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Saba

Saba is a Caribbean island, the smallest special municipality of the Netherlands. It consists of the active volcano Mount Scenery, which at 887 metres is the highest point of the entire Kingdom of the Netherlands; the island lies in the northern Leeward Islands portion of the West Indies, southeast of the Virgin Islands. Together with Bonaire and Sint Eustatius it forms the BES islands. Saba has a land area of 13 square kilometres, the population was 1,915 as of January 2019, with a population density of 148 inhabitants per square kilometre, it is the smallest territory by permanent population in the Americas. Its towns and major settlements are The Bottom, Zion's Hill and St. Johns. Saba is thought to have been inhabited by the Ciboney people as early as the 1100s BC. Circa 800 AD, Arawak people from South America settled on the island. Christopher Columbus is said to have sighted the island on 13 November 1493, however he did not land, being deterred by the island's perilous rocky shores. In 1632 a group of shipwrecked Englishmen landed upon Saba.

In 1635, a stray Frenchman claimed Saba for Louis XIII of France. In the 1640s the Dutch Governor of the neighbouring island of Sint Eustatius sent several Dutch families over to colonise the island for the Dutch West India Company. In 1664, refusing to swear allegiance to the English crown, these original Dutch settlers were evicted to St. Maarten by Jamaican governors-cum-pirates Edward and Henry Morgan; the Netherlands gained complete control of the island in 1816. In the 17th and 18th centuries Saba's major industries were sugar and rum produced on plantations owned by Dutchmen living on St Eustatius, fishing lobster fishing. To work these plantations slaves from Africa were imported. In the 17th century Saba was believed to be a favourable hideout for Jamaican pirates. England deported its "undesirable" people to live in the Caribbean colonies, some of them became pirates, a few taking haven on Saba; as the island's coast is forbidding and steep the island became a private sanctuary for the families of smugglers and pirates.

A notable Saban pirate was son of the Dutch councillor of the island. Legitimate sailing and trade became important, many of the island's men took to the sea, during which time "Saba lace", pulled thread work, a Spanish form of needlework introduced by a nun from Venezuela, became an important product made by the island's women. Throughout the late 19th century and early 20th century, the primary source of revenue for the island came from the lacework produced by these women. During this period of time, with most of the island's men gone out to sea for extended periods, the island became known as "The Island of Women". In 1943 Joseph'Lambee' Hassell, a self-taught engineer, began building a road on Saba, drastically improving transport on the island which hitherto has been by foot or mule. An airport followed in 1963, a larger pier geared for tourist boats in 1972; as a result, tourism increased becoming a major part of the Saban economy. A status referendum was held in Saba on 5 November 2004.

86.05% of the population voted for closer links to the Netherlands. This was duly achieved in 2010, when the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and Saba became a special municipality of the Netherlands. Saba is a small island at 13 square kilometres in size and circular in shape, it lies south-west of Saint Barthélemy and Sint Maarten. The terrain is mountainous, culminating in Mount Scenery in the island's centre. Off the north coast lies the much smaller Green Island. Saba is the northernmost active volcano in the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc chain of islands. At 887 metres, Mount Scenery is the highest point within the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the island is composed of a single rhomb-shaped volcano measuring 4.6 kilometres east to west and 4.0 kilometres north to south The oldest dated rocks on Saba are around 400,000 years old, the most recent eruption was shortly before the 1630s European settlement. Between 1995 and 1997, an increase in local seismic activity was associated with a 7°-12 °C rise in the temperature of the hot springs on the island's northwest and southeast coasts.

There is an 8.6 hectares cloud forest located at and above 825 metres on top of the mountain referred to as the "Elfin Forest Reserve" because of its high altitude mist and mossy appearance. The most dominant tree in the cloud forest is the Mountain Mahogany, although hurricanes over the years have destroyed a large number of the mature trees. Despite the name, the mountain mahogany is not related to other mahogany species; the native mahogany trees are considered to be at risk of becoming extinct on Saba. In the underbrush of the mahogany trees, the Sierran palm and tree ferns dominate, with a large variety of epiphytes and Orchids growing on the trunks and branches of all the trees. Wild raspberries and plantain trees can be found growing on most of the mountain. All seven of the Lesser Antilles Endemic Bird Area restricted-range birds occur in the Elfin Forest Reserve. Below the cloud forest is a sub-montane forest, the variety and average number of species are less. Redwood and Mountain fuchsia tree trees grow wild in this zone, as well as cactus species such as the prickly pear, Seagrape trees.

On the lowest sou

GrundriƟ der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen

Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen is a major work of historical linguistics by Karl Brugmann and Berthold Delbrück, published in two editions between 1886 and 1916. Brugmann treated phonology and morphology, Delbrück treated syntax; the grammar of Proto-Indo-European is reconstructed from those of its daughter languages known in the late 19th century. The work represents a major step in Indo-European studies, after Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar of 1833 and August Schleicher's Compendium of 1871. Brugmann's neogrammarian re-evaluation of PIE resulted in a view that in its essence continued to be valid until present times. Brugmann Volume I: Phonology Volume II, Part I: Noun Volume II, Part II: Numerals and Pronouns, Verb Indices Delbrück Volume III: Syntax, Part I Volume IV: Syntax, Part II Volume V: Syntax, Part III The volumes of the first edition were translated into English by Joseph Wright, Robert S. Conway and William H. D. Rouse shortly after their appearance.

After publication of the first edition, Brugmann began to work on an extensively revised second edition of his portion of the Grundriß: Volume I: Volume II.1: Volume II.2: Volume II.3: Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European root Indo-European studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, an ongoing project based in Leiden, intended to result in the publication of a comprehensive Indo-European etymological dictionary Indogermanisches Wörterbuch by Gerhard Köbler, containing the PIE grammar from the Grundriß Pokorny PIE Data Brugmann's Grundriß, describing the digital availability of the Grundriß

Christ Church Anglican Church, Springwood

The Christ Church Anglican Church is a heritage-listed Anglican church building located at 345-347 Great Western Highway, City of Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Sir John Sulman and built from 1888 to 1889, it is known as Christ Church of England and Springwood. The property is owned by Springwood Anglican Parish, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The church was designed by Sir John Sulman, who worked in Australia from 1885 and who had a nearby holiday residence in Lawson; the major part of his practice was in commercial and ecclesiastical areas and he was responsible for more than ninety churches in England prior to his migration to New South Wales. It was built from 1888-9; the main slate roof is an important part of the aesthetic quality of the building and together with the prominent tower has high visibility from the Great Western Highway. Sulman's original conception as seen from his drawings, was never completed; this included a western and eastern transept at the rear of the church and a massive crowning tower between the two.

In 1961 the church added the eastern transept, according to the original plans. This was erected in stone with considerable sensitivity; the growth of the church and its adjacent complex over a century has been significant evidence of the social role Christchurch has continued to play in the local Anglican community. Additions and alterations to the place were made in the 1980s; the building is a fine sandstone church with a simple but sensitively designed interior. It forms part of a group of buildings which includes a separate dwelling, "Southall" to the west of the property and a fine stand of trees between the two; the roof is slate and the sandstone is local. It is a fine example of a Victorian Academic Gothic style church with high quality sandstone detailing and a prominent slate pitched roof to the main body of the church and the tower; as at 5 January 2011, sections of the slate roof require careful removal and rehanging, as the nails holding the slates have corroded and need replacement.

The tower roof, valleys and loose slates are the most urgent. A recent insurance inspection report gave the church an excellent report. 1961 added the eastern transept, according to the original plans 1980s alterations. 2010 $9,000 being spent on replacing wiring in the church. A few damaged roof tiles were repaired (supporting nails have corroded/need replacement As at 15 December 2005, Christ Church Springwood is a fine example of a Victorian Academic Gothic style church featuring high quality sandstone detailing. Extensions to the church to create the chancel, north transept and tower are in keeping with Sulman's original design; the interior of the church has an unusually peaceful atmosphere created by the use of pale sandstone and stained timber and restrained detailing. The church is a significant landmark on the Great Western Highway; the Christ Church has high local significance as the principal centre for Anglicanism in the lower Blue Mountains for over 110 years. The growth of the church and its adjacent complex over a century has been significant evidence of the social role Christ Church has continued to play for the local Anglican community.

The major pieces of church furniture are significant memorials to the leading players in the creation of the building in the Victorian period. The Christ Church Springwood is built to the design of John Sulman, a significant architect of the late 19th and early 20th century. Sulman was a renowned educator and was responsible for the Sulman Medal, the highest award for architectural design in NSW; the Christ Church Anglican Church was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. List of Anglican churches in the Diocese of Sydney Anglican Diocese of Sydney This Wikipedia article was based on Christ Church Anglican Church, entry number 00130 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 1 June 2018. Official website