Dajian Huineng commonly known as the Sixth Patriarch or Sixth Ancestor of Chan, is a semi-legendary but central figure in the early history of Chinese Chan Buddhism. He was said to have been an uneducated layman who attained awakening upon hearing the Diamond Sutra. Despite his lack of formal training, he demonstrated his understanding to the fifth patriarch, Daman Hongren, who supposedly chose Huineng as his true successor instead of his publicly known selection of Yuquan Shenxiu. Twentieth century scholarship revealed that the story of Huineng's Buddhist career was invented by the monk Heze Shenhui, who claimed to be one of Huineng's disciples and was critical of Shenxiu's teaching. Huineng is regarded as the founder of the "Sudden Enlightenment" Southern Chan school of Buddhism, which focuses on an immediate and direct attainment of Buddhist enlightenment; the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, said to be a record of his teachings, is a influential text in the East Asian Buddhist tradition.
Most modern scholars doubt the historicity of traditional biographies and works written about Huineng. The two primary sources for Huineng's life are the preface to the Platform Sutra and the Transmission of the Lamp. According to Huineng's autobiography in the Platform Sutra, Huineng's father was from Fanyang, but he was banished from his government position and passed away at a young age. Huineng and his mother were left in poverty and moved to Nanhai, where Huineng sold firewood to support his family. One day, Huineng delivered firewood to a customer's shop, where he met a man reciting the Diamond Sutra.'On hearing the words of the scripture, my mind opened up and I understood.' He inquired about the reason that the Diamond Sutra was chanted, the person stated that he came from the Eastern Meditation Monastery in Huangmei District of the province of Qi, where the Fifth Patriarch of Chan lived and delivered his teachings. Huineng's customer suggested that he meet the Fifth Patriarch of Chan.
Huineng reached Huangmei thirty days and expressed to the Fifth Patriarch his specific request of attaining Buddhahood. Since Huineng came from Guangdong and was physically distinctive from the northern people from China, the Fifth Patriarch Hongren questioned his origin as a “barbarian from the south”, doubted his ability to attain enlightenment. Huineng impressed Hongren with a clear understanding of the ubiquitous Buddha nature in everyone, convinced Hongren to let him stay, he was told to split firewood and pound rice in the backyard of the monastery and avoid going to the main hall. The Platform Sūtra of the Sixth Patriarch is attributed to a disciple of Huineng named Fahai and purports to be a record of Huineng's life and interactions with disciples. However, the text shows signs of having been constructed over a longer period of time, contains different layers of writing, it is......a wonderful melange of early Chan teachings, a virtual repository of the entire tradition up to the second half of the eighth century.
At the heart of the sermon is the same understanding of the Buddha-nature that we have seen in texts attributed to Bodhidharma and Hongren, including the idea that the fundamental Buddha-nature is only made invisible to ordinary humans by their illusions. The Platform Sūtra cites and explains a wide range of Buddhist scriptures listed here in the order of appearance: Diamond Sutra Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra Brahmajāla Sūtra Vimalakirti Sutra Lotus Sutra Śūraṅgama Sūtra Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana Eight months the Fifth Patriarch summoned all his followers and proposed a poem contest for his followers to demonstrate the stage of their understanding of the essence of mind, he decided to pass down his robe and teachings to the winner of the contest, who would become the Sixth Patriarch. Shenxiu, the leading disciple of the Fifth Patriarch, composed a stanza but did not have the courage to present it to the master. Instead, he wrote his stanza on the south corridor wall to remain anonymous one day at midnight.
The other monks commended it. Shenxiu's stanza is as follows:The body is the tree of enlightenment, 身是菩提樹， The mind is like a bright mirror’s stand. 勿使惹塵埃。The Patriarch was not satisfied with Shenxiu's stanza, pointed out that the poem did not show understanding of “ own fundamental nature and essence of mind”. He gave Shenxiu a chance to submit another poem to demonstrate that he had entered the “gate of enlightenment”, so that he could transmit his robe and the Dharma to Shenxiu, but the student's mind was agitated and could not write one more stanza. Two days the illiterate Huineng heard Shenxiu's stanza being chanted by a young attendant at the monastery and inquired about the context of the poem; the attendant explained to him the transmission of the robe and Dharma. Huineng asked to be led to the corridor, where he could pay homage to the stanza, he asked a low-ranking official named Zhang Riyong from Jiangzhou to read the verse to him, immediately asked him to write down a stanza that he composed.
Huineng's stanza was the following:Enlightenment is not a tree, 菩提本無樹， The bright mirror has no stand. 何處惹塵埃。The followers who were present were astonished by the work of a southern barbarian. Being cautious of Huineng's status, the Patriarch wiped away the stanza and claimed that the autho
Chan, from Sanskrit dhyāna, is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It developed in China from the 6th century CE onwards, becoming dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties. After the Yuan, Chan less fused with Pure Land Buddhism. Chan spread south to Vietnam as Thiền and north to Korea as Seon, and, in the 13th century, east to Japan as Zen; the historical records required for a complete, accurate account of early Chan history no longer exist. The history of Chán in China can be divided into several periods. Zen as we know it today is the result of a long history, with many changes and contingent factors; each period had different types of Zen. Ferguson distinguishes three periods from the 5th century into the 13th century: The Legendary period, from Bodhidharma in the late 5th century to the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE, in the middle of the Tang Dynasty. Little written information is left from this period, it is the time of the Six Patriarchs, including Bodhidharma and Huineng, the legendary "split" between the Northern and the Southern School of Chán.
The Classical period, from the end of the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE to the beginning of the Song Dynasty around 950 CE. This is the time of the great masters of Chán, such as Mazu Daoyi and Linji Yixuan, the creation of the yü-lü genre, the recordings of the sayings and teachings of these great masters; the Literary period, from around 950 to 1250, which spans the era of the Song Dynasty. In this time the gongan-collections were compiled, collections of sayings and deeds by the famous masters, appended with poetry and commentary; this genre reflects the influence of literati on the development of Chán. This period idealized the previous period as the "golden age" of Chán, producing the literature in which the spontaneity of the celebrated masters was portrayed. Although McRae has reservations about the division of Chán-history in phases or periods, he distinguishes four phases in the history of Chán: Proto-Chán. In this phase, Chán developed in multiple locations in northern China, it is connected to the figures of Bodhidharma and Huike.
Its principal text is Four Practices, attributed to Bodhidharma. Early Chán. In this phase Chán took its first clear contours. Prime figures are the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren, his dharma-heir Yuquan Shenxiu, the sixth patriarch Huineng, protagonist of the quintessential Platform Sutra, Shenhui, whose propaganda elevated Huineng to the status of sixth patriarch. Prime factions are Southern School and Oxhead School. Middle Chán. In this phase developed the well-known Chán of the iconoclastic zen-masters. Prime figures are Mazu Daoyi, Shitou Xiqian, Linji Yixuan, Xuefeng Yicun. Prime factions are the Hongzhou school and the Hubei faction An important text is the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall, which gives a great amount of "encounter-stories", the well-known genealogy of the Chán-school. Song Dynasty Chán. In this phase Chán took its definitive shape including the picture of the "golden age" of the Chán of the Tang-Dynasty, the use of koans for individual study and meditation. Prime figures are Dahui Zonggao who introduced the Hua Tou practice and Hongzhi Zhengjue who emphasized Shikantaza.
Prime factions are the Caodong school. The classic koan-collections, such as the Blue Cliff Record were assembled in this period, which reflect the influence of the "literati" on the development of Chán. In this phase Chán is transported to Japan, exerts a great influence on Korean Seon via Jinul. Neither Ferguson nor McRae give a periodisation for Chinese Chán following the Song-dynasty, though McRae mentions "at least a postclassical phase or multiple phases"; when Buddhism came to China, it was adapted to understanding. Theories about the influence of other schools in the evolution of Chan vary and reliant upon speculative correlation rather than on written records or histories; some scholars have argued that Chan developed from the interaction between Mahāyāna Buddhism and Taoism, while others insist that Chan has roots in yogic practices kammaṭṭhāna, the consideration of objects, kasiṇa, total fixation of the mind. A number of other conflicting theories exist. Buddhist meditation was practiced in China centuries before the rise of Chán, by people such as An Shigao and his school, who translated various Dhyāna sutras (, which were influential early meditation texts based on the Yogacara meditation teachings of the Sarvāstivāda school of Kashmir circa 1st-4th centuries CE..
The five main types of meditation in the Dyana sutras are anapanasati. Other important translators of meditation texts were Kumārajīva, who translated The Sutra on the Concentration of Sitting Meditation, amongst many other texts; these Chinese translations of Indian Sarvāstivāda Yo
Avalokiteśvara or Padmapani is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. This bodhisattva is variably depicted and portrayed in different cultures as either male or female. In Tibet, he is known as Chenrezik, in Cambodia as "អវលោកិតេស្វរៈ". In Chinese Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara has evolved into the somewhat different female figure Guanyin. In Japan this figure is known as Kannon. In Nepal Mandal this figure is known as Jana Baha Dyah, Seto Machindranath; the name Avalokiteśvara combines the verbal prefix ava "down", lokita, a past participle of the verb lok "to notice, observe", here used in an active sense. In accordance with sandhi, a+īśvara becomes eśvara. Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down"; the word loka is absent from the name. It does appear in the Cambodian form of Lokesvarak; the earliest translation of the name into Chinese by authors such as Xuanzang was as Guānzìzài, not the form used in East Asian Buddhism today, Guanyin. It was thought that this was due to a lack of fluency, as Guanzizai indicates the original Sanskrit form was Avalokitasvara, "who looks down upon sound".
It is now understood, the original form, is the origin of Guanyin "Perceiving sound, cries". This translation was favored by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumārajīva, to use the variant 觀世音 Guānshìyīn "who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as meaning both "to look" and "world"; the original form Avalokitasvara appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century. This earlier Sanskrit name was supplanted by the form containing the ending -īśvara "lord"; the original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva. The reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Hinduism, as the term īśvara was connected to the Hindu notion of Vishnu or Śiva as the Supreme Lord and Ruler of the world; some attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of those who venerated Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god. In Sanskrit, Avalokiteśvara is referred to as Padmapāni or Lokeśvara.
In Tibetan, Avalokiteśvara is Chenrézik, is said to emanate as the Dalai Lama the Karmapa and other high lamas. An etymology of the Tibetan name Chenrézik is spyan "eye", ras "continuity" and gzig "to look"; this gives the meaning of one. According to the Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra, the sun and moon are said to be born from Avalokiteśvara's eyes, Shiva from his brow, Brahma from his shoulders, Narayana from his heart, Sarasvati from his teeth, the winds from his mouth, the earth from his feet, the sky from his stomach. In this text and others, such as the Longer Sukhavativyuha Sutra, Avalokiteśvara is an attendant of Amitabha; some texts which mention Avalokiteśvara include: The Lotus Sutra is accepted to be the earliest literature teaching about the doctrines of Avalokiteśvara. These are found in the Lotus Sutra chapter 25; this chapter is devoted to Avalokiteśvara, describing him as a compassionate bodhisattva who hears the cries of sentient beings, who works tirelessly to help those who call upon his name.
A total of 33 different manifestations of Avalokiteśvara are described, including female manifestations, all to suit the minds of various beings. The chapter consists of a verse section; this earliest source circulates separately as its own sutra, called the Avalokiteśvara Sūtra, is recited or chanted at Buddhist temples in East Asia. When the Chinese monk Faxian traveled to Mathura in India around 400 CE, he wrote about monks presenting offerings to Avalokiteśvara; when Xuanzang traveled to India in the 7th century, he provided eyewitness accounts of Avalokiteśvara statues being venerated by devotees from all walks of life: kings, to monks, to laypeople. In Chinese Buddhism and East Asia, Tangmi practices for the 18-armed form of Avalokiteśvara called Cundī are popular; these practices have their basis in the early Indian Vajrayana: her origins lie with a yakshini cult in Bengal and Orissa, her name in Sanskrit "connotes a prostitute or other woman of low caste but denotes a prominent local ogress... whose divinised form becomes the subject of an important Buddhist cult starting in the eighth century".
The popularity of Cundī is attested by the three extant translations of the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra from Sanskrit to Chinese, made from the end of the seventh century to the beginning of the eighth century. In late imperial China, these early esoteric traditions still thrived in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī were popular among both the populace and the elite. In the Tiantai school, six forms of Avalokiteśvara are defined; each of the bodhisattva's six qualities are said to break the hindrances of the six realms of existence: hell-beings, animals, humans and devas. Veneration of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva has continued to the present day in Sri Lanka: In times past both Tantrayana and Mahayana have been found in some of the
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Bhaiṣajyaguru, formally Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja, is the Buddha of healing and medicine in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Referred to as the "Medicine Buddha", he is described as a doctor who cures dukkha using the medicine of his teachings. Bhaiṣajyaguru's original name and title was rāja. Subsequent translations and commentaries followed Xuanzang in describing him as a Buddha; the image of Bhaiṣajyaguru is expressed with a canonical Buddha-like form holding a gallipot and, in some versions, possessing blue skin. Though considered to be a guardian of the East, in most cases Akshobhya is given that role; as an exceptional case, the honzon of Mount Kōya's Kongōbu Temple was changed from Akshobhya to Bhaiṣajyaguru. Bhaiṣajyaguru is described in the eponymous Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja Sūtra called the Medicine Buddha Sutra, as a bodhisattva who made twelve great vows. On achieving Buddhahood, he became the Buddha of the eastern pure land of Vaiḍūryanirbhāsa "Pure Lapis Lazuli". There, he is attended to by two bodhisattvas symbolizing the light of the sun and the light of the moon respectively: Sūryaprabha Candraprabha A Sanskrit manuscript of the Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja Sūtra was among the texts attesting to the popularity of Bhaiṣajyaguru in the ancient northwest Indian kingdom of Gandhāra.
The manuscripts in this find are dated before the 7th century, are written in the upright Gupta script. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang visited a Mahāsāṃghika monastery at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, in the 7th century CE, the site of this monastery has been rediscovered by archaeologists. Birchbark manuscript fragments from several Mahāyāna sūtras have been discovered at the site, including the Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaidūrya-prabha-rāja Sūtra; the Twelve Vows of the Medicine Buddha upon attaining Enlightenment, according to the Medicine Buddha Sutra are: 1. I vow that my body shall shine as beams of brilliant light on this infinite and boundless world, showering on all beings, getting rid of their ignorance and worries with my teachings. May all beings be like me, with a perfect status and character, upright mind and soul, attaining enlightenment like the Buddha. 2. I vow that my body be like crystal and flawless, radiating rays of splendid light to every corner, brightening up and enlightening all beings with wisdom.
With the blessings of compassion, may all beings strengthen their spiritual power and physical energy, so that they could fulfill their dreams on the right track. 3. I vow that I shall grant by means of boundless wisdom, all beings with the inexhaustible things that they require, relieving them from all pains and guilt resulting from materialistic desires. Although clothing, food and transport are essentials, it should be utilized wisely as well. Besides self-consumption, the remaining should be generously shared with the community so that all could live harmoniously together. 4. I vow to lead those. Let them be corrected and returned to the Buddha way for enlightenment. 5. I vow that I shall enable all sentient beings to observe precepts for spiritual purity and moral conduct. Should there be any relapse or violation, they shall be guided by repentance. Provided they sincerely regret their wrong-doings, vow for a change with constant prayers and strong faith in the Buddha, they could receive the rays of forgiveness, recover their lost moral and purity.
6. I vow that all beings who are physically disabled or sick in all aspects be blessed with good health, both physically and mentally. All who pays homage to Buddha faithfully will be blessed. 7. I vow to relieve all pain and poverty of the sick and poor; the sick be cured, the helpless be helped, the poor be assisted. 8. I vow to help women who are undergoing sufferings and tortures and seeking for transformation into men. By hearing my name, paying homage and praying, their wishes would be granted and attain Buddhahood. 9. I vow to free all beings from its control. I shall lead them onto the path of light through inculcating them with righteousness and honour so that they will walk the Buddha way. 10. I vow to save victims of natural disasters. My supreme powers will be freed from sufferings. 11. I vow to save those who committed a crime to obtain food. If they hear my name and faithfully cherish it, I shall lead them to the advantages of Dharma and favour them with the best food and lead a tranquil and happy life.
12. I vow to save those who suffer from poverty, tormented by mosquitoes and wasps night. If they come across my name, cherish it with sincerity and practise dharma to strengthen their merits, they will be able to achieve their wishes In the Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja Sūtra, the Medicine Buddha is described as having entered into a state of samadhi called "Eliminating All the Suffering and Afflictions of Sentient Beings." From this samadhi state he spoke the Medicine Buddha Dharani. Namo bhagavate bhaiṣajyaguru vaiḍūryaprabharājāya tathāgatāya arahate samyaksambuddhāya tadyathā: oṃ bhaiṣajye bhaiṣajye bhaiṣajya-samudgate svāhā; the last line of the dharani is used as Bhaisajyaguru's short form mantra. There are several other mantras for the Medicine Buddha as well that are used in different schools of Vajrayana Buddhism. Bhaiṣajya
Outline of Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions and practices based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama known as the Buddha, "the awakened one". The following outline is provided as an overview of, topical guide to, Buddhism. Gautama Buddha Tathāgata — meaning "Thus Come One" and "Thus Gone One" the epithet the Buddha uses most to refer to himself, it was founded in India. It is conservative, closer to early Buddhism, for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka and most of continental Southeast Asia. Bangladesh: Sangharaj Nikaya Mahasthabir Nikaya Burma: Thudhamma Nikaya Vipassana tradition of Mahasi Sayadaw Shwekyin Nikaya Dvaya Nikaya or Dvara Nikaya Cambodia Laos Sri Lanka: Siam Nikaya Amarapura Nikaya Ramañña Nikaya Thailand: Maha Nikaya Dhammakaya Movement Thammayut Nikaya Thai Forest Tradition Tradition of Ajahn Chah Mahayana — the "Great Vehicle", it is the largest school of Buddhism, originated in India; the term is used for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" refers to the path of seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle." Madhyamaka Prāsangika Svatantrika Sanlun Sanron Maha-Madhyamaka Yogācāra Cittamatra in Tibet Wei-Shi or Faxiang Beopsang Hossō Tathagatagarbha Daśabhūmikā Huayan Hwaeom Kegon Chán / Zen / Seon / Thien Caodong Sōtō Keizan line Jakuen line Giin line Linji Rinzai Ōbaku Fuke Won Buddhism: Korean Reformed Buddhism Pure Land Jodo Shu Jodo Shinshu Tiantai Cheontae Tendai Nichiren Nichiren Shū Nichiren Shōshū Nipponzan Myōhōji Soka Gakkai Vajrayana Tibetan Buddhism Nyingma New Bön Kadam Sakya Ngor-pa Tsar-pa Jonang Gelug Kagyu: Shangpa Kagyu Marpa Kagyu: Rechung Kagyu Dagpo Kagyu: Karma Kagyu Tsalpa Kagyu Baram Kagyu Pagtru Kagyu: Taglung Kagyu Trophu Kagyu Drukpa Kagyu Martsang Kagyu Yerpa Kagyu Yazang Kagyu Shugseb Kagyu Drikung Kagyu Rime movement Japanese Mikkyo Shingon Tendai Early Buddhist schools Mahāsaṃghika Ekavyahārikas Lokottaravāda Golulaka Bahuśrutīya Prajñaptivāda Caitika Apara Śaila Uttara Śaila Cetiyavāda Sthaviravāda Pudgalavāda Vatsīputrīya name: Saṃmitīya Dharmottarīya Bhadrayānīya Sannāgarika Vibhajjavāda Theravāda Mahīśāsaka Dharmaguptaka Sarvāstivāda Kāśyapīya Sautrāntika Mūlasarvāstivāda Vaibhashika Buddhist modernism Humanistic Buddhism Sōka Gakkai Vipassana movement New Kadampa Tradition Friends of the Western Buddhist Order Fo Guang Shan Buddhism by country Buddhism by country Buddhism in the East Buddhism in South Asia Tamil Buddhism Buddhism in Central Asia Buddhism in Southeast Asia East Asian Buddhism Buddhism in the Middle East Buddhism in the West Buddhism in the Americas Buddhism in Central America Buddhism in Australia Buddhism in Europe Buddhism in Africa Buddhist texts Pali literature Pāli Canon Vinaya Pitaka — Basket of Discipline Suttavibhanga Patimokkha — Buddhist Monastic Code Khandhaka Mahāvagga Cullavagga Parivara Sutta Pitaka — Basket of Discourses Digha Nikaya — the Long Discourses Brahmaja
A pure land is the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism. The term "pure land" is particular to related traditions; the various traditions that focus on pure lands have been given the nomenclature Pure Land Buddhism. Pure lands are evident in the literature and traditions of Taoism and Bon. In the Mahayana sutras, there are many pure lands. Bodhisattvas such as Avalokiteśvara and Manjushri would obtain pure lands after they attained buddhahood. In the Lotus Sutra, Buddha's close followers such as Śāriputra, Mahākāśyapa, Maudgalyāyana and Buddha's son Rāhula would have pure lands; the relative time-flow in the pure lands may be different, with a day in one pure land being equivalent to years in another. Pure lands have been documented as arising due to the intention and aspiration of a bodhisattva such as the case of Amitābha, but other discourse has codified that they are entwined with the theory of the saṃbhogakāya and are understood to manifest effortlessly and spontaneously due to other activities of a Buddha and the pure qualities and the mysteries of the Three Vajras.
The five features of Buddhahood - the attributes of the sambhogakāya - play a role: perfect teacher, retinue and time. Nakamura establishes the Indian background of the padma imagery of the field, evident iconographically, as well as in motif and metaphor: The descriptions of Pure Land in Pure Land sutras were influenced by Brahmin and Hindu ideas and the topological situation in India. There was a process of the development of lotus -symbolism in Pure Land Buddhism; the final outcome of the thought was as follows: the aspirants of faith and assiduity are born transformed in the lotus flowers. But those with doubts are born into the lotus-buds, they stay in the calyx of a lotus for five hundred years without seeing or hearing the Three Treasures. Within the closed lotus-flowers they enjoy pleasures as though they were playing in a garden or palace; the Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism states that "The heavens of the realm of subtle materiality consist of sixteen, seventeen, or eighteen levels of devas...
The last five heavens are collectively designated as the five pure abodes, the divinities residing there are called the Śuddhāvāsakāyika devas."Five Pure Abodes Avṛha — Free from affliction Atapa — Without torment Sudṛśa — Perfect form Sudarśana — Perfect vision Akaniṣṭa — Highest Very important to all pure abodes is the'Source' from which they dwell and which supports them, the'Wellspring' of myriad fonts as emergent. It may be understood as an interface, portal or epiphany between the Dharmakaya and the Sambhogakaya, it is seminal in the establishment of mandalas governing the inner or secret dimensions. It is the opening and consecration of the sacred space which enfolds and supports the expanse of the pure abode. In iconography it is represented by the six-pointed star, the two interlocking offset equilateral triangles that form a symmetry; this is the'sanctum sanctorum'. It developed into the primordial purity of the lotus which supports the mandala, thangka or the murti of the deity. In temple siting it is the power place or'spirit of place', augured or divined in the sacred geometry of'geodesy'.
In yoga asana, the'source' is Vajrasana, the'seat of enlightenment' the ancient name of Bodh Gaya and an alternate name for mahamudra or padmasana. "Source of phenomena or qualities. Pundarika defines dharmodaya as that. "Phenomena devoid of intrinsic nature" refers to the ten powers, the four fearlessnesses, the other 84,000 aspects of the teachings. Their source, dharmodaya, is the pure realm, the abode of all buddhas and bodhisattvas, the place of bliss, the place of birth. Source: Stainless Light, Toh. 1347, vol. Da, f237a3-5"; the Śuddhāvāsa worlds, or "Pure Abodes", are distinct from the other worlds of the Rūpadhātu in that they do not house beings who have been born there through ordinary merit or meditative attainments, but only those Anāgāmins who are on the path to Arhat-hood and who will attain enlightenment directly from the Śuddhāvāsa worlds without being reborn in a lower plane. Every Śuddhāvāsa deva is therefore a protector of Buddhism.. Because a Śuddhāvāsa deva will never be reborn outside the Śuddhāvāsa worlds, no Bodhisattva is born in these worlds, as a Bodhisattva must be reborn as a human being through their'compassion' and bodhisattva vows.
Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, in discussing the Mind Stream of Lokeśvararāja that in fulfillment has come to be known as Amitābha: According to the sutra known as the Rolling of Drums, countless