Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern or Berne is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura and the canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau; the canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,031,126. As of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners; the cantonal capital the "federal city" of Switzerland, is Bern. Other major cities are Biel/Bienne. Bern joined the Old Swiss Confederation in 1353. Between 1803 and 1814 it was one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation; the earliest traces of a human presence in the area of the modern Canton is found in three caves in the Simmental region. These caves were used at various times during the last ice age; the first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf.
During the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level. Important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental. During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, the Toteisbecken and along rivers. Several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann. In the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, came from one of these villages. Simple copper objects were in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann.
Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development. Settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas; the area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled. Archeological finds include scattered items along mountain passes, a fortified hilltop settlements at Spiezberg, Cholis Grind by Saanen and at Pintel by Wimmis, along with cemeteries at Thun-Allmendingen and Hilterfingen. Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the Early Iron Age changes in climate forced the Hallstatt culture to abandon settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus and hills. With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the cultural influence of the Mediterranean region grew in the area. Evidence of this trade include a hydria, discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time; the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods.
In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by several burials. Several grave mounds combined to become a necropolis, such as at Grossaffoltern, Bannwil, Langenthal and Bützberg. Most of the knowledge about the Hallstatt culture in the Canton comes from graves; the only discovered settlement is around Blanche Church in La Neuveville. The grave goods show that iron was forged into swords, spearheads and wagon accessories. Gold, collected from river sand, was made into diadems and pendants. Thin bronze arm and neck plates with geometric designs were buried in the graves at Allenlüften in Mühleberg, at Ins and at Bützberg; the jewelry, buried included bracelets and rings which were made of jet and lignite coal. At Münchringen, the grave pottery was both shaped by hand or thrown on a potter's wheel, was painted with multi-colored ornamentation; the transition to the Late Iron Age of the La Tène culture is indicated by a sudden change of style in the metalworking and ceramic industries.
Numerous graves, along with the two oppida at Bern-Engehalbinsel and Jensberg by Studen, mark the population centers during the late Iron Age. Gold coins along with bronze coins first start to appear during this era. A sword with Greek characters that said Korisios was found at the Port site. At the oppidum at Bern-Engehalbinsel, there were studios for glass and ceramic production, iron working achieved a high level of skill, along with craftsmen who worked in wood and goldsmithing. There was a nearby place of worship in the Bremgarten wood, cemeteries at Münsingen and Bern-Engehalbinsel. After the Roman era victory at Battle of Bibracte in 58 BCE, the Helvetii were forced to return to their homes as foederati of the Romans. Under increasing Roman influence, the local economy and trade flourished; the main settlements lay on the Central Plateau. The existing roads were expanded the Aventicum-Vindonissa and the Petinesca-Augusta Raurica roads. A fourth alpine pass, the Rawil pass, was added to the traditional three.
The river Sense is a right tributary of the river Saane in Switzerland. It is a border river between the Cantons of Bern, its source rivers, the Kalte Sense, coming from Mount Gantrisch, Warme Sense, flowing out of lake Schwarzsee, join at Zollhaus and thus form the origin of the Sense. The Sense flows through a gorge of 15 km length, popular for whitewater sports, but for swimming and bathing – among nudists, its main tributary is the river Schwarzwasser. After about 35 km, the Sense joins the Saane river at Bern; because the Sense's water level can rise during hefty rainstorms, it is dangerous to stay near the river bed in uncertain weather conditions. "Sense, Berner Oberland / Schweiz". Kajaktour.de
Lake of Gruyère
Lake of Gruyère is an artificial lake in the La Gruyère region of the Canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. The reservoir was formed between the cities of Bulle and Fribourg, by building the Rossens Dam on the Sarine river in 1948; the arch dam has a crest length of 320 m. The reservoir filled in about four months after completion; the dam is operated by the Groupe E SA. The remains of the castle of Pont and a chapel are located on the Ile d'Ogoz, one of the five islets in the lake; the "Viaduc du Lac de Gruyère" of the A12 motorway was built in the 1970s. The bridge crosses three valleys, including two arms of the lake. Christophe Aeby: Lac de la Gruyère in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Swissdams: Rossens Rossens Dam at Structurae Viaduc du Lac de Gruyère at Structurae Swisscastles: Ogoz
Château-d'Œx is a municipality in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is in the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut. Château-d'Œx is first mentioned in 1115 as Oit, Oyz and Oyez. During the late Paleolithic and Mesolithic caves around Château-d'Œx served as a seasonal settlement. Bronze Age knives indicate. Many of the local names and the local dialect are the only traces of a Celtic settlement in the area; the lack of iron ore and the sparseness of the soil prevented the romanization of lowland valleys. During the Gallo-Roman era, the region may have been only sparsely populated. By the 10th century, the Alamannic settlements had only reached Le Vanel but spread higher and reached the pastures in L'Etivaz in the southern part of the municipality; the valley was known as Ogo. The name may be a form of Äesch. In the 10th century, the Count of Gruyere conquered the Creux de l'Enfer. Subsequently, it was merged with Rossinière to form a district; the church of St. Donat was consecrated and first mentioned in 1175.
The village church was under the authority of the Cluniac Priory of Rougemont, founded in 1080. At the beginning of the 14th century, the castle at La Motte was rebuilt for the Counts of Gruyere. Another stronghold stood on the rocky spur, known as Château Cottier. After clearing the woods, the region was intensively farmed and produced barley, hay and cheese. In 1388 the villagers threw off the obligation to serve the nobility. In 1403, against the wishes of the Count of Gruyères, the villagers joined a limited alliance with Bern. In 1555 Bern received the upper part of the county of Gruyere including Château-d'Œx, it became part of the German-speaking bailiwick of Saanen. The rights and freedoms of the villagers were now based on Bernese law and not on the Land Law of Moudon. However, the village church was still part of the parish under the collegiate church of Lausanne. Following the Protestant Reformation in 1555, the parish included Etivaz until 1713. Under Bernese rule, the economy experienced a strong upswing.
The common land was sold before the end of the 16th century. The alpine pastures were leased to private cheese makers. In the 18th century, the inhabitants of the municipality went over the Col de Jaman to sell the cheese, from the 2,000 cows, at the market in Vevey. From there, it went to Marseille where it was exported to America. In 1798, Château-d'Œx came to the newly formed Canton of Léman. In 1800, a fire destroyed the wooden houses on the central hill; the houses had been built on the hill to avoid property taxes. Thanks to the efforts of the Dean Philippe-Sirice Bridel enough money was raised to rebuild the houses in stone; the municipality hired masons from Savoy, carpenters from Simmental and plasterers from the lower Gruyere lands lower uplands. In 1803, the Canton of Léman was dissolved with the Act of Mediation and the municipality became part of the new canton of Vaud. In 1849, the Institute Henchoz opened as a preparatory gymnasium, which replaced the older Latin school; the primary school received a new building in 1907.
Starting in 1847 a parish of the Free Church of the Canton of Vaud was established with two priests. The Catholic parish was established in 1896 and the Anglican church parish was created in 1899. Other religious communities, such as the Plymouth Brethren, established churches in the valley. In the 19th century, the municipality suffered several outbreaks of livestock diseases. To protect the dairy industry, non-local herds were forbidden from passing through the municipality. Cheese was no longer allowed to be carried across the mountains but was now transported on local draft horses. Due to customs taxes with the neighboring Canton of Fribourg, cheese was carried on a route over the Col de Chaude to Villeneuve and from there to the shores of Lake Geneva, without crossing the Fribourg border; the abolition of the inter-canton customs and taxes in 1848 led to the demolition of the Fribourg customs station on the main road that had linked Château-d'Œx with the grain and livestock markets. Changes in markets and improvements in animal husbandry led to more Simmental cattle being raised for meat rather than cheese production.
The construction of the road over the Col des Mosses and the construction of a new road to Bulle eased transportation. The hospital, which had replaced the old hospital in 1926, was remodeled in 1979 into a nursing home and district hospital. At the same time, solar heating was added to the building; the municipal administration building was built in 1912, renovated in 1958. The Musée du Vieux Pays-d'Enhaut was built in 1922. A power plant operated in La Chaudanne was from 1894 until about 1901; the opening of the Montreux-Oberland Bernois Railway in 1904 made Château-d'Œx an attractive summer resort. It was appreciated by English tourists. Between 1916-18 it housed English internees during the war. Half a dozen grand hotels with tennis courts sprang up in the municipality. A tennis club was founded in 1894. Other infrastructure included the suspension bridge at Turrian, a swimming pool and a campsite, a cable car and the Pont du Berceau; the agricultural sector has remained important, with the emphasis again shifting to cheese.
In the 20th century, winter tourism became an important additional source of income. Hot air balloons and river rafting became common in the summer, while local crafts and gravel
The Sanetschhore or Mont Brun in French is a mountain of the Diablerets massif in the Bernese Alps, overlooking the Sanetsch Pass in Switzerland. It is located between the cantons of Valais and Berne northeast of the main summit of the Diablerets. Sanetschhorn on Hikr
The Berner Oberland, is the higher part of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the southern end of the canton, one of the canton's five administrative regions. The region consists of the area around Meiringen and Hasliberg up to Grimsel Pass, around Lake Thun and Lake Brienz, the valleys of many high mountains with the towering Jungfrau Peak, the area southwest of the Lake Thun with Kandersteg and Adelboden, the area round Gstaad and Lenk in the Simmental; the mountain range in the Berner Oberland south of the Aare and north of the Rhône are collectively called the Bernese Alps. The flag of the Berner Oberland consists of a black eagle in a gold field over two fields in the cantonal colours of red and black; the Swiss German dialects spoken in the Berner Oberland are Highest Alemannic German, contrasting with the High Alemannic Bernese German spoken in Bern and the northern parts of the canton. In the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the Berner Oberland was a separate canton. Prehistorically the Berner Oberland was crossed by hunters or traders, but the first known settlements were from the Roman era.
The Romans settled along the lakes. They used. During the High Middle Ages, a number of Berner Oberland villages grew around valley parish churches which were religious and cultural centers within each surrounding valley. During Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland first belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy followed by the Dukes of Zähringen. After the extinction of the Zähringen line, the Berner Oberland was ruled by a number of local Barons. For a time, some of the Walser barons ruled portions of the Berner Oberland; the Saanen valley was ruled by the Counts of Gruyères. Portions of the alpine passes were held, by the Bishop of Sion; the expansionist policy of the city of Bern led them into the Berner Oberland. Through conquest, mortgage or marriage politics Bern was able to acquire the majority of the Berner Oberland from the indebted local barons between 1323 and 1400. Under Bernese control, the five valleys enjoyed extensive rights and far-reaching autonomy in the Bäuerten and Talverbänden. Throughout the Late Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland, as a whole or in part, revolted several times against Bernese authority.
The Evil League in 1445 fought against Bernese military service and taxes following the Old Zürich War, in 1528 the Berner Oberland rose up in resistance to the Protestant Reformation and in 1641 Thun revolted. During the Middle Ages, the settlement pattern in the Berner Oberland was somewhat consistent. A main settlement grew on the valley floor below an elevation near 1,100 m; this main settlement had a market and a castle or other fortifications. This market town was surrounded by scattered villages and individual farm houses to an elevation of 1,600 m. During the 14th-16th centuries, the Berner Oberland villages began extensive trading with the Bernese grain producing towns in the lowlands; this allowed the alpine villages to renounce self-sufficiency in grain and focus on raising cattle in the high alpine pastures and bringing them down into the valleys in the winter. They exported cattle over the passes into Italy and into the Bernese lowlands. Around 1500, in addition to the seven medieval markets, eleven new cattle markets opened to allow the Berner Oberland villagers to sell their cattle.
After the Napoleonic invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the old Bernese order was fractured and the Berner Oberland was separated from the canton of Bern, forming the canton of Oberland. Within this new canton, historic borders and traditional rights were not considered; as there had been no previous separatist feeling amongst the conservative population, there was little enthusiasm for the new order. The 1801 Malmaison Constitution proposed reuniting the canton of Oberland with Bern, but it was not until the Act of Mediation, two years with the abolition of the Helvetic Republic and the partial restoration of the ancien régime, that the two cantons were reunited. In 1729, Albrecht von Haller published the poem Die Alpen about his travels through the alpine regions; this combined with other reports and alpine paintings started the tourism industry in the Berner Oberland. By 1800 there were resorts on Lake Brienz. Shortly thereafter the resorts expanded into the alpine valleys, began attracting English guests.
However, because of the widespread poverty of the 19th century many residents of the Simmen valley and the Interlaken district emigrated to North America, Germany or Russia. In the late 19th century, new transportation links made it easier for people to travel into the valleys; the Bern-Lötschberg-Simplon railway opened in 1913 and became the largest owned railroad in Switzerland. The collapse of the hotel industry during both world wars forced a diversification of the economy. After 1950 a new wave of hotel construction of hotels and holiday homes and apartments, led to a strong population growth. Starting in the 1930s and after 1950 funiculars, cable cars and chair lifts opened up many of t
Lac de Sanetsch
Lac de Sanetsch is a reservoir below Sanetsch Pass in Valais, Switzerland. Its surface area is 29 ha; the Sanetsch dam was built in 1965. The gravity dam has a height of 42 m. Swiss Dams: Sanetsch Media related to Sanetsch at Wikimedia Commons