San Jacinto Peak
San Jacinto Peak is the highest peak of the San Jacinto Mountains, of Riverside County, California. It lies within Mount San Jacinto State Park. Naturalist John Muir wrote of San Jacinto Peak, "The view from San Jacinto is the most sublime spectacle to be found anywhere on this earth!"San Jacinto Peak is one of the most topographically prominent peaks in the United States. It is ranked sixth among peaks in the 48 contiguous states. According to John W. Robinson and Bruce D. Risher, authors of The San Jacintos, "No Southern California hiker worth his salt would miss climbing'San Jack' at least once."Known for its spectacular north escarpment, the peak rises 10,000 feet above San Gorgonio Pass. It plays host to the famous Cactus to Clouds Trail. To the east, the peak towers over the city of Palm Springs; the peak is frequently called Mount San Jacinto. The steep escarpment of its north face, above Snow Creek, climbs over 10,000 feet in 7 miles; this is one of the largest gains in elevation over such a small horizontal distance in the contiguous United States.
From the peak, San Gorgonio Mountain can be seen across the San Gorgonio Pass. Visible below is the Coachella Valley and the Salton Sea. In addition, much of the Inland Empire, including Ontario to the west, can be viewed on a clear day. Mount San Jacinto is one of the "Four Saints," a name used to describe the high points of the four mountains over 10,000 feet named for Catholic saints in Southern California: San Jacinto Peak, Mount San Gorgonio, San Bernardino Peak, Mount San Antonio. To the Cahuilla Indians, the peak was known as I a kitch, meaning "smooth cliffs." It was the home of the meteor and legendary founder of the Cahuilla. In 1878, a Wheeler Survey topographical party led by rancher Charles Thomas of Garner Valley climbed the peak; the Wheeler Survey gave the mountain the name "San Jacinto Peak" The earliest recorded ascent of the peak was made in September, 1874 by "F. of Riverside," according to a description of his ascent in the San Diego Union. The first successful ascent of the difficult northeast escarpment was made in 1931 by Floyd Vernoy and Stewart White of Riverside.
The peak is flanked by Marion Mountain. These peaks were named in 1897 by USGS topographer Edmund Taylor Perkins, Jr. Perkins named Jean Peak for his sweetheart and future bride, Jean Waters of Plumas County, whom he married in 1903, he named Marion Mountain after Marion Kelly, his girlfriend, a teacher for the Indian Bureau at the Morongo Valley Reservation. According to a local legend, Perkins spent the summer of 1897 deciding which woman to marry while he conducted his topographical survey of San Jacinto Peak and its environs. Nearby Cornell Peak is named for the alma mater of geologist Robert T. Hill. Perkins and Hill were camping in Round Valley when Hill remarked that the peak looked like the campanile tower at Cornell. Perkins named the peak Cornell Peak. In 1931 and 1932, the San Jacinto Mountain Chamber of Commerce sponsored a Labor Day footrace from Idyllwild to San Jacinto Peak and back, a distance of 18 miles and 5,300 feet; the 1931 race was won by Tom Humphreys, a Hopi, in 3:36:30.
Humphreys won the race again in 1932 with a time of 3:12. Near the summit of San Jacinto peak is a stone hut, built in 1935 by the Civilian Conservation Corps under the direction of Serbo-Croatian immigrant Alfred Zarubicka, a stonemason known in Idyllwild as "Zubi." San Jacinto Peak is accessible, as many trails penetrate the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument. The most popular route starts with a ride on the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway from Valley Station at 2,643 feet near Palm Springs up to Mountain Station at 8,516 feet. From there, one can climb the mountain face via trails. Another route is to hike the Marion Mountain Trail from near the mountain town of Idyllwild. There is a reproducing but introduced population of Sequoiadendrons planted in 1974 located here hundreds of miles from native populations; the Cactus to Clouds Trail involves an arduous climb of 10,700 feet from the desert floor in Palm Springs to the summit at 10,834 feet. This trail has no water sources until 8,500 feet, so early starts are advised to avoid the temperatures which soar above 100 °F.
List of highest points in California by county List of Ultras of the United States "Mount San Jacinto State Park". California State Parks. Retrieved 2009-08-17. Mount San Jacinto State Park map. Mount San Jacinto State Park. Retrieved 2015-11-24. "San Jacinto Peak". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07. "Cactus to Clouds Hiking Guide". Mt. San Jacinto Message Board. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "Main page". Riverside Mountain Rescue Unit. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "Forum Index". Mt. San Jacinto Outdoor Recreation. Retrieved 2009-08-17. Howser, Huell. "Mt. San Jacinto – California's Gold". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive
Sacagawea was a Lemhi Shoshone woman, known for her help to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in achieving their chartered mission objectives by exploring the Louisiana Territory. Sacagawea traveled with the expedition thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean, she helped establish cultural contacts with Native American populations in addition to her contributions to natural history. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 2003. Sacagawea is known to have been an important member of the Clark expedition; the National American Woman Suffrage Association of the early twentieth century adopted her as a symbol of women's worth and independence, erecting several statues and plaques in her memory, doing much to spread the story of her accomplishments. In 1977, she was inducted into the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame in Texas. In 2001, she was given the title of Regular Army, by then-president Bill Clinton. Reliable historical information about Sacagawea is limited, she was born into an Agaidika of Lemhi Shoshone tribe between Kenney Creek and Agency Creek near Salmon, Idaho, in Lemhi County.
In 1800, when she was about twelve years old and several other girls were kidnapped by a group of Hidatsa in a battle that resulted in the deaths of several Shoshone: four men, four women, several boys. She was held captive at a Hidatsa village near North Dakota. At about age thirteen, Sacagawea was sold into a nonconsensual marriage to Toussaint Charbonneau, a Quebecois trapper living in the village, he had bought another young Shoshone, known as Otter Woman, as his wife. Charbonneau was variously reported to have purchased both girls to be his wives from the Hidatsa or to have won Sacagawea while gambling. Sacagawea was pregnant with her first child when the Corps of Discovery arrived near the Hidatsa villages to spend the winter of 1804–05. Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark built Fort Mandan, they interviewed several trappers who might be able to interpret or guide the expedition up the Missouri River in the springtime. They agreed to hire Charbonneau as an interpreter because they discovered his wife spoke Shoshone, they knew they would need the help of Shoshone tribes at the headwaters of the Missouri.
Clark recorded in his journal on November 4, 1804: a french man by Name Chabonah, who Speaks the Big Belley language visit us, he wished to hire & informed us his 2 Squars were Snake Indians, we engau him to go on with us and take one of his wives to interpret the Snake language... Charbonneau and Sacagawea moved into the expedition's fort a week later. Clark nicknamed her "Janey." Lewis recorded the birth of Jean Baptiste Charbonneau on February 11, 1805, noting that another of the party's interpreters administered crushed rattlesnake rattles to speed the delivery. Clark and other European Americans nicknamed the boy "Little Pomp" or "Pompy." In April, the expedition headed up the Missouri River in pirogues. They had to be sometimes pulled from the riverbanks. On May 14, 1805, Sacagawea rescued items that had jumped out of a capsized boat, including the journals and records of Lewis and Clark; the corps commanders, who praised her quick action, named the Sacagawea River in her honor on May 20, 1805.
By August 1805, the corps had located a Shoshone tribe and was attempting to trade for horses to cross the Rocky Mountains. They used Sacagawea to interpret and discovered that the tribe's chief, was her brother. Lewis recorded their reunion in his journal: Shortly after Capt. Clark arrived with the Interpreter Charbono, the Indian woman, who proved to be a sister of the Chief Cameahwait; the meeting of those people was affecting between Sah cah-gar-we-ah and an Indian woman, taken prisoner at the same time with her, who had afterwards escaped from the Minnetares and rejoined her nation. And Clark in his:... The Intertrepeter & Squar who were before me at Some distance danced for the joyful Sight, She made signs to me that they were her nation... The Shoshone agreed to barter horses to the group, to provide guides to lead them over the cold and barren Rocky Mountains; the trip was so hard. When they descended into the more temperate regions on the other side, Sacagawea helped to find and cook camas roots to help them regain their strength.
As the expedition approached the mouth of the Columbia River on the Pacific Coast, Sacagawea gave up her beaded belt to enable the captains to trade for a fur robe they wished to give to President Thomas Jefferson. Clark's journal entry for November 20, 1805, reads: one of the Indians had on a roab made of 2 Sea Otter Skins the fur of them were more butifull than any fur I had Seen both Capt. Lewis & my Self endeavored to purchase the roab with different articles at length we precured it for a belt of blue beeds which the Squar—wife of our interpreter Shabono wore around her waste.... When the corps reached the Pacific Ocean, all members of the expedition—including Sacagawea and Clark's black manservant York—voted on November 24 on the location for building their winter fort. In January, when a whale's carcass washed up onto the beach south of Fort Clatsop, Sacagawea insisted on her right to go see this "monstrous fish." On the return trip, they approached the Rocky Mountains in July 1806.
On July 6, Clark recorded "The Indian woman informed me that she had been in this plain and knew it well... She said we would discover a gap in the mountains in our direction...". A week on July 13, Sacagawea advised Clark to c
Mount Shishaldin is a moderately active volcano on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands chain of Alaska. It is the highest mountain peak of the Aleutian Islands; the most symmetrical cone-shaped glacier-clad large mountain on earth, the volcano's topographic contour lines are nearly perfect circles above 6,500 feet. The lower north and south slopes are somewhat steeper than western slopes; the volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an east–west line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." The upper 6,600 ft is entirely covered by glacial snow and ice. In all, Shishaldin's glacial shield covers about 35 square miles, it is flanked to the northwest by 24 monogenetic parasitic cones, an area blanketed by massive lava flows. The Shishaldin cone is less than 10,000 years old and is constructed on a glacially eroded remnant of an ancestral somma and shield. Remnants of the older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and northeast sides at 4,900 to 5,900 ft elevation.
The Shishaldin edifice contains about 120 square miles of material. A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater, about 500 ft across and breached along the north rim. In 1967, Shishaldin Volcano was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service; this volcano has had many recorded eruptions during the 19th and 20th centuries, a couple reports of volcanic activity in the area during the 18th century may have referred to Shishaldin as well. Therefore, the volcano's entire recorded history is spotted with reports of activity. AVO has 24 confirmed eruptions at Shishaldin, making it the volcano with the third most confirmed eruptions. However, Shishaldin has the most eruptions in Alaska, but half of the eruptions are unconfirmed, with the most recent one being in January 2015. Mount Shishaldin's most recent eruptions were in 1995–96 and 1999. Since the 1999 eruption, it has maintained seismic activity having low-magnitude volcanic earthquakes every 1–2 minutes. During this period of non-eruptive seismic activity, it has been puffing steam, with puffs occurring about every 1–2 minutes.
There were reports in 2004 of small quantities of ash being emitted with the steam. The Alaska Volcano Observatory monitors the volcano for more hazardous activity with seismometers and satellite images. Visual observations are rare, because of the remote location of the volcano; the first recorded ascent of Shishaldin was by G. Peterson and two companions. Given the straightforward nature of the climbing, it is possible that an earlier ascent occurred, either by native Aleuts, Russians, or other visitors. Shishaldin is a popular ski descent for local climbers. Due to its remoteness, Shishaldin is not climbed by outsiders. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of Ultras of the United States List of volcanoes in the United States "Shishaldin". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Petersen, Tanja.
Eagle Cap Wilderness
Eagle Cap Wilderness is a wilderness area located in the Wallowa Mountains of northeastern Oregon, within the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest. The wilderness was established in 1940. In 1964, it was included in the National Wilderness Preservation System. A boundary revision in 1972 added 73,000 acres and the Wilderness Act of 1984 added 66,100 acres resulting in a current total of 361,446 acres, making Eagle Cap by far Oregon's largest wilderness area. Eagle Cap Wilderness is named after a peak in the Wallowa Mountains, which were once called the Eagle Mountains. At 9,572 feet Eagle Cap was incorrectly thought to be the highest peak in the range, hence the name; the Eagle Cap Wilderness is characterized by high alpine lakes and meadows, bare granite peaks and ridges, U-shaped glacial valleys. Thick timber is found in the lower valleys and scattered alpine timber on the upper slopes. Elevations in the wilderness range from 3,000 feet in lower valleys to 9,838 feet at the summit of Sacajawea Peak with 30 other summits exceeding 8,000 feet.
The wilderness is home to Legore Lake, the highest lake above sea level in Oregon at 8,950 feet, as well as 60 alpine lakes, more than 37 miles of streams. The Eagle Cap Wilderness and surrounding country in the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest was first occupied by the ancestors of the Nez Perce Indian tribe around 1400 AD, by the Cayuse, the Shoshone, Bannocks; the wilderness was used as hunting grounds for bighorn sheep and deer. It was the summer home to the Joseph Band of the Nez Perce tribe. 1860 marked the year. In 1930, the Eagle Cap was established as a primitive area and in 1940 earned wilderness designation. Eagle Cap Wilderness is home to a variety of wildlife, including black bears, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, mountain goats. In the summer white-tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk roam the wilderness. Smaller mammals that inhabit the area year-round include the pika, pine martens, badgers and marmots. Birds include peregrine falcons, bald eagles, golden eagles, ferruginous hawks, gray-crowned rosy finch.
Trout streams in the wilderness. The Oregon State record golden trout was caught by Douglas White; the lake where it was caught was not named. Moose have returned to the wilderness. There is possible evidence that grizzly wolverines are returning as well. Plant communities in the Eagle Cap Wilderness range from low elevation grasslands and ponderosa pine forest to alpine meadows. Engelmann spruce, mountain hemlock, sub-alpine fir, whitebark pine can be found in the higher elevations. Varieties of Indian paintbrush, sego lilies, larkspur, shooting star, bluebells are abundant in the meadows; the wilderness does contain some small groves of old growth forest. As Oregon's largest wilderness area, Eagle Cap offers many recreational activities, including hiking, horseback riding, fishing and wildlife watching. Winter brings backcountry snowshoeing opportunities. There are 47 trailheads and 534 miles of trails in Eagle Cap, accessible from Wallowa and Baker Counties, leading to all areas of the wilderness.
Four designated Wild and Scenic Rivers originate in Eagle Cap Wilderness—the Lostine, Eagle Creek and Imnaha. 16 miles of the Lostine from its headwaters in the wilderness to the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest boundary are designated Wild and Scenic. Established in 1988, 5 miles of the river are designated "wild" and 11 miles are designated "recreational." A small portion of the river is on private property. 27 miles of Eagle Creek from its output at Eagle Lake in the wilderness to the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest boundary at Skull Creek are designated Wild and Scenic. In 1988, 4 miles of the river were designated "wild," 6 miles are designated "scenic," and 17 miles are designated "recreational." 39 miles of the Minam River from its headwaters at the south end of Minam Lake to the wilderness boundary, one-half mile downstream from Cougar Creek, are designated Wild and Scenic. In 1988, all 39 miles were designated "wild." 77 miles of the Imnaha River from its headwaters are designated Scenic.
The designation comprises the main stem from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Imnaha River to its mouth, the South Fork from its headwaters to the confluence with the main stem. In 1988, 15 miles were designated "wild," 4 miles were designated "scenic," and 58 miles were designated "recreational," though only a portion of the Wild and Scenic Imnaha is located within Eagle Cap Wilderness. List of Oregon Wildernesses List of U. S. Wilderness Areas List of old growth forests Eagle Cap Wilderness - Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Eagle Cap Wilderness - Wilderness.net EagleCapWilderness.com Eagle Cap Wilderness - JosephOregon.com
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Not to be confused with: Town of Mount Charleston, Nevada. Mount Charleston named Charleston Peak, at 11,916 feet, is the highest mountain in both the Spring Mountains and Clark County, in Nevada, United States, it is the eighth-highest mountain in the state. Well separated from higher peaks by large, low basins, it is the most topographically prominent peak in Nevada, the eighth-most-prominent peak in the contiguous United States, it is one of eight ultra-prominent peaks in Nevada. It is located about 35 miles northwest of Las Vegas within the Mount Charleston Wilderness, within the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area of the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest. Mount Charleston is a year-round getaway for Las Vegas's residents and visitors, with a number of hiking trails and a modest ski area; the mountain, snow-capped more than half the year, can be seen from parts of the Las Vegas Strip when looking toward the west. Mount Charleston has nearly 200 camp sites and over 150 picnic areas, some of which are RV-accessible.
The village of Mount Charleston lies at its base to the east. The state of Nevada issues license plates with the caption "Mt. Charleston" and an image of the peak in the background. Sales of the plate supports the natural environment of the Mount Charleston area through grants administered by the Nevada Division of State Lands. According to the Federal Writers' Project, Mount Charleston was named for Charleston, South Carolina by southern sympathizers. Near its summit are the remnants of a 1955 plane crash. A CIA C-54 Military Air Transport Service plane crashed near the peak on November 17, 1955 during a blizzard; the plane was on route from Groom Lake to nearby Area 51 to work on a secret U-2 plane development. Fourteen men were on board. There are still remains from the plane that can be hiked to just off the main southern loop trail to the peak. A memorial featuring the propeller from the downed aircraft was installed at the Spring Mountains Visitor Gateway in 2015, it was Nevada’s first national memorial and the first on U.
S. Forest Service land. Charleston Peak is a popular destination for hikers; the summit offers panoramic views from the Sierra Nevada, Death Valley, Las Vegas. There are two well-marked and well-maintened trails to the summit: South Loop Trail and North Loop/Trail Canyon; the trails can be combined as a loop. Both approaches involve a strenuous 16-mile+ round trip with over 4000 feet of climbing; the hike takes all day. The hike is most accessible in the snow-free months of fall. List of Ultras of the United States Carpenter 1 Fire "Charleston Peak". SummitPost.org
Mount Shasta is a active volcano at the southern end of the Cascade Range in Siskiyou County, California. At an elevation of 14,179 feet, it is the second-highest peak in the Cascades and the fifth-highest in the state. Mount Shasta has an estimated volume of 85 cubic miles, which makes it the most voluminous stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc; the mountain and surrounding area are part of the Shasta–Trinity National Forest. Mount Shasta is connected to its satellite cone of Shastina, together they dominate the landscape. Shasta rises abruptly to tower nearly 10,000 feet above its surroundings. On a clear winter day, the mountain can be seen from the floor of the Central Valley 140 miles to the south; the mountain has attracted the attention of poets and presidents. It is dormant; the mountain consists of four overlapping volcanic cones that have built a complex shape, including the main summit and the prominent satellite cone of 12,330 ft Shastina, which has a visibly conical form. If Shastina were a separate mountain, it would rank as the fourth-highest peak of the Cascade Range.
Mount Shasta's surface is free of deep glacial erosion except, for its south side where Sargents Ridge runs parallel to the U-shaped Avalanche Gulch. This is the largest glacial valley on the volcano. There are seven named glaciers on Mount Shasta, with the four largest radiating down from high on the main summit cone to below 10,000 ft on the north and east sides; the Whitney Glacier is the longest, the Hotlum is the most voluminous glacier in the state of California. Three of the smaller named glaciers occupy cirques near and above 11,000 ft on the south and southeast sides, including the Watkins and Mud Creek glaciers; the oldest-known human settlement in the area dates to about 7,000 years ago. At the time of Euro-American contact in the 1820s, the Native American tribes who lived within view of Mount Shasta included the Shasta, Modoc, Atsugewi, Klamath and Yana tribes; the historic eruption of Mount Shasta in 1786 may have been observed by Lapérouse, but this is disputed. Although first seen by Spanish explorers, the first reliably reported land sighting of Mount Shasta by a European or American was by Peter Skene Ogden in 1826.
In 1827, the name "Sasty" or "Sastise" was given to nearby Mount McLoughlin by Ogden. An 1839 map by David Burr lists the mountain as Rogers Peak; this name was dropped, the name Shasta was transferred to present-day Mount Shasta in 1841 as a result of work by the United States Exploring Expedition. Beginning in the 1820s, Mount Shasta was a prominent landmark along what became known as the Siskiyou Trail, which runs at Mount Shasta's base; the Siskiyou Trail was on the track of an ancient trade and travel route of Native American footpaths between California's Central Valley and the Pacific Northwest. The California Gold Rush brought the first Euro-American settlements into the area in the early 1850s, including at Yreka and Upper Soda Springs; the first recorded ascent of Mount Shasta occurred after several earlier failed attempts. In 1856, the first women reached the summit. By the 1860s and 1870s, Mount Shasta was the subject of literary interest. In 1854 John Rollin Ridge titled a poem "Mount Shasta."
A book by California pioneer and entrepreneur James Hutchings, titled Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California, contained an account of an early summit trip in 1855. The summit was achieved by John Muir, Josiah Whitney, Clarence King, John Wesley Powell. In 1877, Muir wrote a dramatic popular article about his surviving an overnight blizzard on Mount Shasta by lying in the hot sulfur springs near the summit; this experience was inspiration to Kim Stanley Robinson's short story "Muir on Shasta". The 1887 completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, built along the line of the Siskiyou Trail between California and Oregon, brought a substantial increase in tourism and population into the area around Mount Shasta. Early resorts and hotels, such as Shasta Springs and Upper Soda Springs, grew up along the Siskiyou Trail around Mount Shasta, catering to these early adventuresome tourists and mountaineers. In the early 20th century, the Pacific Highway followed the track of the Siskiyou Trail to the base of Mount Shasta, leading to still more access to the mountain.
Today's version of the Siskiyou Trail, Interstate 5, brings thousands of people each year to Mount Shasta. From February 13–19, 1959, the Mount Shasta Ski Bowl obtained the record for the most snowfall during one storm in the U. S. with a total of 15.75 feet. Mount Shasta was declared a National Natural Landmark in December 1976; the lore of some of the Klamath Tribes in the area held that Mount Shasta is inhabited by the Spirit of the Above-World, who descended from heaven to the mountain's summit at the request of a Klamath chief. Skell fought with Spirit of the Below-World, who resided at Mount Mazama by throwing hot rocks and lava representing the volcanic eruptions at both mountains. Italian settlers arrived in the early 1900s to work in the mills as stonemasons and established a strong Catholic presence in the area. Many other faiths have been attracted to Mount Shasta over the years—more than any other Cascade volcano. Mount Shasta City and Dunsmuir, small towns near Shas