The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Rowlett is a city in Dallas and Rockwall counties in the U. S. state of Texas, an eastern suburb of Dallas. The population was 62,838 as of the 2017 Census est, it is a growing, upscale community with nearly $1.5 billion in development in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, located on Lake Ray Hubbard. Rowlett derives its name from Rowlett Creek, which flows into Lake Ray Hubbard and is a major tributary of the east fork of the Trinity River; the creek in turn was named for a waterway running through the property of Daniel Rowlett who moved from Kentucky to Bonham, Texas, in 1835. Daniel, a member of the Smoot-Rowlett political family, had no direct dealings with the town that now bears his name; the first post office opened on April 5, 1880, it was called "Morris" after Postmaster Austin Morris. The town was renamed "Rowlett"; the Dallas and Greenville Railway passed through the town in 1886, connecting Dallas with Greenville and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. Shortly after its opening, the line was formally sold to the MKT.
In 1921 the town was a stop on the Bankhead Highway. The town incorporated in 1952 when its population was 250. In the 1960s the town languished as Interstate 30 bypassed Rowlett; the town has had a building boom since the completion of Lake Ray Hubbard in 1971 – growing to 1,600 by 1973. Rowlett gained international notoriety in 1996 when local resident Darlie Routier was convicted of murdering her children as they slept. In 2003 the town made an unsuccessful formal proposal to get the Dallas Cowboys to move to a 1,000-acre "5-Point Park" on the banks of Lake Ray Hubbard when the lease for Texas Stadium expires. In 2013 the Rowlett City Council was challenged by the Freedom From Religion Foundation and Metroplex Atheists regarding opening prayer invocations at city hall meetings. In a court case in May 2014 the U. S. Supreme Court reaffirmed a previous court ruling upholding the tradition of opening legislative sessions with sectarian prayer and additionally ruled in favor of a town’s right to have invocations given by the predominant religion within its borders as long as it did not discriminate or coerce participation.
Atheist proponents asked the Rowlett City Council to be included in giving invocations. They were denied based on the Supreme Court ruling and city policy stating the invocation should be given by members of the community’s locally established religious congregations.”In 2015, the City of Rowlett gained regional recognition when Donahue Development and the City published plans to build the first crystal lagoon in the State of Texas which will span nearly eight acres including two acres of beach frontage. There is a planned one acre show fountain, 300' long with 250 water nozzles and two video mist screens. Located in the development will be a trolley system, marina and concerts, convention center, luxury hotel resort, two condo towers, luxury apartments; this development would be called "Bayside". Bayside is located in the southernmost portion in the City of Rowlett surrounded by Lake Ray Hubbard; the property, once known as "Elgin B. Robertson Park" was acquired from the City of Dallas in late 2015 when the City of Rowlett and Donahue Development began planning this luxury resort known as "Bayside".
Construction on this project is in progress and is expected to be completed in 2023. What once was a bedroom community, is now a community set for success in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. On the evening of December 26, 2015 a violent storm produced a deadly EF-4 tornado that tore a 13 mile path from the neighboring city of Garland, through the southeast portion of Rowlett damaging or destroying hundreds of homes and vehicles along with several businesses and a city water tower. Rowlett is located at 32°54′25″N 96°32′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles, of which 19.9 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles, or 0.34%, is water. DART has transit. Rowlett is served by the Downtown Rowlett Station on the Blue Line. Automobile routes include President George Bush Turnpike, Interstate 30, Texas State Highway 66; as of the census of 2010, there were 56,310 people, 22,875 households, 17,275 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,509.2 people per square mile.
There were 19,804 housing units at an average density of 2,509.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.24% White, 9.48% African American, 0.49% Native American, 3.93% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 7.75% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.31% of the population. There were 19,804 households out of which 58.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 87.23% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.43% were non-families. 10.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.5% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 36.9% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $100,872, the median income for a family was $88,442. Males had a median income of $49,394 versus $35,286 for f
Richardson is a principal city in Dallas and Collin counties in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2015 American Community Survey, the city had a total population of 106,123. Richardson is an affluent inner suburb of Dallas, it is home to The University of Texas at Dallas and the Telecom Corridor®, with a high concentration of telecommunications companies. More than 5,000 businesses have operations within Richardson's 28 square miles, including many of the world's largest telecommunications/networking companies: AT&T, DirectTV, Cisco Systems, Samsung, ZTE, MetroPCS, Texas Instruments and Fujitsu. Richardson's largest employment base is provided by the insurance industry, with Blue CrossBlue Shield of Texas' headquarters located in the community along with a regional hub for GEICO, regional offices for United Healthcare, one of State Farm Insurance's three national regional hubs. Settlers from Kentucky and Tennessee came to the Richardson area in the 1840s. Through the 1850s the settlement was located around the present-day site of Richland College.
After the Civil War a railroad was built northwest of the original settlement, shifting the village's center closer to the railroad. Richardson was chartered in 1873, the town was named after the secretary of the Houston & Texas Central Railroad, Alfred S. Richardson. In 1908, the Texas Electric Railway an electric railway known as the Interurban, connected Richardson to Denison, Waco and Dallas. In 1910 the population was 600. A red brick schoolhouse was built in 1914 and is now the administrative office for the Richardson Independent School District. In 1924 the Red Brick Road, the present-day Greenville Avenue, was completed; the completion of the road brought increased traffic and property values. The town incorporated and elected a mayor in 1925. In 1940 the population was 740. After World War II the city experienced major increases in population, which stood at 1,300 by 1950. Throughout the 1950s the city continued to see growth including the opening of the Collins Radio Richardson office, Central Expressway, a police department, shopping centers and many homes.
Texas Instruments opened its offices in Dallas on the southern border of Richardson in 1956. This was followed by significant gains in land values and economic status. In the 1960s Richardson experienced additional growth including several new parks and the creation of the University of Texas at Dallas within the city limits. By 1972 the population was 56,000. Residential growth slowed in the 1980s. Commercial development increased throughout the 1980s. Richardson had a population of 74,840 according to the 1990 census. Population increases throughout the 1990s was from development of the northeast part of the city; the city of Buckingham, after being surrounded by Richardson, was annexed into the city in 1996. Richardson had a population of 91,802 as of the 2000 census. By 2002 Richardson had four Dallas Area Rapid Transit light rail stations and had built the Eisemann Center for Performing Arts and Corporate Presentations and the adjacent Galatyn Park urban center, which has a 2-acre public pedestrian plaza, a luxury hotel and mixed-use development.
Richardson was a "dry city" with no alcohol sales until November 2006, when the local option election passed to allow the sale of beer and wine in grocery and convenience stores. In the fall of 2008 Peter Perfect, a Style Network television show, came to Richardson; the business-makeover show remodeled SpiritWear, an apparel and embroidery store in the city's historic downtown area. The episode first aired on January 22, 2009, it was the first episode of the series to be filmed outside of California. In 2006, Richardson was ranked as the 15th best place to live in the United States by Money magazine; this ranked Richardson the 3rd best place to live in Texas. In 2007, the Morgan Quitno 14th Annual America's Safest and Most Dangerous Cities Awards pronounced Richardson the 69th safest city in America. In the same study Richardson ranked the 5th safest city in Texas. In 2008, Richardson was ranked as the 18th best place to live in the United States by Money magazine; this ranked Richardson the 4th best place to live in Texas.
In 2009, Business Week's annual report on the "Best Places to Raise Kids," ranked Richardson in 2nd place in Texas. Richardson was the first North Texas city recognized as a best workplace for commuters by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Department of Transportation in 2004; as of 2010 the city has continued to be recognized every year since 2004. In 2011 the Texas Recreation and Park Society awarded Richardson with the Texas Gold Medal for excellence in the field of recreation and park management. In 2014, Richardson was called the "5th happiest mid-sized city in America" by national real estate website and blog, Movoto.com, based on a number of metrics, such as low unemployment, low crime, high income. In 2014 Richardson was named America's 17th Best City to Live in by 24/7 Wall St. based on crime, education, environment and infrastructure. D Magazine ranked Richardson Heights as one of the top 5 neighborhoods on the rise in 2014. Richardson ranked number 2 on SmartAsset's Boomtowns of 2015.
