South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
South Gyeongsang Province
South Gyeongsang Province is a province in the southeast of South Korea. The provincial capital is at Changwon, it is adjacent to port of Busan. There is UNESCO World Heritage Site Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. Automobile and petrochemical factories are concentrated along the southern part of the province, extending from Ulsan through Busan and Jinju; the name derives from Korean Gyeongsang, meaning'joyous furthermore'. The name derives from the names of the principal cities of Sangju. Before 1895, the area corresponding to modern-day Gyeongsangnam-do was part of Gyeongsang Province, one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. In 1895, southern Gyeongsang was replaced by the districts of Jinju in the west and Dongnae in the east. In 1896, they were merged to form Gyeongsangnam-do; the provincial capital was at Jinju. In 1948, Gyeongsangnam-do became part of South Korea. In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City.
In 1983, the provincial capital moved from Busan to Changwon. In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City, Ulsan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Metropolitan City in 1997; the province is part of the Yeongnam region, on the north by Gyeongsangbuk-do province, on the west Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do provinces, on the south by the Korea Strait far from Japan. Most of the province is drained by its tributaries; the total area of the province is 10,533 square kilometres. The Nakdong delta plain around Gimhae is one of the best granaries in South Korea. Agricultural products form Gyeongsangnam-do include rice, beans and barley; the area is renowned for its cotton and fruits which are grown along the southern seaside. A number of marine products are caught; the province is one of the country's leading fisheries. The largest cities in the region are Busan and Ulsan, which are separately administered as provincial-level Metropolitan Cities. Apart from the capital Changwon, other large or notable cities include Jinju.
Gyeongsangnam-do is the home of Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. It is in the national park around Jirisan on the border with Jeollabuk-do; the temple was first built in 802. Changnyeong county contains three major tourist attractions for the province: Upo wetland, Bugok natural hotsprings, Hwawang mountain. Gyeongsangnam-do is divided into 10 counties; the names below are given in English and hanja. According to the census of 2005, of the people of South Gyeongsang 40% follow Buddhism and 14.8% follow Christianity. 45.2% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. Yamaguchi Prefecture Maryland Shandong East Java Đồng Nai Province Khabarovsk Krai Jalisco Laguna province Pomeranian Voivodeship Fejér County List of Korea-related topics Igeum-dong site - complex archaeological site in Sacheon-si Tongyeong International Music Festival South Gyeongsang travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
STX Europe AS Aker Yards ASA, was until 2012 a subsidiary of the South Korean STX Offshore & Shipbuilding. With headquarters in Oslo, Norway, STX Europe operated 15 shipyards in Brazil, France, Norway and Vietnam; the company had three business areas: Cruise & Ferries, Offshore & Specialized Vessels and Other Operations. In 2012, with rising outstanding debts, STX retained the Finnish cruise shipbuilding yard and sold the remainder as STX OSV Holdings, including all the yards, to Fincantieri, which renamed the group Vard. In September 2014 STX Finland 70 % to Meyer Werft and 30 % to the Finnish government; the operations were continued under name Meyer Turku thereafter. Meyer Werft acquired the Finnish government's 30% in April 2015. In 2017 STX France, after the bankruptcy of STX Corporation, was acquired by Italian shipyard Fincantieri and was renamed again Chantiers de l'Atlantique; the evolution of STX Europe originated with the founding of two prominent shipbuilding groups in Europe. One was the Norway-based Aker Yards, created in 2004 by combining the shipbuilding activities of Aker and Kværner with the France-based Alstom shipbuilding group, which has shipyards and in Lorient.
On 4 January 2006, Aker Yards and Alstom announced their intention to join forces in shipbuilding and create together one of the world leaders in this industry, focused on high-value-added ships, including world-class cruise ships. The merger gave Aker Yards a majority shareholding over Alstom's shipbuilding activities. Aker ASA, the majority shareholder of Aker Yards. Aker divested its total shareholding in March 2007, in October 2007, STX Business Group secured a 39.2% stake of Aker yards. STX took a controlling stake, renamed the group to STX Europe on 3 November 2008 to reflect the new ownership structure. In January 2009, STX business group acquired the remaining shares in STX Europe and became the company's sole shareholder. In February 2009, it was decided to delist STX Europe from Oslo Stock Exchange where it was listed under the ticker STXEUR; the Cruise & Ferries division constructs vessels at shipyards in Finland and France. The business area had revenues of NOK 19,709 million in 2008.
STX France Cruise SA STX Norway Florø AS STX Norway Offshore AS is now owned by Fincantieri STX OSV Tulcea SA and STX OSV Braila SASTX Europe has two shipyards in Romania and Tulcea. The steel hulls for most of STX Europe's new building projects are being built by Braila and Tulcea in Romania. STX Europe's yard in Braila is situated 170 km up the River Danube. Portfolios consist of hull production, delivery of complete merchant vessels together with repair and conversion work; the yard has a 1300m long outfitting quay, facilities for simultaneous mounting or repairing of 12 vessels and equipped with multiple 50 tonne portal cranes. The mounting platform and launching berth have capacity for vessels up to 135 x 23 m and a maximum launching and lifting weight of 2500 tonne and 2200 tonne respectively. STX Europe's yard in Tulcea is located at nautical mile 39.5 on the right bank of the Danube, upstream of Tulcea, it is one of the youngest Romanian firms in the field. In Tulcea STX Europe offers services in shipbuilding and repairs.
It has a large covered hall. Over 6000 people working here, it is the greater capacity of specialised division. STX OSV Niteroi SA STX OSV Vietnam Ltd. STX Europe
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most ones involving earthwork operations. They are known as heavy machines, heavy trucks, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles, or heavy hydraulics, they comprise five equipment systems: implement, structure, power train and information. Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied; some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion. The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the pile driver was invented around 1500. The first tunnelling shield was patented by Marc Isambard Brunel in 1818; until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power. With the advent of portable steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the combine harvester; the design of a core tractor evolved around the new steam power source into a new machine core traction engine, that can be configured as the steam tractor and the steamroller.
During the 20th century, internal-combustion engines became the major power source of heavy equipment. Kerosene and ethanol engines were used. Mechanical transmission was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery; the early 20th century saw new electric-powered machines such as the forklift. Caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the Holt Manufacturing Company. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the Fordson tractor in 1917; the first commercial continuous track vehicle was the 1901 Lombard Steam Log Hauler. The use of tracks became popular for tanks during World War I, for civilian machinery like the bulldozer; the largest engineering vehicles and mobile land machines are bucket-wheel excavators, built since the 1920s. "Until the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel - moved with animal and human powered, sleds and wagons. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance a wheelbarrow, or a cart or wagon drawn by a draft animal.
In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the inclined plane and pulleys to place solid building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising and placing loose materials; the two elements required for mechanized earthmoving as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of that time."Container cranes were used from the 1950s and onwards, made containerization possible. Nowadays such is the importance of this machinery, some transport companies have developed specific equipment to transport heavy construction equipment to and from sites; these subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization. Military engineering vehicles Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required.
An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earthmoving machines, load and carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage. "The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the performance and health of the equipment." A heavy equipment operator drives and operates heavy equipment used in engineering and construction projects.
Only skilled workers may operate heavy equipment, there is specialized training for learning to use heavy equipment. Much publication about heavy equipment operators focuses on improving safety for such workers; the field of occupational medicine researches and makes recommendations about safety for these and other workers in safety-sensitive positions. Due to the small profit margins on construction projects it is important to maintain accurate records concerning equipment utilization and maintenance; the two main categories of equipment costs are operating cost. To classify as an ownership cost an expense must have been incurred regardless of if the equipment is used or not; these costs are as follows: Depreciation can be calculated several ways, the simplest is the straight-line method. The annual depreciation is constant, reducing the equipment value annually; the following are simple equations paraphrased from the Peurifoy & Schexnayder text: For an expense to be classified as an operating cost, it must be incurred through use of the equipment.
These costs are as follows: The biggest distinction from a cost
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea