exercise are located. In some cases, one installation will host units from another for a larger live-fire exercise. Equipment tested under these circumstances range from small arms and assault rifle fire all the way up to missile systems and artillery fire. In the case of small arms, the tests are proficiency based and aimed at ensuring a soldier can fire their assigned weapons. In the case of the latter, missile systems may be test-fired at remotely controlled drones to simulate a situation in which enemy missiles or aircraft are launched at allied or friendly forces, while artillery units can take the opportunity to test new shells or to fire under adverse weather conditions for a chance to see how the artillery pieces will perform.
For the most part marine corps live-fire exercises are similar to the army's live-fire exercises. One notable difference stems from the amphibious nature of a marine force's duty, which can lead the force to incorporate amphibious assault ships when they conduct live-fire exercises. An air force, due to its nature limits live-fire exercises to the air, although bombing exercises can be conducted as well. During live-fire exercises dealing with air-to-air combat, remotely controlled drones are used to simulate enemy aircraft. In modern times, the drones are fired on by planes loaded with some type of air-to-air missile, with the objective of the exercise being to destroy the drone; these test are done to ensure that guidance packages within the missiles will work, although they can be done to test other factors, such as a missile's susceptibility to jamming or to see if a new type of dodging technique will work against the missiles fired. Live-fire exercises involving air-to-surface work are centered around precision-guided munitions.
In some cases, tests involving bombs will make use of derelict buildings or more vehicles. Live-fire bombing exercises are conducted with precision-guided munitions to ensure that they work but are used to test new and experimental weapons to ensure that they work as they were designed to; these test are monitored by chase planes and by cameras to determine if everything worked as it was intended to. Live-fire exercises may be conducted against planes for the purpose of testing a plane's susceptibility to SAM sites, or as a means to test a plane's stealth features. Naval live-fire exercises may use anti-ship missiles and torpedoes, although tests involving air-to-air and air-to-surface missile and bombs are not uncommon. Navies conduct live-fire exercises to test elements of an integrated defense system, such as the US Aegis. Tests can include an integrated defense system's compatibility to fire new missiles or newer versions of the same missile. Live-fire tests are conducted with a CIWS system, designed as the last line of defense for a ship.
Surface ships frequently test-fire the various guns kept and maintained aboard the vessel. This is done to maintain the knowledge needed to operate the weapon. In the case of aircraft carriers, the pilots assigned to the carrier may conduct air-to-air and air-to-surface missile exercises similar to those of the air force. Recent aircraft carriers have incorporated missile-launching systems, have taken part in live-fire exercises involving missiles. For submarines, both fast attack and ballistic missile, live-fire tests may include firing sea-to-land missiles at targets on shore or launching dummy ballistic missiles; the best-known tests of torpedoes are those conducted against a derelict ship on a ship from a navy's own mothball fleet that has become too old or obsolete to warrant maintaining. The purpose of these tests is to ensure that the torpedo will work under combat conditions, such tests can be used to determine whether or not noisemakers or other d
Evelyn Gertrude Brown, was a New Zealand civilian and military nurse. She served during the First World War and was the only New Zealand nurse to receive the Royal Red Cross and Bar. Brooke was born in New Plymouth, Taranaki, on 13 September 1879, her father, Thomas Brooke, was a carpenter who died in 1891. Her mother, moved to Wellington after his death and re-married. Brooke trained as a nurse at Masterton Hospital from 1902–04, at Wellington Hospital from 1904 to 1907. After completing her training, Brooke nursed at a private hospital in Hawera, followed by a position at Wellington Hospital from 1910 to 1914. In August 1914, Brooke joined a group of six nurses who were sent to German Samoa with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, she was appointed second-in-charge, promoted to matron while in Apia. She returned to New Zealand in 1915. Shortly after, she departed again as matron on the New Zealand Hospital Ship Maheno; the ship left Wellington for Gallipoli, carrying 14 nurses from the New Zealand Army Nursing Service.
In August and September 1915 the Maheno made five visits to Anzac Cove, nursing wounded and sick soldiers in the heat of the summer. In January 1916, Brooke returned to New Zealand and worked as matron of the Trentham military hospital near Wellington. In November 1916 she returned to the Marama. In May 1917, Brooke went to Brighton and took the position of matron at the New Zealand Hospital for Officers. At the end of the year, she was transferred to No. 1 New Zealand Stationary Hospital at Wisques, France. After the war, she returned to New Zealand, was matron of the military hospital at Featherston from June to December 1919, spent a year at Narrow Neck Military Hospital in Devonport, Auckland. In 1921, Brooke was appointed matron at the Rannerdale Veterans' Home in Christchurch, a position she held until her marriage in 1925. In 1917, Brooke was awarded the Royal Red Cross "In recognition of her nursing service in connection with the War." In June 1919 she was awarded the Bar "In recognition of her valuable service with the Armies in France and Flanders."In 2014, Brooke's medals were part of a display at Archives New Zealand, "Two Wellingtonians at War".
