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SYBYL line notation

The SYBYL line notation or SLN is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. SLN differs from SMILES in several significant ways. SLN can specify molecules, molecular queries, reactions in a single line notation whereas SMILES handles these through language extensions. SLN has support for relative stereochemistry, it can distinguish mixtures of enantiomers from pure molecules with pure but unresolved stereochemistry. In SMILES aromaticity is considered to be a property of both atoms and bonds whereas in SLN it is a property of bonds. Like SMILES, SLN is a linear language; this provides a lot of similarity with SMILES despite SLN's many differences from SMILES, as a result this description will compare SLN to SMILES and its extensions. Attributes, bracketed strings with additional data like, is a core feature of SLN. Attributes can ba applied to bonds. Attributes not defined are available to users for private extensions; when searching for molecules, comparison operators such as fcharge>-0.125 can be used in place of the usual equal sign.

A! Preceding a key/value group inverts the result of the comparison. Entire molecules or reactions can too have attributes; the square brackets are changed to a pair of <> signs. Anything that starts with an uppercase letter identifies an atom in SLN. Hydrogens are not automatically added, but the single bonds with hydrogen can be abbreviated for organic compounds, resulting in CH4 instead of CH for methane; the author argues. Attributes defined for atoms include I= for isotope mass number, charge= for formal charge, fcharge for partial charge, s= for stereochemistry, spin= for radicals. A formal charge of charge=2 can be abbreviated as +2, vice versa for negative charges. * is a shorthand for spin=d. Stereochemistry on atoms is tetrahedral, with the R/S and D/L available among others. A Normal/Inverted notation, equivalent to @@ and @ in SMILES, is provided. A lot of additional attributes are provided for searching. In addition to elemental atoms SLN supports the specification of wild card atoms: Any, Hev.

It has an extensive Markush syntax for specifying combinatorial libraries and RGROUP queries. SLN has several query atom types for matching groups of atoms; each type has the group name, followed by an optional positive integer. The "0" mass number denotes the usual isotope, so O matches O and O and O matches every other isotope. SLN uses the same bonding notation as SMILES, with -, =, #, and: for single, double and aromatic bonds.. is used for zero-order bonds to reaction SMILES, although a + is preferred for distinct molecules. Most single bonds are implicit, so CH3CH3 can be used instead of CH3-CH3 for ethane. Explicit single bonds are useful for three-center bonds; the s= attribute is defined for double bonds, to convey stereochemistry information in E/Z or cis/trans notation. N/I is available, stands for the "main" chain being trans or cis to each other. SLN writes rings in a more explicit pattern than SMILES, with benzene specified as CH:CH:CH:CH:CH:CH:@1. An atom is tagged as an anchor on the ring with a single numeric attribute, @1 can be used to specify this atom for bonding back to.

SLN branches are identical with parentheses specifying them. Propionic acid is CH3CH2COH. SLN supports reactions with - > connecting the products. Atom mapping is possible with the use of attributes; the reaction center attribute can be added to bonds, the chiral conversion attribute to atoms. Multiple lines can be merged into a syntatical line by writing a \ at the end of each line; this allows for breaking a long line into multiple lines, for example in a reaction with each molecule on its own line. Simplified molecular input line entry specification Smiles arbitrary target specification Ash, Sheila. "SYBYL Line Notation: A Versatile Language for Chemical Structure Representation". J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 37: 71–79. Doi:10.1021/ci960109j. Homer, R. Webster. "SYBYL Line Notation: A Single Notation To Represent Chemical Structures, Queries and Virtual Libraries". J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 48: 2294–2307. Doi:10.1021/ci7004687

Dobrivoje Božić

Dobrivoje Božić was a Serbian mechanical engineer and constructor of the first air brakes for trains. Dobrivoje Božić was born in Raška in the Kingdom of Serbia, he studied in Germany at the Technical University of Dresden. While at Karlsruhe, he was a student of the inventor of diesel engines. After graduation in 1911, Božić returned to Serbia, his engineering work began upon his return to the railway workshop in Niš. He started his research in the field of railway braking. Božić learned that the brake system that rail vehicles used was one of the most problematic parts of vehicle development, due to trains' increasing speed and mass. In 1869, George Westinghouse designed a brake on compressed air with direct action and improved it in 1872, producing a single-chamber, automatic brake with indirect effects. Božić's research was interrupted during the First World War. After the war, he worked in Kraljevo and Zagreb, he applied to the International Union of Railways for a patent for the Božić brake through the Yugoslav railway in 1925.

His patent was approved in 1928. Božić's invention resolved unsolvable problems, such as solutions distributor. Three working pressures increased air velocity stab in the main air pipe from 80 to 150 metres per second He invented solutions to the problem of gradual release brake, non-exhaustion during braking, an overfull working chamber, load-adaptive braking, he first proposed braking of passenger trains as a function of speed. He constructed an efficient brake controller for locomotives. After World War II, he worked in the United States. In 1964, he returned to Belgrade, where he died in 1967. Translated from Serbian Wikipedia: Compressed air continuous brake system for passenger or freight trains, US patented 1,420,237. June 20, 1922. Distributor for fluid-pressure brakes, US patented 1,679,348 Aug. 7, 1928. Patent maps of Dobrivoje Božić Life and work of Dobrivoje Božić

Eleuterio Felice Foresti

Eleuterio Felice Foresti was an Italian patriot and scholar. He was born at Conselice, graduated at the University of Bologna, practiced law at Ferrara, in 1816 was made praetor at Crespino and became prominent in politics. In 1816, he joined the Carbonari; as a consequence, in 1819 he was arrested. After two years in Piombi dungeon, an unsuccessful attempt to take his own life, he was condemned to die on the public square of Venice, but when, with others, he was taken out for execution, the sentence was changed to “carcere duro” in Spielberg fortress for 20 years. In 1836, shortly after the death of Emperor Francis I of Austria and others were liberated, but condemned to perpetual exile in the United States. In the United States, Foresti was for over 20 years professor of Italian in Columbia College. During much of this time, he held a similar title at the University of the City of New York, he took an interest in Young Italy, became the official representative of Giuseppe Mazzini in the United States.

He took up residence in Italy again in 1856. In 1858 he was appointed United States consul at Genoa, he published an edition of Ollendorff's Italian grammar, Crestomazia italiana. He wrote “Twenty Years in the Dungeons of Austria,” for the Watchman and Crusader in 1856; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Foresti, Eleutario Felice". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Foresti, Eleutario Felice". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton

Endorsements in the 2010 United Kingdom general election

During the 2010 United Kingdom general election, a number of newspapers made endorsements of a political party. This is an incomplete list. A number of newspapers changed their endorsements from the previous general election, in 2005; the most notable changes were those of The Sun, The Times, the Sunday Times and the News of the World, to the Conservative Party, having all backed Labour since 1997. The Financial Times, the Evening Standard, The Economist switched their endorsement from Labour to the Conservatives; the Liberal Democrats picked up the endorsement of The The Observer. List of newspapers in the United Kingdom Endorsements in the United Kingdom general election, 2015

Wavel Ramkalawan

Wavel Ramkalawan is a politician of the Seychelles. Wavel Ramkalawan was born in the principal island of Seychelles, he was born into the youngest of three children. His grand father was from Bihar, his father was his mother a teacher. Ramkalawan's primary and secondary education were at Seychelles College, the elite boys' school of the country. Ramkalawan was ordained priest in 1985 following theological studies at St Paul's Theological College in Mauritius, thereafter followed further studies in theology at Birmingham University. Returning to Seychelles, he worked in several parishes in Seychelles, rising to become priest-in-charge of the parish of Holy Saviour, it was his work as a priest. Through his pastoral work, he came into contact with many people, the subject of repression and abuses of human and civil liberties by the government. At that time, the church was the only institution. In 1990, Ramkalawan preached a landmark sermon, broadcast to the nation on the national radio station, in which he questioned the practices of the one-party government and gave voice to the desire of the people for greater freedom, respect for human rights and observance of the rule of law in the country.

The sermon was an inspiration for the movement for political democracy in Seychelles. It drew Ramkalawan closer into politics. In 1991, still a priest, he joined others, active in opposing the government, such as Roger Mancienne and Jean-François Ferrari, to form Parti Seselwa an underground organization, became its leader; when the government, under pressure both internally and from abroad, returned the country to multi-party democracy in 1992, Parti Seselwa was the first political party to register and join the ranks of others in opposition to the government. It set to work and participated in elections for representation on the 1992 constitutional commission, polling only 4% of the national vote and not qualifying for representation on the commission. Subsequently to the coming into force of the new constitution in 1993, two other opposition parties joined Parti Seselwa to form The United Opposition and to contest the 1993 general elections; the party won 9 % of the vote. In 1998, Ramkalawan led his party into the second multi-party general elections.

The party polled 27% of the national vote and increased its National Assembly representation to three, beating the Democratic Party of former President James Mancham into third place. Ramkalawan became the first directly elected member of the party in the Assembly, winning his home constituency of St Louis, which he has represented continuously since. In addition, he was elected Leader of a post he continues to hold. In the 2001 presidential elections, Ramkalawan polled 45% of the vote, thus losing to the 54% vote won by President René; the next year, Ramkalawan led his party, now renamed the Seychelles National Party, into the National Assembly elections. The party increased its parliamentary representation from one directly elected member to seven and from two proportionally elected members to four. Since 1998, Ramkalawan has been Leader of the Opposition. In 2005, Ramkalawan took a sabbatical from his clerical duties in order to consecrate himself to his political life at a crucial and important point in the country's affairs.

In the 2006 presidential elections, Ramkalawan lost to James Michel. Seychelles National Party

190 Coltrin Road

190 Coltrin Road is the residence of the High Commissioner of Pakistan in Ottawa, Canada. It is located in the enclave of Rockcliffe Park amongst other prestigious ambassadorial residences, it was constructed in 1929 and is considered an important historical site, according to the Local Architectural Conservation Advisory Committee of Rockcliffe Park, under the Ontario Heritage Act. 190 Coltrin Road was designed by Clarence Burritt in 1929 for the son and daughter of G. H. Millen, former president of the E. B. Eddy Company; the house was owned by W. Garfield Weston of the Weston Bakeries empire, it was bought by Pakistan in 1949 as a residence for their high commissioner. Since it has served for more than five decades as the residence of the High Commissioner of Pakistan to Canada. 190 Coltrin Road was made with the intention of incorporating several architectural styles, including: The Georgian Revival, as depicted in the Ionic columns at the entrance and dentils on the cornice. The Gothic Revival, in the details of its dormer windows Colonial New England, in the red brick facade and symmetric white picket fence.

This residence has seated all Pakistani High Commissioners: Shahid Malik Musa Javed Chohan Naela Chohan Akbar Zeb A small seed that Liaqat Ali Khan planted on this residence on June 1, 1951, now stands as one of the tallest trees in Rockcliffe Park. Local Architectural Conservation Advisory Committee, Village of Rockcliffe Park. Walking in the Village of Rockcliffe Park. Established by Ontario Heritage Act. Ottawa, 1982