The Euston Road is a road in Central London that runs from Marylebone Road to King's Cross. It is part of the London Inner Ring Road and forms part of the London congestion charge zone boundary; the road was the central section of New Road from Paddington to Islington which opened in 1756 as London's first bypass providing a route along which to drive cattle to Smithfield Market avoiding central London. Traffic increased when major railway stations, including Euston, opened in the mid-19th century and led to the road's renaming in 1857. Euston Road was widened in the 1960s to cater for the increasing demands of motor traffic, the Euston Tower was built around that time; the road contains several significant buildings including the Wellcome Library, the British Library and the St. Pancras Renaissance London Hotel; the road starts as a continuation of the A501, a major road through Central London, at its junction with Marylebone Road and Great Portland Street. It meets the northern end of Tottenham Court Road at a large junction where there is an underpass, ends at King's Cross with Gray's Inn Road.
The road ahead to Islington is Pentonville Road. The road is part on the edge of the London congestion charge zone. Drivers are not charged for travelling on the road, but may be if they turn south into the zone during its hours of operation. King's Cross and St Pancras railway stations are at the eastern end of the road, the British Library is nearby, Euston railway station is a further west; the Euston Tower is a landmark on the road. The old and new headquarters of the Wellcome Trust are on its south side. From west to east the road passes Regent's Park, Great Portland Street, Warren Street, Euston Square and King's Cross St Pancras tube stations. London Bus Route 205 runs along the entire extent of Euston Road from Great Portland Street to King's Cross. Before the 18th century, the land along which Euston Road runs was fields and farmland. Camden Town was a village retreat for Londoners working in the city. Euston Road was part of New Road, promoted by Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton and enabled by an Act of Parliament passed in 1756.
Construction began in May that year, it was open to traffic by September. The road provided a new drovers' road for moving sheep and cattle to Smithfield Market avoiding Oxford Street and Holborn, ended at St John's Street, Islington, it provided a quicker route for army units to reach the Essex coast when there was a threat of invasion, without passing through the cities of London and Westminster, was a barrier between the increasing urban sprawl that threatened to reach places such as Camden Town. The Capper family, who lived on the south side of the proposed route, opposed its construction and complained their crops would be ruined by dust kicked up by cattle along the route. Capper Street, a side street off Tottenham Court Road, is named after the family. A clause in the 1756 Act stipulated that no buildings should be constructed within 50 feet of the road, with the result that most of the houses along it lay behind substantial gardens. During the 19th century the law was ignored. Euston Station opened on the north side of New Road in July 1837.
It was planned by Robert Stephenson on the site of gardens called Euston Grove, was the first mainline station to open in London. Its entrance, designed by Philip Hardwick, cost £35,000 and had the highest portico in London at 72 feet; the Great Hall opened in 1849 to improve accommodation for passengers, a statue of Stephenson's father, George was installed in 1852. The Dukes of Grafton had become the main property owners in the area, in 1857 the central section of the road, between Osnaburgh Street and Kings Cross, was renamed Euston Road after Euston Hall, their country house; the eastern section became the western Marylebone Road. The full length of Euston Road was dug up so that the Metropolitan Railway could be built beneath it using a cut-and-cover system and the road was relaid to a much higher standard; the new Anglican church of St Luke's Church opened on Euston Road in 1861. The Euston station complex was controversially demolished in 1963 to accommodate British Rail's facilities; the replacement building opened in 1968, now serves 50 million passengers annually.
Tolmers Village was in the tiny triangle on the north side of Euston Road between Hampstead Road and North Gower Street. It was built in the early 1860s over a former reservoir to provide affordable middle-class terraced housing but its proximity to a main road and the Euston Station complex meant it catered for the working classes. By 1871, around 5,000 residents were housed in a 12 acres area; the estate continued to expand throughout the early 20th century in a piecemeal fashion, attracted Greek and Asian immigrants following World War II. In the 1970s, the estate came under threat from property developers who wanted to demolish it and build offices, which led to demonstrations and protests, including supporters from University College; the plans were cancelled. The area around the junction with the Tottenham Court Road suffered significant bomb damage during the Second World War. Patrick Abercrombie's contemporary Greater London Plan called for a new ring road around Central London called the'A' Ring, but post-war budget constraints meant that a medley of existing routes were improved to form the ring road, including Euston Road.
An underpass to avoid the junction with the Tottenham Court R
Rover is a British automotive marque, used between 1904 and 2005. It was launched as a bicycle maker called Rover Company in 1878, before manufacturing cars in 1904; the brand used the iconic Viking longship as its logo. The rights to the marque are part of Jaguar Land Rover, but no Rover vehicles are in production, the marque is considered dormant. Despite a state-controlled absorption by the Leyland Motor Corporation in 1967 and subsequent mergers, de-mergers, the Rover marque retained its identity first as an independent subsidiary division of LMC through variously named groups of British Leyland through the 1970s and into the 1980s; the Rover marque became the primary brand of the newly renamed Rover Group in 1988 as it passed first through the hands of British Aerospace and into the ownership of BMW Group. Sharing technology with Honda and financial investment during the BMW ownership led to a revival of the marque during the 1990s in its core midsize segment. In 2000, BMW sold Rover and related MG car activities of the Rover Group to the Phoenix Consortium, who established the MG Rover Group at Longbridge.
BMW retained ownership of the Rover marque. In April 2005, Rover-branded cars ceased to be produced; some of MG Rover Group's assets were bought by China-based SAIC Motor, who managed to obtain some technology, incorporated into a new line of luxury saloons under the Roewe marque. Other assets were bought by Nanjing Automobile. BMW sold the rights to Rover marque to Ford in 2006 for £6 million, the latter exercising an option of first refusal to buy it dating back to its purchase of Land Rover in 2000. Ford thus reunited the original Rover Company marques for brand-protection reasons. In March 2008, Ford reached agreement with Tata Motors of India to include the Rover marque as part of the sale of their Jaguar Land Rover operations to them; the Rover marque is the property of Land Rover under the terms of Ford's purchase of the name in 2006. In 1970, Rover combined its skill in producing comfortable saloons and the rugged Land Rover 4x4 to produce the Range Rover, one of the first vehicles to combine off-road ability and comfortable versatility.
Powered by the licence-built ex-Buick V8 engine, it had innovative features such as a permanent four-wheel drive system, all-coil spring suspension, disc brakes on all wheels. Able to reach speeds of up to 100 mph yet capable of extreme off-road use, the original Range Rover design remained in production for the next 26 years; the company's other major project at this time was the P8, a successor, styled by David Bache, for the 3-litre. The car's shape owed much to Detroit, with a front bumper concealed under a "bumperless" polyurethane nose, in a manner reminiscent of contemporary Pontiacs, a side profile reminiscent of a chunkier Opel Rekord. Although the original brief was for the car to be no longer externally than a Rover 2000, management changes led the project to be redefined as it progressed, the P8 scheduled for launch at the 1971 London Motor Show was larger than any existing Rover sedan, with the Rover V8 engine expanded for this application to 4.4 litres. The car followed the P6 in employing a steel frame structure with bolt-on aluminium panels.
The manufacturer was short of cash and focus at this time: the P8 was one of several new model projects subjected to a slipping time-line. By the revised launch date towards the end of 1972 the considerable development costs had been expended and pre-production prototypes had undergone extensive testing in Finland. Production capacity had been set aside for the P8 at the Solihull plant. However, an expenditure review in 1970 found the project subjected to criticism from Sir William Lyons, by now an influential member of the British Leyland board: speculation has arisen that Lyons saw the car as a threat to future investment in the launched Jaguar XJ6, it emerged that Rover's contender would not have been cheap or easy to build, the shrinkage of the European market for sedans of this size that followed the 1973 oil price shock suggest that abandonment of the project in 1972 – at the eleventh hour – may have been the right decision for British Leyland. Some of the P8's styling cues turned up two years on the Leyland P76, the driver's view of the instrument panel would have been not unfamiliar to the driver of a 1976 Rover 3500.
As British Leyland struggled through financial turmoil and an industrial-relations crisis during the 1970s, it was nationalised after a multibillion-pound government cash injection in 1975. Michael Edwardes was brought in to head the company; the Rover SD1 of 1976 was an excellent car, but was beset with so many build quality and reliability issues it never delivered on its great promise. Following the closure of the Triumph factory at Canley, production of the TR7 and TR8 was moved to Solihull; the TR7/TR8 was discontinued. All future Rover cars would be made in the former Austin and Morris plants in Longbridge and Cowley, respectively. In 1979, British Leyland began a long relationship with the Honda Motor Company of Japan; the result wa
Nuffield Organization was the unincorporated umbrella-name or promotional name used for the charitable and commercial interests of owner and donor, William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield. The name was assumed following Nuffield's gift made to form his Nuffield Foundation in 1943, it linked his business interests to his existing generous philanthropy; the same enterprises had been referred to as the Morris Organizations and at first described itself as The Nuffield Organization, A Cornerstone of Britain's Industrial Structure. The productive businesses were owned by Morris Motors Limited and this corporate structure appears to have been retained until the formation of British Leyland in 1968. In 1945 the principal businesses among them were:Morris Motors Limited - Morris vehicles, the Nuffield Organization's holding company for: Wolseley Motors Limited - Wolseley cars Riley Limited - Riley cars The M. G. Car Company Limited - MG cars Morris Commercial Cars Limited - producing vans and trucks The S.
U. Carburetter Company Limitedand included:Nuffield Acceptances Limited - Arranged finance in connection with hire-purchase agreements for the purchase of motor cars Nuffield Pty Limited Nuffield Exports Limited Nuffield Mechanizations Limited - produced tanks during the war Nuffield Metal Products Limited Nuffield Tools and Gauges Limited - production equipment for the other companies The Nuffield Press Limited - publishing handbooks, owners' magazine etc. An agreement was reached between Morris and Austin Motor Company in October 1948 amounting to amalgamation in everything but financial structure; the terms included the constant interchange of information on production methods, design and every other aspect of their work. It envisaged the pooling of factory resources. In July 1949 Morris and Austin announced the end of their scheme, no further steps would be taken to pool production resources and no merger of any kind was contemplated."Nuffield and Austin broke off arrangements for the exchange of confidential information in 1949 following the revival of long-standing hostilities between their chief executives and the Labour Party's decision not to include the industry in its plans for future nationalisation."
Leonard Lord, chief of Austin, had been with Morris from 1923 to 1936, the last four years as Morris's chief executive. They had parted on bad terms; the Motoring Correspondent of The Times said the two concerns were fundamentally different in their structure. The Nuffield Organization under the control of Morris Motors made: three Morris models with Wolseley, Riley, MG as well as Morris Commercial trucks, Nuffield Universal tractors and marine engines; the main factory was at Cowley, there were more at Birmingham and Abingdon. The Austin business, Austin of England, was concentrated both in its huge Longbridge factory at Birmingham and in its products: six Austin car models, Austin trucks and marine engines and battery electric vehicles; the nine different cars made by Nuffield using six engines and five car bodies of which the "specialist" three were obsolescent, the rest closely related if not identical. The matrix of images shows the links between the models; the four images on the left hand side are the mid-size and large Morrises with the matching Wolseleys beneath them.
The four images on the right hand side are two MGs — sharing one engine used in two bodies and two Rileys — two different engines sharing one body The long-lived Morris Minor is top centre and Jodrell Bank telescope, a minor gift to his nation from Lord Nuffield completes the setThe specialist MGs and Rileys were to be the last of their separate-chassis line — except for the MG Midget TF and MGA, which latter lasted until the monocoque MG MGB of 1962. The bigger Morris and Wolseley cars shared an identical monocoque structure aft of their engine compartments and all mechanicals, the Minor's structure was a smaller version of the same monocoque design. However, on Friday 23 November 1951 a joint statement announced plans for a merger; the two companies would not produce the same models. Forty years the merger was recognised to have been a political decision in the face of American competition and the absence of heirs for either Morris or Austin. Morris Motors Limited merged with The Austin Motor Company Limited in The British Motor Corporation Limited in 1952.
The two groups were evenly matched, not only in financial terms, each had produced and sold in the previous year an identical number of vehicles. By an agreement between the Nuffield and Austin groups announced in November 1951 a new company was incorporated in February 1952 and named The British Motor Corporation Limited. On 29 February 1952 it offered to buy all the shares in Morris Motors Limited giving in exchange shares in BMC. Holders of the Ordinary shares in either Morris or Austin received the same number of new Ordinary shares in BMC Holders of Preferred shares, because of the four different classes in Austin's capital received various apportionments of new 5% Cumulative Preference shares related to their market valuations. If BMC's offer were accepted in full the capital of BMC would be £9.2 million in Preference shares with £4.8 million in Ordinary shares. The effective date for exchange of the shares was to be 31 March 1952On 10 April 1952 it was announced that sufficient acceptances had been received to satisfy the conditions of the offer of 29 February.
The first published balance sheet of BMC, 31 July 1952 showed: Current assets £54.8 million Current liabilities £28.0 million Net current assets £26.8 million Fixed assets £17.5 million Issued capital and reserves £44.3 millionOn 8 September 1952 The British Motor Corporation a
The Saab 99 is a compact executive car, produced by Saab from 1968 to 1984. It was manufactured both in Finland. On 2 April 1964, Gudmund's day in Sweden, after several years of planning, the Saab board started Project Gudmund; this was a project to develop a new and larger car to take the manufacturer beyond the market for the smaller Saab 96. This new car became the Saab 99, designed by Sixten Sason and unveiled in Stockholm on November 22, 1967; the first prototypes of the 99 were built by cutting a Saab 96 lengthwise and widening it by 20 centimetres. After that phase as a disguise, the first 99 body shell was badged "Daihatsu" as that name could be made up out of the badging available for the Saab Sport; the 99 was not only built in Saab's own Trollhättan Assembly - some variants were built by the Finnish Valmet Automotive in Uusikaupunki from 1969 onwards. Although Saab engineers liked the company's existing two-stroke engine, it was decided that a four-stroke engine was necessary, the choice was a 1.7 L engine from Triumph.
This was the same Triumph Slant-4 engine used in the Triumph Dolomite, but the Saab version was fitted with a Zenith-Stromberg CD carburetor developed specially for Saab. A run of 48 Saab 99s were equipped with a Triumph Stag V8, but the V8 was dropped in favour of a turbocharged unit which powered the 99 Turbo. A three-door estate version never made it into production. In 1971 the work on an estate was restarted, this time as a five-door; the first engine used in the original 99 was a four-cylinder in-line engine, tilted at 45 degrees. The 1709 cc Triumph-sourced engine produced 87 PS SAE gross at 5500 rpm; the engine was conventionally water-cooled, but unlike most cars of the time it had an electric cooling fan. Triumph soon upgraded the engine to 1.85 L. Saab experienced reliability problems with the Triumph-sourced engines and decided to bring the design in-house. From September 1972 the 1985 cc Saab B engine was used. During the lifetime of the 99 model, several subsequent engine developments took place, including the incorporation of fuel injection for some versions.
The 99 was'front-wheel-drive', its engine being unconventionally fitted'back to front', with the clutch at the front. Drive to the under-mounted gearbox was by triplex chain. Front-wheel-drive was still a uncommon configuration at the time of the 99's introduction, although earlier Saabs had featured it; the bonnet was front-hinged and the panel extended over the front wheel-arches. The windscreen was'wrap-around' and deep for the era; the A-pillar had a steep angle. In 1968, the English test-driver Archie Vicar wrote in Mass Motorist magazine: "The little 99 has been given a striking and wholly rational appearance, it gives the flavour of an aeroplane on four wheels." The Cw value was 0.37 while other cars of the time had 0.4 to 0.5. The chassis was designed for passive safety, with deformation zones front and rear. Due to the American sealed beam headlamp requirement in place at the time, the USA models had a special front fascia with four round headlights instead of the two rectangular units it had in other markets.
The "US front" became an item for car customisers in Europe, vice versa. Early 99s carried over the freewheel transmission from the Saab 96, but the freewheel was removed with the introduction of the 1.85 L engine on account of the extra power that the apparatus would have to transmit. The handbrake was on the front wheels; the 99 was Saab's last rally car, first in EMS guise and as the Turbo version. The Saab 99 Turbo was one of the first'family cars' to be fitted with a turbo after the 1962-63 Oldsmobile Turbo Jetfire. Popular Mechanics lists the Saab 99 Turbo as number two on its Top Ten list of turbocharged cars of all time; the UK's "Mass Motorist" magazine summarised their view of the 99 as follows: "That the 99 is comfortable, well-made, satisfying to drive and well-equipped ought to mean that other makers should take heed. The BMW 2002 and Alfa Romeo Giulia are the SAAB 99's main rivals. I would contend here that SAAB has the advantage of them, should SAAB choose to fit an more powerful motor, the 99 could be a class leader in a short space of time."Wheels magazine wrote in a July 1978 road test of the 99 Turbo, "Compare the top-gear times and you'll see that the Turbo is as fast between 60 km/h and 160 km/h in fourth gear as any five-seater in the world".
Modern Motor of August 1978 wrote. A police version of the 99 was built; the hood/bonnet of the 99 caused problems for the police livery team. Since it wraps around, covering the wheel arches, the paint had to be extended up onto the hood panel and not restricted to just the fenders as on other cars; the Saab 99 featured a heating duct leading to the rear window - a lever between the front seats controlled the de-fogging airflow. The 99 featured a floor-located ignition switch which locked the gear stick (rathe
The MG M-type is a sports car, produced by the MG Cars from April 1929 to 1932. It was sometimes referred to as the 8/33. Launched at the 1928 London Motor Show when the sales of the larger MG saloons was faltering because of the economic climate, the small car brought MG ownership to a new sector of the market and saved the company. Early cars from 1930 production had transferred to Abingdon; the M-Type was one of the first genuinely affordable sports cars to be offered by an established manufacturer, as opposed to modified versions of factory-built saloon cars and tourers. By offering a car with excellent road manners and an entertaining driving experience at a low price despite low overall performance the M-type set the template for many of the MG products that were to follow, as well as many of the other famous British sports cars of the 20th century; the M-type was the first MG to wear the Midget name that would be used on a succession of small sports cars until 1980. This 2-door sports car used an updated version of the four-cylinder bevel-gear driven overhead camshaft engine used in the 1928 Morris Minor and Wolseley 10 with a single SU carburettor giving 20 bhp at 4000 rpm.
Drive was to the rear wheels through a three-speed non-synchromesh gearbox. The chassis was based on the one used in the 1928 Morris Minor with lowered suspension using half-elliptic springs and Hartford friction disk shock absorbers with rigid front and rear axles and bolt on wire wheels; the car had a track of 42 inches. 1930 brought a series of improvements to the car. The Morris rod brake system, with the handbrake working on the transmission, was replaced a cable system with cross shaft coupled to the handbrake and the transmission brake deleted. Engine output was increased to 27 bhp by improving the camshaft and a four-speed gearbox was offered as an option; the doors became front-hinged. A supercharged version could be ordered from 1932. Early bodies were fabric-covered using a wood frame. Most cars had bodies made by Carbodies of Coventry and fitted by MG in either open two-seat or closed two-door "Sportsmans" coupé versions, but some chassis were supplied to external coachbuilders such as Jarvis.
The factory made a van version as a service vehicle. The car could return 40 miles per gallon; the open version cost £175 at launch, soon rising to £185, the coupé cost £245. The 1932 supercharged car cost £250; the M-type had considerable sporting success and with official teams winning gold medals in the 1929 Land's End Trial and class wins in the 1930 "Double Twelve" race at Brooklands. An entry was made in the 1930 Le Mans 24 hour, but neither of the cars finished
Fuel economy in automobiles
The fuel economy of an automobile relates distance traveled by a vehicle and the amount of fuel consumed. Consumption can be expressed in terms of volume of fuel to travel a distance, or the distance travelled per unit volume of fuel consumed. Since fuel consumption of vehicles is a significant factor in air pollution, since importation of motor fuel can be a large part of a nation's foreign trade, many countries impose requirements for fuel economy. Different methods are used to approximate the actual performance of the vehicle; the energy in fuel is required to overcome various losses encountered while propelling the vehicle, in providing power to vehicle systems such as ignition or air conditioning. Various strategies can be employed to reduce losses at each of the conversions between the chemical energy in the fuel and the kinetic energy of the vehicle. Driver behavior can affect fuel economy. Electric cars do not directly burn fuel, so do not have fuel economy per se, but equivalence measures, such as miles per gallon gasoline equivalent have been created to attempt to compare them.
Fuel economy is the relationship between fuel consumed. Fuel economy can be expressed in two ways: Units of fuel per fixed distance Generally expressed as liters per 100 kilometers, used in most European countries, South Africa and New Zealand. British and Canadian law allow for the use of either liters per 100 kilometers or miles per imperial gallon; the window sticker on new US cars displays the vehicle's fuel consumption in US gallons per 100 miles, in addition to the traditional MPG number. A lower number means more efficient. Units of distance per fixed fuel unit Miles per gallon is used in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada. Kilometers per liter is more used elsewhere in the Americas, parts of Africa and Oceania. In Arab countries km/20 L, known as kilometers per tanaka is used, where tanaka is a metal container which has a volume of twenty liters; when the mpg unit is used, it is necessary to identify the type of gallon used: the imperial gallon is 4.54609 liters, the U. S. gallon is 3.785 liters.
When using a measure expressed as distance per fuel unit, a higher number means more efficient, while a lower number means less efficient. Conversions of units: Note that when expressed as units of fuel per fixed distance, a lower number means more efficient, while a higher number means less efficient. While the thermal efficiency of petroleum engines has increased since the beginning of the automotive era to a current maximum of 36.4% this is not the only factor in fuel economy. The design of automobile as a whole and usage pattern affects the fuel economy. Published fuel economy is subject to variation between jurisdiction due to variations in testing protocols. One of the first studies to determine fuel economy in the United States was the Mobil Economy Run, an event that took place every year from 1936 to 1968, it was designed to provide real fuel efficiency numbers during a coast to coast test on real roads and with regular traffic and weather conditions. The Mobil Oil Corporation sponsored it and the United States Auto Club sanctioned and operated the run.
In more recent studies, the average fuel economy for new passenger car in the United States improved from 17 mpg in 1978 to more than 22 mpg in 1982. The average fuel economy in 2008 for new cars, light trucks and SUVs in the United States was 26.4 mpgUS. 2008 model year cars classified as "midsize" by the US EPA ranged from 11 to 46 mpgUS However, due to environmental concerns caused by CO2 emissions, new EU regulations are being introduced to reduce the average emissions of cars sold beginning in 2012, to 130 g/km of CO2, equivalent to 4.5 L/100 km for a diesel-fueled car, 5.0 L/100 km for a gasoline -fueled car. The average consumption across the fleet is not affected by the new vehicle fuel economy: for example, Australia's car fleet average in 2004 was 11.5 L/100 km, compared with the average new car consumption in the same year of 9.3 L/100 km Fuel economy at steady speeds with selected vehicles was studied in 2010. The most recent study indicates greater fuel efficiency at higher speeds than earlier studies.
The proportion of driving on high speed roadways varies from 4% in Ireland to 41% in the Netherlands. When the US National Maximum Speed Law's 55 mph speed limit was mandated, there were complaints that fuel economy could decrease instead of increase; the 1997 Toyota Celica got better fuel-efficiency at 105 km/h than it did at 65 km/h, although better at 60 mph than at 65 mph, its best economy