In 2015, an image of Brooke appeared on a New Zealand postage stamp, part of a series commemorating the centenary of the Gallipoli campaign. In 1925, Brooke married William John Brown of Nelson and they lived together in Christchurch. After his death, Brooke moved back to Wellington and worked as a private nurse until her retirement in 1955, she died in Wellington on 11 February 1962, is buried in Karori Cemetery
Western Front (World War I)
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium gaining military control of important industrial regions in France; the tide of the advance was turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918. Between 1915 and 1917 there were several offensives along this front; the attacks employed massive artillery massed infantry advances. Entrenchments, machine gun emplacements, barbed wire and artillery inflicted severe casualties during attacks and counter-attacks and no significant advances were made. Among the most costly of these offensives were the Battle of Verdun, in 1916, with a combined 700,000 casualties, the Battle of the Somme in 1916, with more than a million casualties, the Battle of Passchendaele, in 1917, with 487,000 casualties.
To break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front, both sides tried new military technology, including poison gas and tanks. The adoption of better tactics and the cumulative weakening of the armies in the west led to the return of mobility in 1918; the German Spring Offensive of 1918 was made possible by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that ended the war of the Central Powers against Russia and Romania on the Eastern Front. Using short, intense "hurricane" bombardments and infiltration tactics, the German armies moved nearly 100 kilometres to the west, the deepest advance by either side since 1914, but the result was indecisive; the inexorable advance of the Allied armies during the second half of 1918 caused a sudden collapse of the German armies and persuaded the German commanders that defeat was inevitable. The German government surrendered in the Armistice of 11 November 1918, the terms of peace were settled by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. At the outbreak of the First World War, the German Army, with seven field armies in the west and one in the east, executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, moving through neutral Belgium to attack France, turning southwards to encircle the French Army and trap it on the German border.
The Western Front was the place where the most powerful military forces in Europe, the German and French armies and where the war was decided. Belgian neutrality had been guaranteed by Britain under the Treaty of London, 1839. Armies under German generals Alexander von Kluck and Karl von Bülow attacked Belgium on 4 August 1914. Luxembourg had been occupied without opposition on 2 August; the first battle in Belgium was the Siege of Liège. Liège was well surprised the German Army under Bülow with its level of resistance. German heavy artillery was able to demolish the main forts within a few days. Following the fall of Liège, most of the Belgian field army retreated to Antwerp, leaving the garrison of Namur isolated, with the Belgian capital, falling to the Germans on 20 August. Although the German army bypassed Antwerp, it remained a threat to their flank. Another siege followed at Namur; the French deployed five armies on the frontier. The French Plan XVII was intended to bring about the capture of Alsace-Lorraine.
On 7 August, the VII Corps attacked Alsace to capture Colmar. The main offensive was launched on 14 August with the First and Second Armies attacking toward Sarrebourg-Morhange in Lorraine. In keeping with the Schlieffen Plan, the Germans withdrew while inflicting severe losses upon the French; the French Third and Fourth Armies advanced toward the Saar River and attempted to capture Saarburg, attacking Briey and Neufchateau but were repulsed. The French VII Corps captured Mulhouse after a brief engagement on 7 August but German reserve forces engaged them in the Battle of Mulhouse and forced a French retreat; the German Army swept through Belgium, razing villages. The application of "collective responsibility" against a civilian population further galvanised the allies. Newspapers condemned the German invasion, violence against civilians and destruction of property, which became known as the "Rape of Belgium". After marching through Belgium and the Ardennes, the Germans advanced into northern France in late August, where they met the French Army, under Joseph Joffre, the divisions of the British Expeditionary Force under Field Marshal Sir John French.
A series of engagements known as the Battle of the Frontiers ensued, which included the Battle of Charleroi and the Battle of Mons. In the former battle the French Fifth Army was destroyed by the German 2nd and 3rd Armies and the latter delayed the German advance by a day. A general Allied retreat followed, resulting in more clashes at the Battle of Le Cateau, the Siege of Maubeuge and the Battle of St. Quentin; the German Army came within 70 km of Paris but at the First Battle of the Marne and British troops were able to force a German retreat by exploiting a gap which appeared between the 1st and 2nd Armies, ending the German advance into France. The German Army retreated north of the Aisne River and dug in there, establishing the beginnings of a static western front, to last for the next three years. Following this German retirement, the opposing forces made reciprocal outflanking manoeuvres, known as the Race for the S
Department of Defence (Australia)
The Department of Defence is a department of the Government of Australia charged with the responsibility to defend Australia and its national interests. Along with the Australian Defence Force, it forms part of the Australian Defence Organisation and is accountable to the Commonwealth Parliament, on behalf of the Australian people, for the efficiency and effectiveness with which it carries out the Government's defence policy; the head of the Department, who leads it on a daily basis, is the Secretary of the Department of Defence Greg Moriarty. The Secretary reports to the Minister of Defence The Hon. Christopher Pyne MP, following appointment by Prime Minister Scott Morrison in August 2018. Australia has had at least one defence-related government department since Federation in 1901; the first Department of Defence existed from 1901 until 1921. In 1915, during World War I, a separate Department of the Navy was created; the two departments merged in 1921 to form the second Department of Defence, regarded as a separate body.
A major departmental reorganisation occurred in the lead-up to World War II. The Department of Defence was abolished and replaced with six smaller departments – the Defence Co-ordination, three "service departments", the Supply and Development, Civil Aviation; the current Department of Defence was formally created in 1942, when Prime Minister John Curtin renamed the existing Department of Defence Co-ordination. The other defence-related departments underwent a series of reorganisations, before being merged into the primary department over the following decades; this culminated in the abolition of the three service departments in 1973. A new Department of Defence Support was created in 1982, but abolished in 1984; the Defence Committee is the primary decision-making committee in the Department of Defence, supported by 6 subordinate committees and boards. The Defence Committee is focused on major capability development and resource management for the Australian Defence Organisation and shared accountability of the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force.
The members of the Defence Committee are: The Department of Defence consists of ten major organisational groups: Associate Secretary Group – provides administrative and governance services including audit and fraud control and vetting, the Judge Advocate General, communications and ministerial support. Chief Information Officer Group – leads the integrated design, cost effective delivery, sustained operation of Defence information Chief Finance Officer Group – to drive the financial and management improvement programs for Defence Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group – Australia's largest project management organisation and its mission is to acquire and sustain equipment for the Australian Defence Force, created through the amalgamation of the Capability Development Group and Defence Materiel Organisation in 2015. Defence People Group – human resource outcomes across the Defence employment cycle from strategy and policy development, through to implementation and service delivery Defence Estate and Infrastructure Group – consolidated service delivery organisation for Defence that enables Defence capability by working in partnership to deliver integrated services through a capable workforce Defence Science and Technology Group – lead agency charged with applying science and technology to protect and defend Australia and its national interests Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group – provides policy advice and coordination for strategy and intelligence for Defence, including overseeing the Defence Intelligence Organisation, Australian Signals Directorate, the Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation The Chief of the Defence Force and the Secretary of the Department of Defence jointly manage the Australian Defence Organisation under a diarchy in which both report directly to the Minister for Defence and the Assistant Minister for Defence.
The ADO diarchy is a governance structure unique in the Australian Public Service. The Secretary of the Department of Defence is a senior public service officer and the appointees have not come from military service. Australian Defence Organisation Current senior Australian Defence Organisation personnel Minister for Defence Minister for Defence Science and Personnel Minister for Veterans' Affairs Minister for Defence Industry List of Australian Commonwealth Government entities Department of the Army Department of the Navy Department of Air United States Department of Defense United Kingdom Ministry of Defence Canadian Department of National Defence New Zealand Ministry of Defence Department of Defence website "Defence Organisational Structure Chart". Department of Defence. Commonwealth of Australia. 21 September 2015. "Defence Senior Leaders". Department of Defence. 2016. "Dennis Richardson AO". Biography of the Secretary of the Department of Defence. Department of Defence. 2016
The Gallipoli Campaign known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale, was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula. The Entente powers and France, sought to weaken the Ottoman Empire by taking control of the straits that provided a supply route to Russia, the third member of the Entente; the invaders launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, to capture the Ottoman capital of Istanbul. The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn, it was a costly and humiliating defeat for the Allies and for the sponsors Winston Churchill. The campaign was a major Ottoman victory in the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the history of the state, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire retreated. Arabs formed a substantial force in the Gallipoli Peninsula being part of the 72nd and 77th regiments.
