Rawalpindi known as Pindi, is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is adjacent to Pakistan's capital of Islamabad, the two are jointly known as the "twin cities" on account of strong social and economic links between the cities. Rawalpindi is the fourth-largest city in Pakistan by population, while the larger Islamabad Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the country's third-largest metropolitan area. Rawalpindi is located on the Pothohar Plateau, known for its ancient Buddhist heritage in the neighbouring town of Taxila - a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city was destroyed during the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni before being taken over by Gakhars in 1493. In 1765, the ruling Gakhars were defeated as the city came under Sikh rule, became a major city within the Sikh Empire based in Lahore; the city was conquered by the British Raj in 1849, in 1851 became the largest garrison town for the British Indian Army. Following the partition of British India in 1947, the city became home to the headquarters of Pakistan Army hence retaining its status as a major military city.
Construction of Pakistan's new purpose-built national capital city of Islamabad in 1961 led to greater investment in the city, as well as a brief stint as the country's capital before completion of Islamabad. Modern Rawalpindi is and economically intertwined with Islamabad, the greater metropolitan area; the city is home to numerous suburban housing developments that serve as bedroom-communities for workers in Islamabad. As home of Benazir Bhutto International Airport, with connections to the M-1 and M-2 motorways, Rawalpindi is a major logistics and transportation centre for northern Pakistan; the city is home to historic havelis and temples, serves as a hub for tourists visiting Rohtas Fort, Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. The region around Rawalpindi has been inhabited for thousands of years. Rawalpindi falls within the ancient boundaries of Gandhara, is in a region littered with Buddhist ruins. In the region north-west of Rawalpindi, traces have been found of at least 55 stupas, 28 Buddhist monasteries, 9 temples, various artifacts in the Kharoshthi script.
To the southeast are the ruins of the Mankiala stupa – a 2nd-century stupa where, according to the Jataka tales, a previous incarnation of the Buddha leapt off a cliff in order to offer his corpse to seven hungry tiger cubs. The nearby town of Taxila is thought to have been home to the world's first university. Sir Alexander Cunningham identified ruins on the site of the Rawalpindi Cantonment as the ancient city of Ganjipur, the capital of the Bhatti tribe in the ages preceding the Christian era; the first mention of Rawalpindi's earliest settlement dates from when Mahmud of Ghazni destoyed Rawalpindi and the town was restored by Gakhar chief Kai Gohar in the early 11th century. The town fell into decay again. Situated along an invasion route, the settlement did not prosper and remained deserted until 1493, when Jhanda Khan re-established the ruined town, named it Rawal. During the Mughal era, Rawalpindi remained under the rule of the Ghakhar clan, who in turn pledged allegiance to the Mughal Empire.
The city was developed as an important outpost in order to guard the frontiers of the Mughal realm. Gakhars fortified a nearby caravanserai, in the 16th century, transforming it into the Rawat Fort in order to defend the Pothohar plateau from Sher Shah Suri's forces. Construction of the Attock Fort in 1581 after Akbar led a campaign against his brother Mirza Muhammad Hakim, further securing Rawalpindi's environs. In December 1585, the Emperor Akbar arrived in Rawalpindi, remained in and around Rawalpindi for 13 years as he extended the frontiers of the empire, in an era described as a "glorious period" in his career as Emperor. With the onset of chaos and rivalry between Gakhar chiefs after the death of Kamal Khan in 1559, Rawalpindi was awarded to Said Khan by the Mughal Emperor; the Emperor Jehangir visited the royal camp in Rawalpindi in 1622, where he first learned of Shah Abbas I of Persia's plan to invade Kandahar. Rawalpindi declined in importance as Mughal power declined, until the town was captured in the mid 1760s from Muqarrab Khan by the Sikhs under Sardar Gujjar Singh and his son Sahib Singh.
