Mariana Coelho was a Portuguese Brazilian educator and poet, a feminist pioneer in Brazil. She was born in a remote village in northern Portugal, she was the daughter Manoel Antônio Coelho Ribeiro and Maria do Carmo Teixeira Coelho, a sister of Carlos Alberto Teixeira Coelho and Thomaz Alberto Teixeira Coelho. She emigrated to Brazil in 1892 at the age of 35 years, settled in Curitiba, Brazil. In early 1893, her first poems were published; the bond with her brother Carlos was a decisive factor in her rapid entry into the literary community of Curitiba. It assured her automatic access to the literary world. In 1902, she founded the College Alberto Santos Dumont and ran it until 1917. In 1908, she was awarded the silver medal at the National Exhibition in Rio de Janeiro for her book Paraná mental. In Curitiba, she was director of the Escuela Profesional Femenina República Argentina, founded in 1916, instrumental in the development of women's emancipation in the region, she served as a professor but in 1926, took up the post of Director, remaining until 1940.
She joined the Federación Brasileña para el Progreso Femenino, participating in feminist conferences in 1922, 1933 and 1936. Her most notable work was La evolución del feminismo: subsidios para su historia, she was patron of the chair No. 30 of the Academia Paranaense de Poesía and No. 28 chair of the Academia Femenina de Letras de Paraná. She died unmarried of a heart attack in Curitiba on 29 November 1954, at the age of 97 years. 1908: O Paraná mental 1933: A evolução do feminismo: subsídios para a sua historia 1934: Um brado de revolta contra a morte violenta 1937: Linguagem 1939: A primavera 1940: Cambiantes 1956: Palestras educativas Besse, Susan K.: Modernizando a desigualdade: reestruturação da ideología de gênero no Brasil. São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, 1999, págs. 173, 188, 198, 270, 278 y 312. Kamita, Rosana Cássia: Resgates e ressonâncias: Mariana Coelho. Florianópolis: Mulheres, 2005. Matos, María Izilda, et al.: Deslocamentos e historias: os portugueses. Bauru: EDUSC, 2008, pág.
276-278. Páginas Escolhidas - Literatura vol. II. Curitiba: Assembleia Legislativa do Paraná, 2003, pág. 189. Rocha Pombo, José Francisco: O Paraná no Centenário 1500-1900. Río de Janeiro: J. Olympio, 1980, pág. 133. Silva, Jacicarla Souza da: Vozes femininas na poesía latino-americana. São Paulo: Cultura Acadêmica, 2009. Pág. 46. Sina, Amalia: Mulher e trabalho: o desafío de conciliar diferentes papéis na sociedade. São Paulo: Saraiva, 2005, págs. 45-46. Teixeira, Níncia Cecília Ribas Borges: Escritas de mulheres e a construção do cânone literário na pósmodernidade: cenas paranaenses. Guarapuava: Unicentro, 2008, pág. 69. Vechia, Ariclê: et al.: A escola secundária: modelos e planos. São Paulo: Annablume, 2003, págs. 215 y 236
Chaves is a city and a municipality in the north of Portugal. It is 22 km south of Verín; the population in 2011 was 41,243, in an area of 591.23 km2. The municipality is the second most populous of the district of Vila Real. With origins in the Roman civitas Aquæ Flaviæ, Chaves has developed into a regional center; the urban area has 17,535 residents. Artefacts discovered in the region of Chaves identify the earliest settlement of humans dating back to the Paleolithic. Remnants discovered in Mairos, Pastoria and São Lourenço, those associated with transient proto-historic settlements and castros, show a human presence in the Alto Tâmega dating to the Chalcolithic; the region has seen persistent human settlement since Roman legions conquered and occupied the fertile valley of the Tâmega River, constructing a nascent outpost and taking over the existing castros in the area. The settlement was located at the convergence of three important Roman roads: the Bracara Augusta and Lamecum that crossed the Roman Province of Gallaecia, linking Rome to the region's natural resources.
It was a military centre known for its baths. This civilization constructed protective walls to protect the local population, its importance led to the urban nucleus being elevated to the status ofmunicipality in 79 AD, during the reign of the first Flavian Caesar, Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus. Its benefactor influenced its toponymy, becoming known as Aquae Flaviae. Artefacts from the area around the Matriz church indicate that Aquae Flaviae's centre was located in this place, in addition to an ancient headstone showing gladiatorial combat. Rome's hegemony lasted until the 3rd century, successively, the proto-Germanic tribes of the Suebi and Alani colonized the imperial settlements of Chaves. Wars between Remismund and Frumar followed over their claims to the throne, which completely destroyed the village; the Romans were complicit in Aquae Flaviae's near destruction. Barbarian dominion lasted until the Moors invaded from North Africa, defeating the Visigoth King Roderic at the beginning of the 8th century.
In course, the name of Aquae Flaviae began to disappear, being supplanted by the more Hispanic-sounding Aquae Calidae. Arab rule of the Iberian peninsula forced many Christians to escape from Chaves into the mountains in the northwest. Battles between the Christians and Muslim forces continued until the 11th century, when Alfonso V of León reconquered the territory. After defeating the last vestiges of Moorish influence, he reconstructed and encircled the settlement of Chaves with walls, in addition to establishing a Jewish quarter in the community, it was in the reign of Afonso I of Portugal that it was taken from León and integrated into the Kingdom of Portugal domain. Owing to its geographic location, King Denis, ordered the construction of a castle to protect the kingdom's border. During the reign of Afonso II, when the king continued to provoke the ire of the Papacy, Portuguese knights attacked the Galician tenancy of his half-brother Martin Sanches since the Bishop of Braga had estates in that region.
Provoking Sanches to invade northern Portugal. The Leonese fought battles in Barcelos and Guimarães, where they defeated Portuguese forces, before retiring to Galicia with their spoils. At the same time, Alfonso IX of León seized Chaves, which remained in Leonese hands until the reign of King Sancho II, when he and Ferdinand III met in 1230/1231; this was a self-serving decision on Fernando's part, as he was fearful that Leonese barons would support Sancho against him. Alfonso IX continued to occupy Chaves as a method of ensuring his wife, would be able to enjoy her properties in Portugal. During the Portuguese Interregnum, the nobility of Chaves supported Beatrice of Portugal, as she was heir presumptive to King Ferdinand I, since he left no male heirs; the potential loss of independence of Portugal, through her marriage to John I of Castile resulted in the rebellion by the Master of the Order of Aviz, who would garner the support of the Portuguese Cortes, thus laying the seeds for his triumph at the Battle of Aljubarrota.
Yet, many nobles refused to break their oaths of fielty to Beatrice, necessitating John's travel to Porto in force and scaring the nobles of Chaves and Bragança into capitulating. The remnants of the Roman baths, the houses used to assist the invalid, were demolished by the Count of Mesquitella at the end of the 17th century, in order to reinforce the defense of Chaves. French forces attacked in 1807, during the Siege of Chaves, part of the Peninsular Wars. On 7 March 1808, Soult's forces invaded northern Portugal to remove British forces from Iberia. Brigadier Francisco Silveira was charged with the defense of Chaves, but his 6000 men were unable to support its defense, abandoned the castle. An attempt to defend Chaves by Francisco Pizarro was futile, the city surrendered to French forces shortly after the engagement. With too many troops to imprison Soult released many under oath, in order to continue the attack on the main forces who had retreated to the south, but Francisco Silveira did not quit, as the main
Victoria was a Spanish carrack and the first ship to circumnavigate the world. Victoria was part of a Spanish expedition commanded by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, after his death during the voyage, by Juan Sebastián Elcano; the expedition began on August 1519 with five ships. However, Victoria was the only ship to complete the voyage, returning on September 6, 1522. Magellan was killed in the Philippines; the ship was built at a shipyard in Ondarroa, with the Basques being reputed shipbuilders at the time, along with the four other ships, she was given to Magellan by King Charles I of Spain. Victoria was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, where Magellan took an oath of allegiance to Charles V. Victoria was an 85-ton ship with a crew of 42; the four other ships were Trinidad, San Antonio and Santiago. Trinidad, Magellan's flagship and Santiago were wrecked or scuttled. Victoria was a carrack or nao, as were all the others except Santiago, a caravel; the voyage started with a crew of about 265 men aboard 5 ships.
Of all these, only 18 men returned alive on Victoria. Many of the men died of malnutrition. At the beginning of the voyage, Luis de Mendoza was her captain. On April 2, 1520, after establishing a settlement they called Puerto San Julian located in Patagonia, a fierce mutiny involving three captains broke out, quelled. Antonio Pigafetta's and other reports state that Luis de Mendoza and Gaspar Quesada, captain of Concepcion, were executed and the remains hung on gallows on the shore. Juan de Cartagena, captain of San Antonio, was marooned on the coast. Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese who had sided with Magellan in facing the mutiny became the captain of Victoria. According to Pigafetta, after Magellan's death on April 27, 1521, at the Battle of Mactan, remnants of the fleet tried to retrieve Magellan's body without success. Thereafter, Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão were elected leaders of the expedition. On May 1, 1521, they were invited by rajah Humabon of Cebu, of the Philippines to a banquet ashore to receive a gift for the king of Spain.
There most were killed or poisoned, including Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão, brought by natives who wanted to exchange him for weapons, but was left behind. Pilot João Carvalho, who had survived the trap became the captain of Victoria. In August, near Borneo he was deposed and Juan Sebastián Elcano became captain for the remainder of the expedition. Out of an entire expedition of 260 people, only 18 returned to Seville with the expedition, which by the end was only made up of the crew of Victoria, they were: Out of all these survivors, Antonio Pigafetta was the most significant because his journals supply most of the information known about the first expedition around the world. The long circumnavigation began in Seville in 1519 and returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda on September 6, 1522, after traveling 68,000 kilometres, 35,000 kilometres of, unknown to the crew. On December 21, 1521, Victoria sailed on from Tidore in Indonesia alone because the other ships left the convoy due to lack of rations.
The ship was in terrible shape, with her sails torn and only kept afloat by continuous pumping of water. Victoria managed to return to Spain with a shipload of spices, the value of, greater than the cost of the entire original fleet. Victoria was repaired, bought by a merchant shipper and sailed for another fifty years before being lost with all hands on a trip from the Antilles to Seville in about 1570. A vignette of the Victoria forms the logo of the Hakluyt Society, a London-based text publication society founded in 1846, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of historic voyages and other geographical material; the logo appears on the cover of all the Society's published volumes. A replica of the ship is operated by the Fundación Nao Victoria, Seville. In 2006, to celebrate the Bicentennial of Chile, an entrepreneur from Punta Arenas founded a project to build another replica of the ship; the search for the original plans of Nao Victoria took longer than expected and the project was delayed by three years, from 2006 to 2009.
The replica was completed by 2011. Although it was not possible to complete the project in time for the celebration of the bicentennial in 2010, the project’s creator received a Presidential Medal from the President of Chile. "Ferdinand Magellan and the First Circumnavigation of the World". Age of Exploration; the Mariners' Museum. Retrieved 28 April 2008
Vila Real District
The District of Vila Real is a district of northern Portugal. With an area of 4,239 km², the district is located east of the port city of Porto and north of the Douro River. Vila Real has always belonged to the historical province of Trás-os-Montes. Approximate population in the 2001 census was 230,000; the population has shown negative rates in recent years due to aging. Many of the villages have lost population and have become deserted while the district capital has gained in population, it is bordered by Spain in the north and east, Braga District and Porto District in the west, Viseu District in the south and Bragança District in the east. Vila Real is a rugged area of narrow valleys, it had always been cut off from the coast by the Marão, Gerês, Cabreira mountains until a highway was cut through in the eighties. Due to poor soil, agriculture has always been a struggle, although wine grapes are produced in the south near the Douro River. Potatoes and rye have always been the traditional crops, as well as limited dairy farming.
Extensive areas are covered in pine forest. Granite and the manufacture of mineral water—the waters of Vidago and Pedras Salgadas are nationally famous—are two important industries. There was a narrow gauge railway which linked the town of Vila Real with Peso da Régua on the Douro River; until 1990 the railway reached as far north as Chaves. The remaining, southern part of the Corgo line closed in 2009; the largest towns are all small, when compared to provincial capitals in neighboring Spain. When we talk about population of urban centers two figures are used in Portugal, one number for the concelho or municipality, which can be as large as 1,720.6 km² or as small as 8.11 km², another number for the main urban center itself. It is difficult to determine which parishes make up the urban center and which make up the rest of the concelho. Official census figures give populations of concelhos and not urban centers, so this can be misleading; the head of the municipality can be small with most of the population residing in rural parishes.
Chaves, for example has 12,000 in the urban parishes and 29,000 in 49 rural parishes for a total municipality population of 41,000. In order of population, Vila Real capital has 25,000 in the urban parishes, Chaves 12,000, followed by Valpaços, Peso da Régua, the other seats of concelhos, all of which have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants; the population density of the district is 54 people per square kilometer. Most of this population lives in the concelhos of the south—Vila Real, Santa Marta, Régua and Alijó; the area between the district capital and the Douro river is more densely populated, with Régua having a population density of 212 per km², Santa Marta with 128. There is a populated area east of the capital. North the population clusters follow the Corgo river valley with many small villages on the river valley or veiga south of Vila Pouca; the geological fault linking Vila Pouca with Chaves is quite populated. North and south of Chaves population density increases; the area to the west -- the Barroso -- or to the east -- Serra do.
Montalegre has a population density of 22 per km², although the number of small villages scattered across the area gives a different impression. A closer look shows that many have been abandoned. Much of this population still lives in villages. Over seventy-five percent of the population in fact lives in centers with fewer than 5,000 people, the cutoff point for urbanization. If we take the total population of 230,000 in 1991 and single out the largest centers with more than 10,000 people—Chaves, Vila Real—whose total population is under 30,000, we can see that over seventy five percent of the population is rural or semi-rural; this lack of middle-sized urban centers in the province is a reflection of the loss of population of the region as a whole over the last twenty years, due to lack of job possibilities. It means that the Transmontano still has a rural lifestyle and all that this implies in cultural habits, including outlook towards education, innovation in business, acceptance of different ideas.
The district is composed of 14 municipalities: Alijó Boticas Chaves Mesão Frio Mondim de Basto Montalegre Murça Peso da Régua Ribeira de Pena Sabrosa Santa Marta de Penaguião Valpaços Vila Pouca de Aguiar Vila Real Gontães, a village in the district of Vila Real
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the