According to several sources, Arabs made up two thirds of the 19th Division under Colonel Mustafa Kemal. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years with Kemal, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli, as president; the campaign is considered to be the beginning of Australian and New Zealand national consciousness. On 27 October 1914, two former German warships, now the Ottoman Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli, still under the command of German officers, conducted the Black Sea Raid, in which they bombarded the Russian port of Odessa and sank several ships. On 31 October, the Ottomans began the Caucasus Campaign against Russia; the British bombarded forts in Gallipoli, invaded Mesopotamia and studied the possibility of forcing the Dardanelles. Before the Dardanelles operation was conceived, the British had planned to conduct an amphibious invasion near Alexandretta on the Mediterranean, an idea presented by Boghos Nubar in 1914.
This plan was developed by the Secretary of State for War, Field Marshal Earl Kitchener to sever the capital from Syria and Egypt. Alexandretta was an area with a Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Empire's railway network—its capture would have cut the empire in two. Vice Admiral Sir Richard Peirse, East Indies Station, ordered Captain Frank Larkin of HMS Doris to Alexandretta on 13 December 1914; the Russian cruiser Askold and the French cruiser Requin were there. Kitchener was working on the plan as late as March 1915 and was the beginning of the British attempt to incite an Arab Revolt; the Alexandretta landing was abandoned because militarily it would have required more resources than France could allocate and politically France did not want the British operating in their sphere of influence, a position to which Britain had agreed in 1912. By late 1914, on the Western Front, the Franco-British counter-offensive of the First Battle of the Marne had ended and the Belgians and French had suffered many casualties in the First Battle of Ypres in Flanders.
The war of manoeuvre had been replaced by trench warfare. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary closed the overland trade routes between Britain and France in the west and Russia in the east; the White Sea in the arctic north and the Sea of Okhotsk in the Far East were icebound in winter and distant from the Eastern Front. While the Ottomans remained neutral, supplies could still be sent to Russia through the Dardanelles but prior to the Ottoman entry into the war, the straits had been closed; the French Minister of Justice, Aristide Briand, proposed in November to attack the Ottoman Empire but this was rejected and an attempt by the British to bribe the Ottomans to join the Allied side failed. That month, Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, proposed a naval attack on the Dardanelles, based in part on erroneous reports of Ottoman troop strength. Churchill wanted to use a large number of obsolete battleships, which could not operate against the German High Seas Fleet, in a Dardanelles operation, with a small occupation force provided by the army.
It was hoped that an attack on the Ottomans would draw Bulgaria and Greece into the war on the Allied side. On 2 January 1915, Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia appealed to Britain for assistance against the Ottomans, who were conducting an offensive in the Caucasus. Planning began for a naval demonstration in the Dardanelles. On 17 February 1915, a British seaplane from HMS Ark Royal flew a reconnaissance sortie over the Straits. Two days the first attack on the Dardanelles began when a strong Anglo-French task force, including the British dreadnought HMS Queen Elizabeth, began a long-range bombardment of Ottoman coastal artillery batteries; the British had intended to use eight aircraft from Ark Royal to spot for the bombardment but harsh conditions rendered all but one of these, a Short Type 136, unserviceable. A period of bad weather slowed the initial phase but by 25 February the outer forts had been reduced and the entrance cleared of mines. After this, Royal Marines were landed to destroy guns at
The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles. They have a total area of about 315,159 km2 and a combined population of 72 million, include two sovereign states, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; the islands of Alderney, Jersey and Sark, their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes taken to be part of the British Isles though, as islands off the coast of France, they do not form part of the archipelago. The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2.7 billion years old. During the Silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, part of a separate continental landmass; the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres, Lough Neagh, notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres.
The climate is temperate marine, with warm summers. The North Atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude; this led to a landscape, long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain was still part of a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC. Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-occupied Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43; the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century, dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change in England.
The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages, Great Britain was separated into the Kingdoms of England and Kingdom of Scotland, while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms, Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland, soon restricted only to The Pale; the 1603 Union of the Crowns, Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 attempted to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, a rapid depopulation of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty, with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland.
The term "British Isles" is controversial in Ireland, where there are nationalist objections to its usage. The Government of Ireland does not recognise the term, its embassy in London discourages its use. Britain and Ireland is used as an alternative description, Atlantic Archipelago has seen limited use in academia; the earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia. The original records have been lost. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, "the British Island", Prettanoi, "the Britons". Strabo used Βρεττανική, Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, used αἱ Πρεττανικαί νῆσοι to refer to the islands. Historians today, though not in absolute agreement agree that these Greek and Latin names were drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί; the shift from the "P" of Pretannia to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar.
The Greco-Egyptian scientist Claudius Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave these islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island called Great Britain. The earliest known use of the phrase Brytish Iles in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee. Today, this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones although it is still used. Other names used to describe the islands include the Anglo-Celtic Isles, Atlantic archipelago, British-Irish Isles and Ireland, UK