In August 2016, Safeco Insurance listed Richardson as the 9th safest midsized city in the nation based on overall property crime rates. In November 2016, The Dallas Morning News ranked the Breckinridge Park neighborhood as the 6th best neighborhood in Dallas-Fort Worth. In 2016, Richardson ranked 2nd on SmartAsset's healthiest housing markets in American and 6th best college towns to live in. USA Today and 24/7 Wall St. ranked Richa
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system. Although some were driven by animal power, most early mills were built in rural areas at fast-flowing rivers and streams using water wheels for power; the development of viable steam engines by Boulton and Watt from 1781 led to the growth of larger, steam-powered mills allowing them to be concentrated in urban mill towns, like Manchester, which with neighboring Salford had more than 50 mills by 1802. The mechanization of the spinning process in the early factories was instrumental in the growth of the machine tool industry, enabling the construction of larger cotton mills. Limited companies were developed to construct mills, the trading floors of the cotton exchange in Manchester, created a vast commercial city. Mills generated employment, drawing workers from rural areas and expanding urban populations.
They provided incomes for women. Child labor was used in the mills, the factory system led to organized labor. Poor conditions became the subject of exposés, in England, the Factory Acts were written to regulate them; the cotton mill a Lancashire phenomenon, was copied in New England and in the southern states of America. In the 20th century, North West England lost its supremacy to the United States to Japan and subsequently to China. In the mid-16th century Manchester was an important manufacturing centre for woollens and linen and market for textiles made elsewhere; the fustian district of Lancashire, from Blackburn to Bolton, west to Wigan and Leigh and south towards Manchester, used flax and raw cotton imported along the Mersey and Irwell Navigation. During the Industrial Revolution cotton manufacture changed from a domestic to a mechanized industry, made possible by inventions and advances in technology; the weaving process was the first to be mechanized by the invention of John Kay's flying shuttle in 1733.
The manually-operated spinning jenny was developed by James Hargreaves in about 1764 speeded up the spinning process. The roller spinning principle of Paul and Bourne became the basis of Richard Arkwright's spinning frame and water frame, patented in 1769; the principles of the spinning jenny and water frame were combined by Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule of 1779, but water power was not applied to it until 1792. Many mills were built after Arkwright's patent expired in 1783 and by 1788, there were about 210 mills in Great Britain; the development of cotton mills was linked to the development of the machinery. By 1774, 30,000 people in Manchester were employed using the domestic system in cotton manufacture. Handloom weaving lingered into the mid-19th century but cotton spinning in mills relying on water power and subsequently steam power using fuel from the Lancashire Coalfield began to develop before 1800; the first cotton mills were established in the 1740s to house roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt.
The machines were the first to spin cotton mechanically "without the intervention of human fingers". They were driven by a single non-human power source which allowed the use of larger machinery and made it possible to concentrate production into organized factories. Four mills were set up to house Paul and Wyatt's machinery in the decade following its patent in 1738: the short-lived, animal-powered Upper Priory Cotton Mill in Birmingham in 1741; the Paul-Wyatt mills spun cotton for several decades but were not profitable, becoming the ancestors of the cotton mills that followed. Richard Arkwright obtained a patent for his water frame spinning machinery in 1769. Although its technology was similar to that of Lewis Paul, John Wyatt, James Hargreaves and Thomas Highs, Arkwright's powers of organization, business acumen and ambition established the cotton mill as a successful business model and revolutionary example of the factory system. Arkwright's first mill – powered by horses in Nottingham in 1768 – was similar to Paul and Wyatt's first Birmingham mill although by 1772 it had expanded to four storeys and employed 300 workers.
In 1771, while the Nottingham mill was at an experimental stage and his partners started work on Cromford Mill in Derbyshire, which "was to prove a major turning point in the history of the factory system". It resembled the Paul-Wyatt water-powered mill at Northampton in many respects, but was built on a different scale, influenced by John Lombe's Old Silk Mill in Derby and Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory in Birmingham. Constructed as a five-storey masonry box. Arkwright recruited large disciplined workforces for his mills, managed credit and supplies and cultivated mass consumer markets for his products. By 1782 his annual profits exceeded £40,000, by 1784 he had opened 10 more mills, he licensed his technology to other entrepreneurs and in 1782 boasted that his machinery was being used by "numbers of adventurers residing in the different counties of Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, York and Lancashire" and by 1788 there were 143 Arkwrig