The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn is a German tram-train system combining tram lines in the city of Karlsruhe with railway lines in the surrounding countryside, serving the entire region of the middle upper Rhine valley and creating connections to neighbouring regions. The Stadtbahn combines an efficient urban railway in the city with an S-Bahn, overcoming the boundary between trams/light railways and heavy railways, its logo does not include the green and white S-Bahn symbol used in other German suburban rail systems and the symbol is only used at stops and stations outside the inner-city tram-operation area. The idea to link tram and railway lines with one another in order to be able to offer an attractive transport system for town and outskirts was developed in Karlsruhe and implemented in the 1980s and 1990s, with the system commencing operation in 1992; this idea, known as the Karlsruhe model or tram-train, has been adapted by other European cities. The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn is operated in co-operation by Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft, Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe and Deutsche Bahn.
The two urban transport operators, VBK and AVG, operate most services, while DB is responsible for the sections from Pforzheim and Bretten to Bietigheim-Bissingen. As of 2013, AVG quotes the size of the part of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn system, not operated by DB as 262.4 kilometres, with 12 lines serving 190 stations. The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn includes thirteen lines, in four different forms: Tram lines under the German law regulating tram operations, in a modernised form with a large proportion of segregated track and priority at traffic lights; these lines are electrified at 750 V DC:Stadtbahn Line S2. A combination of tram line sections within urban Karlsruhe and the secondary lines of the AVG, electrified at 750 V DC: Stadtbahn Lines S1 and S11. A combination of tram line sections within urban Karlsruhe, Wörth am Rhein, Bad Wildbad and Heilbronn, electrified at 750 V DC, the railway lines of the DB and AVG, electrified at 15 kV AC, 16.7 Hz: Stadtbahn Lines S4, S41, S42, S5, S51, S52, S6, S7 and S8.
Pure rail operations on DB and AVG tracks, electrified at 15 kV AC: Stadtbahn Lines S31, S32, S71, S81 and S9. S-Bahn line S3 between Germersheim, Ludwigshafen, Mannheim and Bruchsal and Karlsruhe is controlled by RheinNeckar S-Bahn, not by the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, it is operated by DB Regio with Class 425 EMUs. Karlsruhe attempted to create a network of street and interurban tram lines for the development of the surrounding countryside, modelled on the Oberrheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft. However, by the middle of the twentieth century there had been little lasting achievement due to the difficult economic times in between; the acquisition of the Alb Valley Railway by the city of Karlsruhe, the establishment of AVG and the integration of the Alb Valley Railway cross-country line into the Karlsruhe tram system between 1957 and 1966 formed the foundation for the Stadtbahn network. The Alb Valley Railway was connected to the tram system and electrified as a tramway, so that modified trams could run through between the southern outskirts and Karlsruhe city centre.
The success of the Alb Valley Railway encouraged the Karlsruhe planners in the 1960s to connect the northern surrounding outskirts by a modern tram/stadbahn system as well. For this it negotiated with Deutsche Bundesbahn to use the Hardt Railway, sharing with the local goods traffic, reached an agreement at the end of the 1970s. After building a connecting line between the tram network and the railway line in 1979 the tram service shared the railway line for 2 km to Neureut, where the few remaining goods trains left the line. In 1986 and 1989 the Stadbahn was extended north to Leopoldshafen and Linkenheim-Hochstetten and to the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, again sharing existing railway tracks. Since the remaining goods traffic was hauled by diesel locomotives, the electrification of the line with the tramway’s 750 V DC system did not cause technical problems. Apart from the Stadtbahn line Hochstetten–Karlsruhe–Alb Valley, a further Stadtbahn line, S2, was built in stages between 1989 and 2006, extending an existing city tram line.
This line connects the northeast with the southwest suburbs. This line included single-track sections in the main streets of the local centres of Blankenloch, Forchheim and Mörsch; this route through the centres was preferred to a route on the edge of these localities or in a tunnel because it was seen as promoting development. While the development of the lines to the nearby northern and southern municipalities could be achieved by use of the Alb Valley and Hardt Railway and by building new tram lines, this was not true of the eastern suburbs. Therefore, shared operations over the existing railway lines was considered, although they were electrified, at least in sections, with the 15 kV system of the main-line railway. After development of a Stadtbahn vehicle, with the electrical systems of both trams and railways, that could be operated under both the tram and rail regulations, lengthy negotiations with DB were required before it was agreed that the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn could share the Karlsruhe–Bretten line.
In 1992, Stadtbahn operations between Karlsruhe and Bretten-Gölshausen started on the Kraichgau Railway. The tram and rail networks were linked by building a connecting line between Durlacher Allee and Grötzingen station; this connecting li
Verordnung über den Bau und Betrieb der Straßenbahnen
The Verordnung über den Bau und Betrieb der Straßenbahnen, abbreviated as BOStrab, is a German law regulation governing the field of tramway and light rail operations. The orders are enacted by the Federal Ministry of Transport based on enabling act through the General Railway Law; the supervisory authority is delegated to the Federal Railway Authority of Germany. The BOStrab regulations are not as strict as the EBO main railway regulations. A third law ESBO covers narrow-gauge railway regulations; the distinctions for these light rail systems are different from in the UK Tramways Act 1870 / Light Railways Act 1896. Some Stadtbahn systems are subject to both BOStrab and EBO regulations as their vehicles use both types of networks; this is common with tram-train systems - apart from a technical switch on the boundary a different set of safety regulations needs to be followed. The § 16 BOStrab defines the legal types of trackbed: Street running trackbed: These tramways are running directly along public streets, without any separation which makes them subject to rules of the road as automobiles.
As such the streetcars need to be equipped with blinkers. Exclusive Trackbed: The tramway is part of the urban traffic structure but its railroads are separated from other traffic by an embankment, trees or curbs giving them an exclusive right of way. There may be railroad crossings marked with signs or traffic lights. Independent Trackbed: The railway is independent of the urban traffic structure which in most cases has the railroad trackbed grade-separated in the city; the law allows level crossing. If the tramway is street running or the crossings of the exclusive trackbed do not fit in the scope of § 20 BOStrab tramways are limited to a maximum length of 75 m and a maximum width of 2.65 m. Current eligibility criteria define that federal funding for railroads is only permitted for sections that have a trackbed, at least exclusive. Street running definitions overview
Alternating current is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, it is the form of electrical energy that consumers use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight; the abbreviations AC and DC are used to mean alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage. The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave, whose positive half-period corresponds with positive direction of the current and vice versa. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are examples of alternating current; these types of alternating current carry information such as sound or images sometimes carried by modulation of an AC carrier signal.
These currents alternate at higher frequencies than those used in power transmission. Electrical energy is distributed as alternating current because AC voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer; this allows the power to be transmitted through power lines efficiently at high voltage, which reduces the energy lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, transformed to a lower, voltage for use. Use of a higher voltage leads to more efficient transmission of power; the power losses in the wire are a product of the square of the current and the resistance of the wire, described by the formula: P w = I 2 R. This means that when transmitting a fixed power on a given wire, if the current is halved, the power loss due to the wire's resistance will be reduced to one quarter; the power transmitted is equal to the product of the voltage. Power is transmitted at hundreds of kilovolts, transformed to 100 V – 240 V for domestic use. High voltages have disadvantages, such as the increased insulation required, increased difficulty in their safe handling.
In a power plant, energy is generated at a convenient voltage for the design of a generator, stepped up to a high voltage for transmission. Near the loads, the transmission voltage is stepped down to the voltages used by equipment. Consumer voltages vary somewhat depending on the country and size of load, but motors and lighting are built to use up to a few hundred volts between phases; the voltage delivered to equipment such as lighting and motor loads is standardized, with an allowable range of voltage over which equipment is expected to operate. Standard power utilization voltages and percentage tolerance vary in the different mains power systems found in the world. High-voltage direct-current electric power transmission systems have become more viable as technology has provided efficient means of changing the voltage of DC power. Transmission with high voltage direct current was not feasible in the early days of electric power transmission, as there was no economically viable way to step down the voltage of DC for end user applications such as lighting incandescent bulbs.
Three-phase electrical generation is common. The simplest way is to use three separate coils in the generator stator, physically offset by an angle of 120° to each other. Three current waveforms are produced that are equal in magnitude and 120° out of phase to each other. If coils are added opposite to these, they generate the same phases with reverse polarity and so can be wired together. In practice, higher "pole orders" are used. For example, a 12-pole machine would have 36 coils; the advantage is. For example, a 2-pole machine running at 3600 rpm and a 12-pole machine running at 600 rpm produce the same frequency. If the load on a three-phase system is balanced among the phases, no current flows through the neutral point. In the worst-case unbalanced load, the neutral current will not exceed the highest of the phase currents. Non-linear loads may require an oversized neutral bus and neutral conductor in the upstream distribution panel to handle harmonics. Harmonics can cause neutral conductor current levels to exceed that of all phase conductors.
For three-phase at utilization voltages a four-wire system is used. When stepping down three-phase, a transformer with a Delta primary and a Star secondary is used so there is no need for a neutral on the supply side. For smaller customers only a single phase and neutral, or two phases and neutral, are taken to the property. For larger installations all three phases and neutral are taken to the main distribution panel. From the three-phase main panel, both single and three-phase circuits may lead off. Three-wire single-phase systems, with a single center-tapped transformer giving two live conductors, is a common distribution scheme for res
The interurban is a type of electric railway, with streetcar-like light electric self-propelled railcars which run within and between cities or towns. They were prevalent in North America between 1900 and 1925 and were used for passenger travel between cities and their surrounding suburban and rural communities. Limited examples existed in Asia. Interurban as a term encompassed the companies, their infrastructure, the cars that ran on the rails; the interurban in the United States, was a valuable cultural institution. Most roads and town streets were unpaved, transportation was by horse-drawn carriages and carts; the interurban provided vital transportation links between the countryside. In 1915, 15,500 miles of interurban railways were operating in the United States. For a time, interurban railways were the fifth-largest industry in the United States. By 1930, most interurbans were gone, with few surviving into the 1950s. Oliver Jensen, author of American Heritage History of Railroads in America, commented that "...the automobile doomed the interurban whose private tax paying tracks could never compete with the highways that a generous government provided for the motorist."
The term "interurban" was coined by a state senator in Indiana. The Latin, inter urbes, means "between cities"; the interurban fit on a continuum between full-fledged railroads. George W. Hilton and John F. Due identified four characteristics of an interurban: Electric power for propulsion. Passenger service as the primary business. Equipment heavier and faster than urban streetcars. Operation on tracks in city streets, in rural areas on roadside tracks or private right-of-way; the definition of "interurban" is blurry. Some town streetcar lines evolved into interurban systems by extending streetcar track from town into the countryside to link adjacent towns together, sometimes by the acquisition of a nearby interurban system. There was a large amount of consolidation of lines following initial construction. Other interurban lines became light rail systems with no street running whatsoever, or they became freight-hauling railroads due to a progressive loss of their initial passenger service over the years.
In 1905 the United States Census Bureau defined an interurban as "a street railway having more than half its trackage outside municipal limits." It drew a distinction between "interurban" and "suburban" railroads. A suburban system was oriented toward a city center in a single urban area and served commuter traffic. A regular railroad moved riders from one city center to another city center and moved a substantial amount of freight; the typical interurban served more than one city, but it served a smaller region and made more frequent stops, it was oriented to passenger rather than freight service. The development of interurbans in the late nineteenth century resulted from the convergence of two trends: improvements in electric traction, an untapped demand for transportation in rural areas in the Midwestern United States; the 1880s saw the first successful deployments of electric traction in streetcar systems. Most of these built on the pioneering work of Frank J. Sprague, who developed an improved method for mounting an electric traction motor and using a trolley pole for pickup.
Sprague's work led to widespread acceptance of electric traction for streetcar operations and end of horse-drawn trams. The late nineteenth century United States witnessed a boom in agriculture which lasted through the First World War, but transportation in rural areas was inadequate. Conventional steam railroads made limited stops in towns; these were supplemented by horse and buggies and steamboats, both of which were slow and the latter of, restricted to navigable rivers. The increased capacity and profitability of the city street railroads offered the possibility of extending them into the countryside to reach new markets linking to other towns; the first interurban to emerge in the United States was the Newark and Granville Street Railway in Ohio, which opened in 1889. It was not a major success; the development of the automobile was in its infancy, to many investors interurbans appeared to be future of local transportation. From 1900 to 1916, a large network of interurban lines was constructed in the United States in the states of Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa and California.
In 1900, 2,107 miles of interurban track existed, but by 1916, this had increased to 15,580 miles, a seven-fold expansion. During this expansion, in the regions where they operated in Ohio and Indiana, "...they destroyed the local passenger service of the steam railroad." To show how exceptionally busy the interurbans radiating from Indianapolis were in 1926, the immense Indianapolis Traction Terminal scheduled 500 trains in and out daily and moved 7 million passengers that year. At their peak the interurbans were the fifth-largest industry in the United States; the fortunes of the industry declined during World War I and into the early 1920s. Many interurbans had been hastily constructed without realistic projections of income and expenses, they were financed by issuing stock and selling bonds. The sale of these financial instruments was local with salesmen going door to door aggressively pushing this new and exciting "it can't fail" form of transportation, but many of those interurbans did fail, quickly.
They struggled to raise essential further capital. Interurbans were vulnerable to acts of nature
A Stadtbahn is a tramway or light railway that includes segments built to rapid transit standards as part of a process of conversion to a metro railway by the building of metro-grade tunnels in the central city area. Stadtbahn networks were implemented in the 1960s and 1970s with the long-term goal of establishing a full-scale metro system, but by the 1980s all cities had abandoned these plans due to the excessive costs associated with converting the tramways. Most Stadtbahn systems are now a mixture of tramway-like operations in suburban and peripheral areas and a more metro-like mode of operation in city centres, with underground stations; this Stadtbahn concept spread from Germany to other European countries, where it became known as pre-metro. The term Stadtbahn first arose in the first half of the 20th century as a name for the cross-city lines in Berlin and Vienna; the Berlin Stadtbahn line is an elevated heavy rail line linking the West. Long distance, regional and urban services are operated on it.
The Wiener Stadtbahn was in the beginning a system of heavy rail lines circling the city, free of level crossings, operated by steam trains. After World War I the Wiental, Donaukanal and Gürtel lines were converted into an electric light rail system with tram-like two-axle cars. In the 1970s to 1990s the infrastructure was updated, the lines were relocated: they are now part of the Vienna U-Bahn services'U4' and'U6'; the Vorortelinie line is now part of the Vienna S-Bahn. Since the 1960s the term Stadtbahn has become identified with a second, now dominant, a reference to underground urban rail network, used by conventional trams but planned at the outset to be converted into a metro system. Post-World War II transport policies in West German cities aimed for a separation of public and private transport; the conflicts that arose between increasing car usage and the existing tramway systems led to the so-called'second level' concept for future light rail schemes. This concept focused on the grade separation, tunneling of tram lines.
Munich and Nuremberg decided to build full-scale U-Bahn systems. Berlin and Hamburg planned expansions of their existing U-Bahn networks, while most West German cities decided to upgrade their tramway networks step by step, linking new'second level' infrastructure to existing sections. While some cities regarded this solution as an interim step that would lead to a separated U-Bahn network independent of other forms of transport, others planned for a lesser degree of separation, one that would accommodate additional tram-like sections in the long run. For both the interim and the long-term based concepts, the following terms came into use: "U-Straßenbahn" or "Untergrund-Straßenbahn", "Schnellstraßenbahn" and Stadtbahn; some operators and cities decided to identify the term Stadtbahn with the eventual goal of installing an U-Bahn so that both the original U-Bahn logo and the derived U-Stadtbahn logos mark station entries and stops. The numbering scheme for Stadtbahn services was prefixed with a'U', except in the Cologne Stadtbahn, Bielefeld Stadtbahn, Hanover Stadtbahn.
By the 1980s conventional tramways had been seen by decision-makers as overloaded systems for two decades. However, public attention focused on them at this time for two reasons; the Stadtbahn cities' second level plans faced unexpected complications in the form of lengthy construction work, budgetary problems for tunnel projects, protests against elevated sections. At the same time, the smaller cities which had not started Stadtbahn plans reassessed their options in relation to their existing tram systems. East German cities had no 1960s-style Stadtbahn plans in place, the fleets and the infrastructure were in need of massive investment and improvement. After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the use of the Stadtbahn term became popular in the former East Germany as well, as in Erfurt and Dresden. Stadtbahn in this wider meaning is thus not a defined concept, but a vague one linked to a set of attributes, much in the same way that "Straßenbahn" is linked to different, sometimes mutually incompatible attributes.
A system, called Stadtbahn today may not have all of the Stadtbahn attributes: barrier-free access, higher cruising speed than tramways, doors on both sides of the train, driver's cabs on both ends, higher operating voltage, wider cars with comfortable seats, so on. In 1992 Karlsruhe started an innovative new service, using both heavy and light rail infrastructure, to link the wider region to the city; the vehicles were designed to comply with technical specifications for the heavy railway and for light rail. Such vehicles are called Dual-System Light Rail Vehicles; the meaning of Stadtbahn was enlarged to encompass this new type of "tram-train" service. In other regions, stimulated by the Karlsruhe example and planning to copy it, other terms are in use: Stadt-Umland-Bahn (city-to-region railway, e.g. Erlangen in discussion to connect the nearer surroundings of Munich, as far as not supplied with S-Bahn services so far, with the existing public trans
Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft is a company owned by the city of Karlsruhe that operates rail and bus services in the Karlsruhe area, southwest Germany. It is a member of the Karlsruher Verkehrsverbund transport association that manages a common public transport structure for Karlsruhe and its surrounding areas and a partner, with the Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe and Deutsche Bahn, in the operation of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the pioneering tram-train system that serves a larger area, it operates some of the region’s bus services and carries freight by road and rail, operates a travel agency. It owns and maintains several railway lines, including the Albtalbahn railway, leases and maintains other lines. VBK, a sister company, operates Karlsruhe's bus and tram network, AVG Stadtbahn routes use VBK tracks to access the city centre. Besides AVG and VBK lines, AVG operates on DB tracks and a short stretch of tram track belonging to the city of Heilbronn. VBK and DB Stadtbahn routes traverse. AVG dates back to the acquisition in 1958 of the Albtalbahn railway by the city of Karlsruhe.
This 1,000 mm metre gauge electric railway was converted to 1,435 mm standard gauge and connected to the city's tram network. Because it remained a railway and needed to conform to mainline railway design and safety standards, AVG accumulated experience in operating across the divide between tramway and railway, it was this experience that led to the development of the Stadtbahn Karlsruhe and to the AVG operating over a much wider area. Home page of AVG Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft in Stadtwiki Karlsruhe privat-bahn.de: Fahrzeuge der AVG BahnGalerie: Photos of the AVG
Saarland is a state of Germany. Saarland is located in western Germany covering an area of 2,570 km2 and a population of 995,600, the smallest German state in both area and population apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg. Saarbrücken is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Neunkirchen and Saarlouis. Saarland is surrounded by France to the west and south and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate to the north and east. Saarland was established in 1920 after World War I as the Territory of the Saar Basin, formed from land of Prussia and Bavaria occupied and governed by France and the United Kingdom under a League of Nations mandate; the industrialized region was economically valuable due to the wealth of its coal deposits and location on the border between France and Germany. Saarland was returned to Nazi Germany in the 1935 Saar status referendum, becoming de jure part of Bavaria and de facto part of Gau Westmark. Following World War II, the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany organized the territory as the Saar Protectorate from 1947, becoming a protectorate of France, between 1950 and 1956 was a member of the Council of Europe.
Saarland rejected the 1955 Saar Statute referendum, joined the Federal Republic of Germany as a state on 1 January 1957. Saarland used its own currency, the Saar franc, postage stamps issued specially for the territory until 1959; the region of the Saarland was settled by the Celtic tribes of Mediomatrici. The most impressive relic of their time is the remains of a fortress of refuge at Otzenhausen in the north of the Saarland. In the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire made the region part of its province of Belgica; the Celtic population mixed with the Roman immigrants. The region gained wealth, which can still be seen in the remains of Roman villages. Roman rule ended in the 5th century. For the next 1,300 years the region shared the history of the Kingdom of the Franks, the Carolingian Empire and of the Holy Roman Empire; the region of the Saarland was divided into several small territories, some of which were ruled by sovereigns of adjoining regions. Most important of the local rulers were the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken.
Within the Holy Roman Empire these territories gained a wide range of independence, however, by the French kings, who sought, from the 17th century onwards, to incorporate all the territories on the western side of the river Rhine and invaded the area in 1635, in 1676, in 1679 and in 1734, extending their realm to the Saar River and establishing the city and stronghold of Saarlouis in 1680. It was not the king of France but the armies of the French Revolution who terminated the independence of the states in the region of the Saarland. After 1792 they made it part of the French Republic. While a strip in the west belonged to the Département Moselle, the centre in 1798 became part of the Département de Sarre, the east became part of the Département du Mont-Tonnerre. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the region was divided again. Most of it became part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Another part in the east, corresponding to the present Saarpfalz district, was allocated to the Kingdom of Bavaria.
A small part in the northeast was ruled by the Duke of Oldenburg. On 31 July 1870, the French Emperor Napoleon III ordered an invasion across the River Saar to seize Saarbrücken; the first shots of the Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 were fired on the heights of Spichern, south of Saarbrücken. The Saar region became part of the German Empire which came into existence on 18 January 1871, during the course of this war. In 1920 the Saargebiet was occupied by Britain and France under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles; the occupied area included portions of the Prussian Rhine Province and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate. In practice the region was administered by France. In 1920 this was formalized by a 15-year League of Nations mandate. In 1933, a considerable number of communists and other political opponents of National Socialism fled to the Saar, as it was the only part of Germany that remained outside national administration following the First World War; as a result, anti-Nazi groups agitated for the Saarland to remain under French administration.
However, with most of the population being ethnically German, such views were considered suspect or treasonous, therefore found little support. When the original 15-year term was over, a plebiscite was held in the territory on 13 January 1935: 90.8% of those voting favoured rejoining Germany. Following the referendum Josef Bürckel was appointed on 1 March 1935 as the German Reich's commissioner for reintegration; when the reincorporation was considered accomplished, his title was changed to Reichskommissar für das Saarland. In September 1939, in response to the German Invasion of Poland, French forces invaded the Saarland in a half-hearted offensive, occupying some villages and meeting little resistance, before withdrawing. A further change was made after 8 April 1940 to Reichskommissar für die Saarpfalz, he died on 28 September 1944 and was succeeded by Willi Stöhr, who remained in office until the region fell to advancing American forces in March 1945. After World War II, the Saarland came under French occupation and administration again, as the Saar Protectorate.
Under the Monnet Plan France attempted to gain economic control of the German industrial areas with large c