The city's administration was handed to Sardar Milkha Singh, who invited traders from the neighboring commercial centers of Jhelum and Shahpur to settle in the territory in 1766. The city began to prosper, although the population in 1770 is estimated to have been only about 300 families. Rawalpindi became for a time the refuge of Shah Shuja, the exiled king of Afghanistan, of his brother Shah Zaman in the early 19th century. Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh allowed the son of Sardar Milkha Singh to continue as Governor of Rawalpindi, after Ranjit Singh seized the district in 1810. Sikh rule over Rawalpindi was consolidated by defeat of the Afghans at Haidaran in July 1813; the Sikh rulers allied themselves with some of the local Gakhar tribes, jointly defeated Syed Ahmad Barelvi at Akora Khattak in 1827, again in 1831 in Balakot. Jews first arrived in Rawalpindi's Babu Mohallah neighbourhood from Mashhad, Persia in 1839, in order to flee from anti-Jewish laws instituted by the Qajar dynasty.
In 1841, Diwan Kishan Kaur was appointed Sardar of Rawalpindi. On 14 March 1849, Sardar Chattar Singh and Raja Sher Singh of the Sikh Empire surrendered to General Gilbert near Rawalpindi, ceding the city to the British; the Sikh Empire came to an end on 29 March 1849. Following Rawalpindi's capture by the British East India company, 53rd Regiment of the company army took quarters in the newly captured city; the deci
Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, it is the most populated province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017. Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistan provinces of Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, Azad Kashmir, it shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. The provincial capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a cultural, historical and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, much of its fashion industry, are based. Punjab has been inhabited since ancient times; the Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa. Punjab features in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata, is home to Taxila, site of what is considered by many to be the oldest university in the world. In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Punjab; the Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE.
In the subsequent centuries, Punjab was invaded and conquered by the Ghaznavids, Delhi Sultanate, Mughals and the Sikhs. Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, which for a time ruled from Lahore. During the 18th century, Nader Shah’s invasion of the Mughal Empire caused Mughal authority in the Punjab to fall apart and it thus fell into chaos; the Durranis under Ahmad Shah Durrani wrested control of Punjab only to lose it to the Sikhs after a successful rebellion which allowed Sikh armies to claim Lahore in 1759. The Sikh Empire was ruled by Ranjit Singh with his capital based in Lahore, until its defeat by the British. Punjab was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with Lahore being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan; the province was formed when the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious boundaries in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line after Partition.
Punjab is Pakistan's most industrialised province with the industrial sector making up 24% of the province's gross domestic product. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its relative prosperity, has the lowest rate of poverty amongst all Pakistani provinces. A clear divide is present between the southern portions of the province. Punjab is one of South Asia's most urbanized regions with 40% of people living in urban areas, its human development index rankings are high relative to the rest of Pakistan. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its liberal social attitudes; the province has been influenced by Sufism, with numerous Sufi shrines spread across Punjab which attract millions of devotees annually. The founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, was born in the Punjab town of Nankana Sahib near Lahore. Punjab is the site of the Katasraj Temple, which features prominently in Hindu mythology. Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archeological excavations at Taxila, the Rohtas Fort.
The region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests; the region was known to the Greeks as Pentapotamia. The word Punjab was formally introduced in the early 17th century CE as an elision of the Persian words panj and āb, thus meaning the five rivers, similar in meaning to the Sanskrit and Greek name for the region; the five rivers, namely Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River and into the Arabian Sea. Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan's Punjab province. Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians, Kushans, Scythians and Afghans; the northwestern part of South Asia, including Punjab, was invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, including those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan.
The oldest evidence of life in Pakistan has been found in Soan River valley. It was here that some of the earliest signs of humans have been discovered during the excavations of prehistoric mounds. Tools up to two million years old have been recovered in potohar plateau. In the Soan River, many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, crocodile and rodents have been found there. Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada. Punjab was part of the Indus Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years ago; the main site in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization; the Vedic civilisation flourished along the length of the Indus River. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Afghanistan. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have been found.
Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara Mahajanapadas, Macedonians, Kushans and Hin
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic". The Prime Minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees the economic growth, leads the National Assembly, heads the Council of Common Interests as well as the Cabinet, is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals; this position places its holder in leadership of the nation and in control over all matters of internal and foreign policy. The Prime Minister is elected by the members of the National Assembly and therefore is the leader of the majority party in the parliament; the Constitution of Pakistan vests the executive powers in the Prime Minister, responsible for appointing the Cabinet as well as running the executive branch and authorising executive decisions and recommendations that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister. Constitutionally, the Prime Minister serves as the chief adviser to President of Pakistan on critical matters and plays an influential role in appointment in each branch of the military leadership as well as ensuring the control of the military through chairman joint chiefs.
Powers of the Prime Minister have grown with a delicate system of the check and balance by each branch. The position was absent during years of 1960 -- 1977 -- 85 and 1999 -- 2002 due to imposed martial law. In each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister. Imran Khan has held the office of Prime Minister since 18 August 2018, following the outcome of nationwide general elections held on 25 July 2018; the office of the Prime Minister was created on immediate effect after the partition and the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. The first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, exercised central executive powers until his assassination in 1951. However, the powers began to be reduced as a result of constant intervention by the Governor-General. Despite the first set of the Constitution giving central power in 1956, the next six prime ministers were dismissed by the Governor-General from 1951 till 1957. In addition, the first set of the Constitution had evolved the Governor-General into the President of Pakistan whilst declaring the country an "Islamic republic".
In 1958, President Iskandar Mirza dismissed the seventh prime minister to impose martial law in a mere two weeks, President Mirza was ousted by army chief General Ayub Khan who had for a brief period held the post of Prime Minister. In 1962, the second set of the Constitution dissolved the office of prime minister as all powers were transferred to the President of Pakistan. Criticism over the presidency after the presidential election held in 1965 over the centralizing of powers. After the general elections held in 1970, the office was established with Nurul Amin becoming the Prime Minister, the Vice-President. Negotiations that fall apart between Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Mujibur Rehman, Yahya Khan that prompted to liberation movement in the East Pakistan. With India intervening in East Pakistan and Pakistan conceding defeat to end the war led to the collapse of the presidential system in 1971; as the comprehensive Constitution reinstated in 1973, the post was reestablished with more central powers as the constitution provided a parliamentary system with President of Pakistan as figurehead.
Amid agitation instigated by the right-wing alliance invited the military intervention in 1977 which suspended the post. The general elections held in 1985 restored the post, with Muhammad Junejo becoming the Prime Minister; that year, the National Assembly passed the controversial eighth amendment to the Constitution, giving the President the power to dismiss the Prime Minister and the National Assembly without prior consultation. The general elections in 1988 resulted in the Pakistan Peoples Party's Benazir Bhutto becoming the first woman Prime Minister elected in a Muslim country. From 1988 to 1993, the power struggle between the Prime Minister and Presidency continued with President dismissing the National Assembly on three different occasions. At the 1997 elections, the PML secured a two-thirds majority in the Parliament and drafted the XIII and XIV Amendments to reverse the eighth amendment to the Constitution. After the draw down of civil-military relations in 1999, Chairman joint chiefs General Pervez Musharraf staged a coup d'état against the PML's government and held nationwide elections in 2002.
With no party gaining a majority, a coalition was formed with the PML – a breakaway of the PML and a pro-Musharraf party – leading with MQM. After some political wrangling, Zafarullah Jamali became the Prime Minister, passed the XVII amendment which restored the power of the President to dissolve the National Assembly, but made the dissolution subject to the Supreme Court of Pakistan's approval. Over the authority issues, Prime Minister Jamali resigned in 2004 and Shaukat Aziz was appointed as Prime Minister, securing 151 out of 191 votes in the National Assembly; the XVII amendment featured a semi-presidential system allowing the presidency to keep the interference executive and the judiciary. The general elections in 2008 resulted in the PPP coming to power and supporting the movement to oust Pervez Musharraf. A populist intellectual movement leading to the departure of Pervez Musharraf allowed Asif Zardari to become President. In 2010, the XVIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was passed to reverse the XVII amendment.
Demographics of Afghanistan
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, its largest ethnic group is the Pashtun, followed by Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Baloch and a few others. 46% of the population is under 15 years of age, 74% of all Afghans live in rural areas. The average woman gives birth to five children during her entire life and 6.8% of all babies die in child-birth or infancy. Life expectancy was reported in 2015 at 60.5 years and only 0.04% of the population has HIV. Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country. Dari, known as the Afghan Persian, functions as the lingua franca. Pashto is used in the region south of the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan. Uzbek and Turkmen are smaller languages spoken in parts of the north.
Multilingualism is common throughout the country in the major cities. Islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistan's citizens. 90% of the population practice Sunni Islam and belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school, while 7–15% are followers of Shia Islam. The remaining 1 % or less practice other religions such as Hinduism. Excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most People are organized into tribal and other kinship-based groups, who follow their own traditional customs, for instance Pashtuns Pashtunwali; the majority of the country's population lives in rural areas and is involved in agricultural activities. As of 2016, the total population of Afghanistan is around 33,332,025, which includes the 3 million Afghan nationals living in both Pakistan and Iran. Afghanistan's Central Statistics Organization stated in 2011 that the total number of Afghans living inside Afghanistan was about 26 million and by 2017 it reached 29.2 million. Of this, 15 million are males and 14.2 million are females.
About 22% of the population is urbanite and the remaining 78% live in rural areas. The population was reported in 1979 at about 15.5 million. From 1979 until the end of 1983, some 5 million people left the country to take shelter in neighboring northwestern Pakistan and eastern Iran; this exodus was unchecked by any government. The Afghan government in 1983 reported a population of 15.96 million, which included the exodus. It is assumed that 600,000 to as high as 2 million Afghans may have been killed during the various 1979–2001 wars; these figures are questionable and no attempt has been made to verify them. The country's population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050. Urban areas have experienced rapid population growth in the last decade, due to the return of over 5 million expats; the only city in Afghanistan with over a million residents is Kabul. The other largest cities in the country are shown in the chart below. 0–14 years: 42.3% 15–64 years: 55.3% 65 years and over: 2.4% In 1979, the population was reported to be about 15.5 million.
2.32% country comparison to the world: 39 urbanization population: 24% of the total population rate of urbanization: 5.4% annual rate of change at birth: 1.05 male/female under 15 years: 1.05 male/female 15–64 years: 1.05 male/female 65 years and over: 0.93 male/female total population: 1.05 male/female Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Structure of the population: total population: 60.5 years country comparison to the world: 214 male: 59.3 years female: 61.9 years Source: UN World Population Prospects Definition: People over the age of 15 that can read and write Total population: 38.2% Male: 52% Female: 24.2% total: 11 years male: 13 years female: 8 years 0.04% Up to 6,900 In 2008, health officials in Afghanistan reported 504 cases of people living with HIV but by the end of 2012 the numbers reached 1,327. The nation's healthy ministry stated that most of the HIV patients were among intravenous drug users and that 70% of them were men, 25% women, the remaining 5% children, they belonged to Kabul and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring and foreign countries.
Regarding Kandahar, 22 cases were reported in 2012. "AIDS Prevention department head Dr Hamayoun Rehman said 1,320 blood samples were examined and 21 were positive. Among the 21 patients, 18 were males and three were females who contracted the deadly virus from their husbands, he said. The main source of the disease was the use of syringes used by drug addicts." There are 23,000 addicts in the country who inject drugs into their bodies using syringescountry comparison to the world: 168 Up to 300 Degree of risk: high Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever Vector-borne diseases: malaria Animal contact diseases: rabiesNote: WH5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country. In August 2017, a nationwide distribution of e-ID cards is scheduled to begin; the ethnicity of each citizen
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some
Liaquat Ali Khan
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan known as Quaid-e-Millat and Shaheed-e-Millat, was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Prior to his assassination, Khan tenured as the first finance minister in the interim government led by its Governor General Mountbatten, he was born into an influential aristocratic Muslim Jatt family of Nosherwani Baloch origin,in the town of Karnal in the present-day Haryana, India, on October 1, 1895, to a land-holding Sunni Muslim, His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan. Liaquat Ali Khan was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University in India, at Oxford University in the United Kingdom. Well-educated, he was a democratic political theorist. After first being invited by the Congress Party, he opted for the Muslim League led by influential Mohammad Ali Jinnah, advocating the eradication of the injustices and ill-treatment meted out to Indian Muslims by the British government.
He pursued his role in the independence movements of India and Pakistan, while serving as the first Finance Minister in the interim government of British Indian Empire, prior to the independence and partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. Ali Khan assisted Jinnah in campaigning for the creation of a separate state for Indian Muslims. Ali Khan's credentials secured him the appointment of Pakistan's first Prime Minister, Ali Khan's foreign policy sided with the United States and the West, though his foreign policy was determined to be a part of the Non Aligned Movement. Facing internal political unrest, his government survived a coup hatched by the leftists and communists. Nonetheless, his influence grew further after Jinnah's death, he was responsible for promulgating the Objectives Resolution. In 1951, at a political rally in Rawalpindi, Ali Khan was assassinated by a hired assassin, Said Babrak. Liaquat Ali Khan was into an aristocrat Muslim Mandhan Jatt family in Karnal, Punjab Province, British India, now in the Indian state of Haryana, on 1 October 1895.
The origin of his family is described as Jatt, however his family had adopted the Urdu language, He belonged to a land-holding Sunni Muslim, Pashto Speaking Nosherwani Baloch family His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, possessed the titles of Rukun-al-Daulah, Shamsher Jang and Nawab Bahadur, by the local population and the British Government who had wide respect for his family. The Ali Khan family was one of the few landlords whose property expanded across both eastern Punjab and Muzaffarnagar the United Provinces. Both of his parents, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan and Mahmoodah Begum are buried at their princely family compound located outside Karnal, India. Liaquat Ali Khan's former personal residence is located at Jansath Tehsil of Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh about 80 km from his ancestral estate and is now being considered by the Uttar Pradesh government to be opened as a tourist destination; the family owed its pre-eminence to timely support given by Liaqat's grandfather Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan of Karnal to British army during 1857 rebellion.
Liaquat Ali Khan's mother, Mahmoodah Begum, arranged for his lessons in the Qur'an and Ahadith at home before his formal schooling started. His family had strong ties with the British Government, his family had deep respect for the Indian Muslim thinker and philosopher Syed Ahmad Khan, his father had a desire for the young Liaqat Ali Khan to be educated in the British educational system. In 1913, Ali Khan attended the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, graduating with a BSc degree in Political science and LLB in 1918, married his cousin, Jehangira Begum in 1918. After the death of his father in 1919, Ali Khan, with British Government awarding the grants and scholarship, went to England, attending Oxford University's Exeter College to pursue his higher education. In 1921, Ali Khan was awarded the Master of Law in Law and Justice, by the college faculty who conferred on him a Bronze Medallion. While a graduate student at Oxford, Ali Khan participated in student unions and was elected Honorary Treasurer of the Majlis Society— a student union founded by Indian Muslim students to promote the Indian students' rights at the university.
Thereafter, Ali Khan was called to join one of the Inns of Court in London. He was called to the Bar in 1922 by one of his English law professor, starting his practices in law as an advocate. Ali Khan returned to his homeland India in 1923, entering in national politics, determining to eradicate to what he saw as the injustice and ill-treatment of Indian Muslims under the British Indian Government and the British Government, his political philosophy emphasis a united India, first believing in the Indian nationalism. The Congress leadership approached to Ali Khan to become a part of the party, but after attending the meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru, Ali Khan's political views and ambitions changed. Therefore, Ali Khan refused, informing the Congress Party about his decision, instead joining the All-India Muslim League|Muslim League in 1923, led under another lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Soon Jinnah cal