The Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Sousa Neto with the support of the Italian fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845, it is considered the longest and third bloodiest of the failed wars of secession in the Brazilian Empire, after the Cabanagem Revolt and Balaiada Revolt. The uprising is believed to have begun due to the difference between the economy of Rio Grande do Sul and the rest of the country. Unlike the other states, the state economy focused on the internal market rather than exporting commodities; the state's main product, suffered badly from competition from charque imported from Uruguay and Argentina. The people that benefited from these markets were called "Gauchos," nomadic cowhands and farmers who lived in Rio Grande do Sul; the Gauchos lived in Argentina and Uruguay. In 1835, Antônio Rodrigues Fernandes Braga was nominated president of Rio Grande do Sul and at first, his appointment pleased the liberal farmers, but that soon changed.
In his first day in the office, he accused many farmers of being separatists. On 20 September 1835, General Bento Gonçalves captured the capital, Porto Alegre, beginning an uprising against the perceived unfair trade reinforced by the state government; the state president fled to the city of 334 km to the south. In Porto Alegre, the rebels known as "ragamuffins" after the fringed leather worn by the gauchos, elected Marciano Pereira Ribeiro their new president. Responding to the situation and further upsetting the rebels, the Brazilian regent, Diogo Feijó, appointed a new state president, forced to take office in exile in Rio Grande. Pushing to consolidate their power, Antônio de Souza Netto declared the independence of the Riograndense or Piratini Republic on 11 September 1836, with Bento Gonçalves as president nominee. However, Gonçalves was arrested and jailed by imperial forces until he escaped in 1837, returning to the province and bringing the revolution to a head. Nonetheless, Porto Alegre was recaptured by the empire and the rebels never managed to regain it.
In Bahia, there was another revolt called the Sabinada Revolt in 1837. They managed to create another Republic but it fell within 4 months; the Brazilian Army had a number of problems at the time and were not able to handle the secessionist threat. Through military reforms, the mass recruitment of civilians was made possible and they were able to quell the rebels in 1845; the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1836. With his help, the revolution spread north through Santa Catarina. One of the main cities of Santa Catarina, was taken by the rebels but fell back into imperial hands after four months, it was in this struggle that Garibaldi gained his first military experience and got on the road leading to his becoming the famed military leader of the Unification of Italy. The rebel forces were aided financially and indirect military support by the Uruguayan government led by José Fructuoso Rivera; the Uruguayans had the intention of creating a political union with the Riograndense Republic to create a new stronger state.
The rebels refused an offer of amnesty in 1840. In 1842, they issued a Republican constitution as a last attempt to maintain power; the same year saw General Lima e Silva take command of Imperial forces in the area, try to negotiate a settlement. On 1 March 1845, the peace negotiations led by Lima e Silva and Antônio Vicente da Fontoura concluded with the signing of the Ponche Verde Treaty between the two sides, in Dom Pedrito; the treaty offered the rebels a full amnesty, full incorporation into the imperial army and the choice of the next provincial president. All the debts of the Riograndense Republic were paid off by the Empire and a tariff of 25% was introduced on imported charque; the Riograndense and Juliana Republics remained in the Empire of Brazil and are now two states of the Federative Republic of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina respectively. As a goodwill gesture, the rebels chose Lima e Silva as the next provincial president; the Brazilian Army reorganized itself to be a proper fighting force during the Ragamuffin War.
The military would be able to defeat insurgencies. However, this reformed military would prove disastrous against the Emperor when they rebelled to create a Republic. Anita e Garibaldi, a 2013 Brazilian film, follows the arrival of Giuseppe Garibaldi in Brazil, his meeting with Anita Garibaldi and the human and military learning with Luigi Rossetti during the Ragamuffin War. List of wars involving Brazil Revolutions of Brazil A review of Farroupilha Week in modern RS state The Farroupilha War
War of Independence of Brazil
The War of Independence of Brazil was waged between the newly-independent Brazilian Empire and United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820. It lasted from February 1822, when the first skirmishes took place, to March 1824, with the surrender of the Portuguese garrison in Montevideo; the war was involved both regular forces and civilian militia. Land and naval battles took place in the territories of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro provinces, the vice-kingdom of Grão-Pará, in Maranhão and Pernambuco, which today are part of Ceará, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte states. There is a shortage of reliable casualty data. Casualty estimates are based on contemporary reports of battles and historical data, range between a total of 5,700 to 6,200; the population of Colonial Brazil at the turn of the 19th century was 3.4 million. 60% of them were free men of Portuguese descent. At that time slaves were not counted as free people, it is difficult to say how many Reinóis lived in Brazil in 1822, since all inhabitants were subjects of Portugal.
The majority of the population lived near the Atlantic ocean in the provinces of Pernambuco and Minas Gerais. These three regions dominated political life of the colony; the Pernambuco region thrived by producing a crop of great value at the time. The southern Bahia region produced sugar, cotton and molasses, it was the richest region. Further south was Rio de Janeiro, which controlled the diamond production of Minas Gerais; the Portuguese army in Brazil consisted of professional troops and militiamen. All officers were appointed by the Court of Lisbon. In 1817, a Republican revolt broke out in Pernambuco; as a result, 2,000 soldiers of "Auxiliary Division" were sent to Brazil. With the arrival of the troops, native officers in Brazil were not given many responsibilities. At the start of the war, there were about 10,000 Portuguese soldiers and units of the royal cavalry along the Atlantic coast. About 3,000 soldiers were besieged in Montevideo. A similar number of soldiers occupied Salvador and the rest of the troops were scattered throughout the Brazil.
During late 1821 and early 1822, the inhabitants of Brazil took sides in the political upheavals that took place in Rio de Janeiro and Lisbon. Fights between Portuguese soldiers and local militias broke out in the streets of the main cities in 1822 and spread inland, despite the arrival of reinforcements from Portugal. There was a split in the Luso-Brazilian Army, garrisoned in the Cisplatina province. Portuguese regiments retreated to Montevideo and were surrounded by Brazilians, led by Baron de Laguna. Remote and sparsely populated northern provinces of Pará and Maranhão declared loyalty to Portugal. Pernambuco was in favor of independence. While Portuguese forces were able to stop the local militias in certain cities, including Salvador, Montevideo and São Luís, they failed to defeat the militias in most of the other cities and proved ineffective against the guerrilla forces in the rural areas of the country. Supporters of Brazilian Independence created and enlarged the Brazilian Army and the Brazilian Navy by forced enlistment of citizens, foreign immigrants and mercenaries.
They enlisted Brazilian slaves into militias and freed slaves in order to enlist them in the army and the navy. By 1823, the Brazilian Army had grown, replacing its early losses in terms of both personnel and supplies; the remaining Portuguese forces on the defensive, were running out of both manpower and supplies. Outnumbered across a vast territory, the Portuguese were forced to restrict their sphere of action to the provincial capitals along the shore that represented the country's strategic sea ports, including Belém, Salvador and São Luís do Maranhão. Both parties saw the Portuguese warships spread across the country as the instrument through which military victory could be achieved. In early 1822, the Portuguese navy controlled a ship of the line, two frigates, four corvettes, two brigs, four warships of other categories in Brazilian waters. Warships available for the new Brazilian navy were numerous, but in disrepair; the hulls of several ships that were brought by the Royal Family and the Court to be abandoned in Brazil were rotten and therefore of little value.
The Brazilian agent in London, Marquis of Batley received orders to acquire warships equipped and manned on credit. No vendor, was willing to take the risks. There was an initial public offering, the new Emperor signed for 350 of them, inspiring others to do the same. Thus, the new government was successful in raising funds to purchase a fleet. Arranging crews was another problem. A significant number of former officers and Portuguese sailors volunteered to serve the new nation, swore loyalty to it, their loyalty, was under suspicion. For this reason, British officers and men were recruited to fill out the ranks and end the dependence on the Portuguese; the Brazilian Navy was led by British officer Thomas Cochrane. The newly renovated navy experienced a number of early setbacks due to sabotage by Portuguese-born men in the naval crews, but by 1823 the navy had been reformed and the Portuguese members were replaced by native Brazilians, freed slaves, pardoned prisoners as well as more experienced British and American mercenaries.
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma
Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma, was a naval officer and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. He was born in the Kingdom of Portugal, his family moved to Brazil two years later. After Brazilian independence in 1822, Inhaúma enlisted in the Brazilian navy. Early in his career during the latter half of the 1820s, he participated in the subduing of secessionist rebellions: first the Confederation of the Equator, the Cisplatine War, which precipitated a long international armed conflict with the United Provinces of the River Plate. Throughout the chaos that characterized the years when Emperor Dom Pedro II was a minor, Inhaúma remained loyal to the government, he helped quell a military mutiny in 1831 and was involved in suppressing some of the other rebellions that erupted during that troubled period. He saw action in the Sabinada between 1837 and 1838, followed by the Ragamuffin War from 1840 until 1844. In 1849, after spending two years in Great Britain, Inhaúma was given command of the fleet, instrumental in subduing the Praieira revolt, the last rebellion in imperial Brazil.
During the 1850s, Inhaúma held a series of bureaucratic positions. He entered politics in 1861 as a member of the Conservative Party, he was given the position of navy minister. Inhaúma became the first person to hold the Ministry of Agriculture portfolio, albeit briefly; the first professional firefighter corps in Brazil was formed during his tenure as agriculture minister. In late 1866, Inhaúma was appointed commander-in-chief of the fleet engaged in the Paraguayan War. During the fighting, he achieved the rank of the highest in the Brazilian armada, he was awarded a noble title being raised from baron to viscount. In 1868, he never assumed office. Although he prosecuted his operations in the war against Paraguay, Inhaúma's leadership was encumbered by his hesitating and procrastinating behavior. While in command in the war zone, he contracted an unknown disease. Ill, Inhaúma returned to the national capital in early 1869 and died shortly thereafter. Although historical works have not given much coverage to Inhaúma, some historians regard him among the greatest of the Brazilian navy officers.
Joaquim José Inácio was born in Kingdom of Portugal. Although the date on his birth certificate was 30 July 1808, his mother claimed that the correct birthdate was two days on 1 August, he affirmed that the date was accurate, as did his younger brother, his biographer. Regardless, some biographers, including Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Carlos Guilherme Haring, have persisted in citing the date mistakenly entered on the birth certificate. Joaquim Inácio's parents were Maria Isabel de Barros. In 1808, the Portuguese Royal family moved to Brazil the largest and wealthiest colony of Portugal. Two years on 10 July 1810, José de Barros arrived in the Brazilian capital, Rio de Janeiro; as a crew member of the frigate D. Carlota, he was charged with transporting what remained of the personal property of Prince Regent Dom João King Dom João VI to Brazil. José de Barros brought his family on the voyage, including Joaquim Inácio, one year and eight months old. Joaquim Inácio had an older sister named Maria and six younger siblings, among them Bento José de Carvalho and Antônio José Vitorino de Barros.
As was common at the time, Joaquim Inácio began his education at home and was enrolled in Seminário de São José and after that, in Seminário São Joaquim, which became Pedro II School in 1837. His teachers included Januário da Cunha Barbosa, who became one of the leading figures in the Brazilian independence movement. Joaquim Inácio chose to follow his father, a naval officer who achieved the rank of second lieutenant, in his choice of a career. On 20 November 1822 at the age of 14, Joaquim Inácio was admitted as aspirante a guarda-marinha at the Navy Academy. On 11 December 1823, he graduated from the academy, majoring in mathematics, with the rank of guarda-marinha; as he had in previous studies at other schools, Joaquim Inácio proved to be a brilliant student. Among his colleagues at the academy was Francisco Manuel Barroso da Silva whom he befriended; when Prince Dom Pedro and heir of King João VI, led the movement for the independence of Brazil, Joaquim Inácio was one of several Portuguese-born residents who sided with the Brazilian cause and joined the armada.
On 16 January 1824, he began his service aboard the D. Pedro I, a ship of the line and flagship of First Admiral Thomas Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhão. Joaquim Inácio did not fight in any battles, as the Portuguese enemy forces had surrendered by that time, his baptism of fire came a few months with the advent of the Confederation of the Equator, a secessionist rebellion in Brazil's northeastern provinces. He was given the command of the cutter Independente and aided in the suppression of rebels in Rosário do Itapecuru, a village in the province of Maranhão; the rebellion was over by early 1825, on 25 February Joaquim Inácio was promoted to second lieutenant. In June 1825, Joaquim Inácio traveled to Brazil's far south to quell a secessionist rebellion in the province of Cisplatina; the insurgents were aided by the United Provinces of the River Plate, which led to the Cisplatine War. Joaquim Inácio served as first officer aboard
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Diogo Antônio Feijó
Diogo Antônio Feijó was a Brazilian politician and catholic priest. He was the Regent of the Empire of Brazil from October 1835 to September 1837. Beside members of the Imperial family, he was the first to hold this position alone. Both were regents at the time, he received his early education in a clerical college of São Paulo. In 1807 he was ordained priest, soon afterward began to teach in Parahyba. In 1820 the constitutional revolution triumphed in Portugal, Feijó was sent as a representative from the province of São Paulo to the Portuguese assembly in Lisbon, to which he was admitted 11 February 1822. On 25 April, he made an eloquent speech in defense of Brazilian rights, which were threatened by the Portuguese majority; the Brazilian deputies were unsuccessful, Feijó, with five others, left Lisboa secretly for Falmouth, where, on 22 October 1822, they published a manifesto explaining their conduct. Feijó afterward returned to Brazil, retired to Itu. In 1824 Dom Pedro I submitted a proposed constitution to the municipalities of the empire, unanimously accepted, except at Itu, where Feijó proposed to amend it.
The province of São Paulo elected him successively to the legislatures of 1826-29 and 1830-33. In 1827 he proposed the abolition of clerical celibacy, in 1828 submitted a project for the reform of municipalities. In 1831 Feijo was appointed by the regency minister of justice, in this capacity dissolved undisciplined military bodies, checked on 7 October 1831 the revolution in the Ilha das Cobras, organized on 10 October a body of military police, in 1832 suppressed another revolt. In 1833 he was appointed life senator, in 1834 the electors of the empire made him regent of Brazil. On the day previous to his election as regent, he had been appointed bishop of Marianna, but had declined the dignity for political reasons, he took office as regent on 12 October 1835. As regent, he proclaimed liberal and progressive measures, but his policy met with such opposition from the conservatives that he resigned his office on 18 September 1837, retired to São Paulo, did not appear in the Senate again until 1838.
In 1842, he edited. In the same year a revolution broke out near Campinas, where Feijo was staying, although enfeebled by age and sickness, he took upon himself the responsibility of the movement, being defeated, was arrested, taken to Santos, thence to Rio de Janeiro, to be tried by the Senate, he succeeded in explaining his conduct before that body, this proved to be the last act of his political life, for he died soon afterward. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Feijó, Diego Antonio". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton