Frisia is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland and smaller parts of northern Germany. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people that speaks Frisian languages, which together with English and Scots form the Anglo-Frisian language group; the names for Frisia in the local languages are: Frisland Friesland Fraislaand Freesland Fresklun Freeschlon Freesklöön Friislon Fräischlön Fraschlönj Fresklun Fräislound Friislön Fryslân Freesklön When the French occupied the Netherlands, the name for the Frisian department was Frise. In English, both terms and Friesland are used. Frisia is divided into three sections: West Frisia in the Netherlands corresponds to: the province of Friesland the province of Groningen the northern parts of the province of North Holland, historical West Friesland East Frisia in Lower Saxony, Germany corresponds to: East Frisia in a more narrow sense: the Aurich district the Emden district the Leer district the Wittmund district East Frisia in a wider sense: the Friesland district the Wilhelmshaven district the Saterland municipality the Butjadingen peninsula, historical Rüstringen the Wurster Nordseeküste municipality, historical Land Wursten North Frisia in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany corresponds to: Heligoland the Nordfriesland districtThe three groups of the Frisian Islands stretch more or less correspondingly along these three sections of the German Bight coast.
West Frisia corresponds to the Dutch province of Friesland, the northern part of North Holland province, modern Groningen province, though the Western Frisian language is only spoken in Friesland proper. Dialects with strong West Frisian substrates, including Low German and Low Franconian, are spoken in West Frisia. In the northern province of Groningen, people speak Gronings, a Low Saxon dialect with a strong Frisian substrate. Rural Groningen was part of the Frisian lands "east of River Lauwers" and by law and language closer linked to East Frisia than to the west. East Frisia includes areas located in the northwest of the German state of Lower Saxony, including the districts of Aurich, Leer and Friesland, as well as the urban districts of Emden and Wilhelmshaven, the Saterland, the Land Wursten and former Rüstringen. East Frisia is the name of a historical county in that region. Only people from that area consider themselves as East Frisians; the German name "Ostfriesland" distinguishes the former county from "Ost-Friesland", which means the whole eastern Frisian area.
The portions of North Frisia within the German state of Schleswig-Holstein are part of the district of Nordfriesland and stretch along the coast, including the coastal islands from the Eider River to the border of Denmark in the north. The North Sea island of Heligoland, while not part of the Nordfriesland district, is part of traditional North Frisia. North Frisia was until the Second Schleswig War 1864 part of Denmark or the Danish Duchy of Schleswig. A half-million Frisians in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands speak West Frisian. Several thousand people in Nordfriesland and Heligoland in Germany speak a collection of North Frisian dialects that are unintelligible to each other. A small number of Saterland Frisian language speakers live in four villages in Lower Saxony, in the Saterland region of Cloppenburg county, just beyond the boundaries of traditional East Frisia. Many Frisians speak Low Saxon dialects known as Friso-Saxon in East Frisia, where the local dialects are called "Oostfreesk" or East Frisian Low Saxon.
In the Province of Friesland and North Frisia there are areas where Friso-Saxon dialects are predominantly spoken, such as Gronings. In West Frisia, there are West Frisian-influenced dialects of Dutch such as West Frisian Dutch and Stadsfries. Frisia has changed over time, both through floods and through a change in identity, it is part of the supposed Nordwestblock, a hypothetical historic region linked by language and culture. The people to be known as Frisii, began settling in Frisia in the 6th century BC. According to Pliny the Elder, in Roman times, the Frisians lived on man-made hills. According to other sources, the Frisians lived along a broader expanse of the North Sea coast. Frisia at this time comprised the present provinces of Friesland and parts of North Holland and Utrecht. Frisian presence during the Early Middle Ages has been documented from North-Western Flanders up to the Weser River Estuary. According to archaeological evidence, these Frisians were not the Frisians of Roman times, but the descendants of Anglo-Saxon immigrants from the German Bight, arriving during the Great Migration.
By the 8th century, ethnic Frisians started to colonize the coastal areas North of the Eider River under Danish rule. The nascent Frisian languages were spoken all along the southern North Sea coast. Today, the whole region is sometimes referred to as Frisia Magna. Distant authors seem to have made little distinction between Fri
W. G. Collingwood
William Gershom Collingwood was an English author, artist and professor of Fine Arts at University College, Reading. His father William, was a watercolour artist, had married Marie Eliabeth Imhoff of Arbon, Switzerland in 1851. Soon young William was sketching with his father in the Lakes, North Wales, Switzerland. In 1872, he went to University College, where he met John Ruskin. During the summer of 1873 Collingwood visited Ruskin at Coniston. Two years Collingwood was working at Brantwood with Ruskin and his associates. Ruskin admired his draughtsmanship, so Collingwood studied at the Slade School of Art between 1876 and 1878, he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1880. For many years Collingwood dedicated himself to helping Ruskin, staying at Brantwood as Ruskin's assistant and travelling with him to Switzerland. In 1883 he settled near to Ruskin in the Lake District. Collingwood edited a number of Ruskin's texts and published a biography of Ruskin in 1893. In 1896, Arthur Ransome met the Collingwoods and their children, Barbara and Robin.
Ransome learned to sail in Collingwood's boat and became a firm friend of the family proposing marriage to both Dora and Barbara. After a summer of teaching Collingwood's grandchildren to sail in Swallow II in 1928, Ransome wrote the first book in his Swallows and Amazons series of books, he used the names of some of Collingwood's grandchildren for the Swallows. By the 1890s Collingwood had become a skilled painter and joined the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, he wrote a large number of papers for its Transactions. Collingwood was interested in Norse lore and the Norsemen, he wrote a novel, Thorstein of the Mere, a major influence on Arthur Ransome. In 1897, Collingwood travelled to Iceland where he spent three months over the summer exploring with Jón Stefánsson the sites around the country in which the medieval Icelandic sagas are set, he produced hundreds of sketches and watercolours during this time, published, with Stefánsson, an illustrated account of their expedition in 1899 under the title A Pilgrimage to the Saga-steads of Iceland.
Collingwood served as its president. In 1902 he co-authored again with Jón Stefánsson the first translation it published, a translation of Kormáks saga entitled, The Life and Death of Kormac the Skald, his study of Norse and Anglican archaeology made him recognised as a leading authority. Following Ruskin's death Collingwood continued to help for a while with secretarial work at Brantwood, but in 1905 went to University College and served as professor of fine art from 1907 until 1911. Collingwood joined the Admiralty intelligence division at the outbreak of the First World War. In 1919, he returned to Coniston and continued his writing with a history of the Lake District and his most important work, Northumbrian Crosses of the pre-Norman Age, he was a great climber and swimmer, a tireless walker into advanced age. In 1927 he experienced the first of a series of strokes, his wife died in 1928, followed by Collingwood himself in 1932. He was buried in Coniston. Following the Armistice of 1918, the peace treaty of 1919, Collingwood's services were much in demand as a designer of War Memorials.
His knowledge of and enthusiasm for Scandinavian crosses is displayed at Grasmere where the memorial on Broadgate Meadows is a pastiche of an Anglian cross. The short verse at its base was penned by his close friend Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley, chair of the memorial committee. Other examples of his Celtic type memorial crosses may be seen at Otley and the K Shoes factory in Kendal; that at Hawkshead was sculpted by Barbara. Other memorials designed by Collingwood may be seen at St Bees and Lastingham, his diary for 1919–20, held in the Abbot Hall Art Gallery, contains brief allusions to other possible memorials. Collingwood founded the Ruskin Museum in Coniston in 1901, it holds material related to Collingwood. However the archive of family papers, the Collingwood Collection, is now held at the Special Collections and Archives department of the Cardiff University Library; the largest part of Collingwood's paintings of Iceland are held in the National Museum in Reykjavik: other locations include Abbot Hall Art Gallery.
Collingwood's most lasting legacy was his influence on his son R. G. Collingwood, the famous philosopher and historian. James S. Dearden, ‘Collingwood, William Gershom ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Retrieved 6 February 2015. W. G. Collingwood, The Lake Counties, J. M. Dent, 1930. F. Warne & Co. 1932. W. G. Collingwood, The Life of John Ruskin. M. Townend, The Vikings and Victorian Lakeland: The Norse medievalism of W G Collingwood and his contemporaries, CWAAS Extra Series Vol XXXIV 2009. ISBN 978-1-873124-49-9. "W. G. Collingwood's Letters from Iceland", Edited by Mike and Kate Lea, RG Collingwood Society 2013, ISBN 978-0-954674-01-4. Works by W. G. Collingwood at Project Gutenberg Works by or about W. G. Collingwood at Internet Archive Works by W. G. Collingwood at LibriVox Three watercolours by W G Colli
The Annals by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68. The Annals are an important source for modern understanding of the history of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD. Historian Ronald Mellor calls it "Tacitus's crowning achievement,” which represents the "pinnacle of Roman historical writing". Tacitus' Histories and Annals together amounted to 30 books. Of the 30 books referred to by Jerome about half have survived. Modern scholars believe that as a Roman senator, Tacitus had access to Acta Senatus—the Roman senate's records—which provided a solid basis for his work. Although Tacitus refers to part of his work as "my annals", the title of the work Annals used today was not assigned by Tacitus himself, but derives from its year-by-year structure; the name of the current manuscript seems to be "Books of History from the Death of the Divine Augustus". The Annals was Tacitus' final work and provides a key source for modern understanding of the history of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Tiberius in AD 14 to the end of the reign of Nero, in AD 68.
Tacitus wrote the Annals in at least 16 books, but books 7–10 and parts of books 5, 6, 11 and 16 are missing. The period covered by the Histories starts at the beginning of the year AD 69, i.e. six months after the death of Nero and continues to the death of Domitian in 96. It is not known when Tacitus began writing the Annals, but he was well into writing it by AD 116. Modern scholars believe that as a senator, Tacitus had access to Acta Senatus, the Roman senate's records, thus providing a solid basis for his work. Together the Histories and the Annals amounted to 30 books; these thirty books are referred to by Saint Jerome, about half of them have survived. Although some scholars differ on how to assign the books to each work, traditionally fourteen are assigned to Histories and sixteen to the Annals. Tacitus' friend Pliny referred to "your histories". Although Tacitus refers to part of his work as "my annals", the title of the work Annals used today was not assigned by Tacitus himself, but derives from its year-by-year structure.
Of the sixteen books in Annals, the reign of Tiberius takes up six books, of which only Book 5 is missing. These books are neatly divided into two sets of three, corresponding to the change in the nature of the political climate during the period; the next six books are devoted to the reigns of Claudius. Books 7 through 10 are missing. Books 11 & 12 cover the period from the treachery of Messalina to the end of Claudius' reign; the final four books cover the reign of Nero and Book 16 cuts off in the middle of the year AD 66. This leaves the material. Tacitus documented a Roman imperial system of government that originated with the Battle of Actium in September 31 BC, yet Tacitus chose not to start but with the death of Augustus Caesar in AD 14, his succession by Tiberius. As in the Histories, Tacitus maintains his thesis of the necessity of the principate, he says again that Augustus gave and warranted peace to the state after years of civil war, but on the other hand he shows us the dark side of life under the Caesars.
The history of the beginning of the principate is the history of the end of the political freedom that the senatorial aristocracy, which Tacitus viewed as morally decadent and servile towards the emperor, had enjoyed during the republic. During Nero's reign there had been a widespread diffusion of literary works in favor of this suicidal exitus illustrium virorum. Again, as in his Agricola, Tacitus is opposed to those who chose useless martyrdom through vain suicides. In the Annals, Tacitus further improved the style of portraiture that he had used so well in the Historiae; the best portrait is that of Tiberius, portrayed in an indirect way, painted progressively during the course of a narrative, with observations and commentary along the way filling in details. Tacitus portrays both Tiberius and Nero as tyrants, but while he views Tiberius as someone who had once been a great man, Tacitus considers Nero as despicable. Since the 18th century, at least five attempts have been made to challenge the authenticity of the Annals as having been written by someone other than Tacitus, Voltaire's criticism being the first.
Voltaire was critical of Tacitus and said that Tacitus did not comply with the standards for providing a historical background to civilization. In 1878, John Wilson Ross and, in 1890, Polydore Hochart suggested that the whole of the Annals had been forged by the Italian scholar Poggio Bracciolini. According to Robert Van Voorst this was an "extreme hypothesis" which never gained a following among modern scholars; the provenance of the manuscripts containing the Annals goes back to the Renaissance. While Bracciolini had discovered three minor works at Hersfeld Abbey in Germany in 1425, Zanobi da Strada had earlier discovered Annals 11–16 at Monte Cassino where he lived for some time; the copies of Annals at Monte Cassino were moved to Florence by Giovanni Boccaccio, a friend of da Strada, credited with their discovery at Monte Cassino. Regardless of whether the Monte Cassino manuscripts were moved to Florence by Boccaccio or da Strada, Boccaccio made use of
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Old Norse was a North Germanic language, spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse; these dates, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century. Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations.
It shared in changes to both other branches. The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga. Another term, used commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál or norrǿnt mál. Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish, of which Norwegian and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. Old Icelandic was close to Old Norwegian, together they formed the Old West Norse dialect, spoken in settlements in Ireland, the Isle of Man and northwest England, in Norse settlements in Normandy; the Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, settlements in Kievan Rus', eastern England, Danish settlements in Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in various settlements in the East. In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most spoken European language, ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga River in the East. In Kievan Rus', it survived the longest in Veliky Novgorod lasting into the 13th century there.
The age of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland is contested, but at latest by the time of the Second Swedish Crusade in the 13th century, Swedish settlement had spread the language into the region. The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland. Norwegian is descended from Old West Norse, but over the centuries it has been influenced by East Norse during the Denmark–Norway union. Among these and the related Faroese have changed the least from Old Norse in the last thousand years, although with Danish rule of the Faroe Islands, Faroese has been influenced by Danish. Old Norse had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots, which contain many Old Norse loanwords, it influenced the development of the Norman language, through it and to a smaller extent, that of modern French. Of the modern languages, Icelandic is the closest to Old Norse. Written modern Icelandic derives from the Old Norse phonemic writing system.
Contemporary Icelandic-speakers can read Old Norse, which varies in spelling as well as semantics and word order. However, pronunciation of the vowel phonemes, has changed at least as much as in the other North Germanic languages. Faroese retains many similarities but is influenced by Danish and Gaelic. Although Swedish and the Norwegian languages have diverged the most, they still retain mutual intelligibility. Speakers of modern Swedish and Danish can understand each other without studying their neighboring languages if speaking slowly; the languages are sufficiently similar in writing that they can be understood across borders. This could be because these languages have been mutually affected by each other, as well as having a similar development influenced by Middle Low German. Various other languages, which are not related, have been influenced by Norse the Norman language. Russian, Belarusian, Finnish and Estonian have a number of Norse loanwords; the current Finnish and Estonian words for Sweden are Rootsi, respectively.
A number of loanwords have been introduced into the Irish language – many but not all are associated with fishing and sailing. A similar influence is found in Scots Gaelic, with over one hundred loanwords estimated to be in the language, many of which, but not all, are related to fishing and sailing; the vowel phonemes come in pairs of long and short. The standardized orthography marks the long vowels with an acute accent. In medieval manuscripts, it is unmarked but sometimes marked with an accent or through gemination. Old Norse has had nasalized versions of all ten vowel places; these occurred as allophones of the vowels before nasal consonants and in places where a nasal had followed it in an older form of the word, before it was absorbed into a neighboring sound. If the nasal was absorbed by a stressed vowel, it would lengthen the vowel; these nasalizations occurred in the other Germanic languages, but were not retained lo
North Germanic peoples
North Germanic peoples, sometimes called Scandinavians, Nordic peoples and in a medieval context Norsemen, are a Germanic ethnolinguistic group of the Nordic countries. They are identified by their cultural similarities, common ancestry and common use of the Proto-Norse language from around 200 AD, a language that around 800 AD became the Old Norse language, which in turn became the North Germanic languages of today; the North Germanic peoples are thought to have emerged as a distinct people in Sweden in the early centuries AD. Several North Germanic tribes are mentioned by classical writers in antiquity, in particular the Swedes, Danes and Gutes. During the subsequent Viking Age, seafaring North Germanic adventurers referred to as Vikings and settled territories throughout Europe and beyond, founding several important political entities and exploring the North Atlantic as far as North America. Ethnic groups that arose from this expansion include the Normans, the Norse-Gaels and the Rus' people.
The North Germanic peoples of the Viking Age went by various names among the cultures they encountered, but are referred to as Norsemen. With the end of the Viking Age in the 11th century, the North Germanic peoples were converted from their native Norse paganism to Christianity, while their tribal societies were centralized into the modern kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden. Modern North Germanic ethnic groups are the Danes, Icelanders and Swedes and the Faroese; these ethnic groups are referred to as Scandinavians, although Icelanders and the Faroese are sometimes excluded from that definition. The modern North Germanic languages have a common word: the word nordbo, used for both ancient and modern North Germanic peoples. In English "Norsemen" is the usual term for the speakers of Old Norse, a North Germanic language, spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century. In the earlier period, when outside Scandinavia, they are often called Vikings.
Although the early North Germanic peoples had a common identity, it is uncertain if they had a common ethnonym. Their identity was rather expressed through the geographical and linguistic terms The North Lands and The Danish Tongue. In the Old Norse language, the term norrœnir menn, was used correspondingly to the modern English name Norsemen, referring to North Germanic peoples. In the early Medieval period, as today, "Vikings" was a common term for attacking Norsemen in connection with raids and monastic plundering by Norsemen in the British Isles; the word Vikings: Vikinger in Danish and Norwegian Bokmål, Vikingar in Swedish and Norwegian Nynorsk is not used as a word for Norsemen by natives, as "Viking" is the name for a specific occupation or activity, not a demographic group. The Vikings were people partaking in the raid; the Norse were known as Ascomanni by the Germans, Dene by the Anglo-Saxons. The Old Frankish word Nortmann "Northman" was Latinised as Normanni and entered Old French as Normands, whence the name of the Normans and of Normandy, conquered from the Franks by Vikings in the 10th century.
The Gaelic terms Finn-Gall, Dubh-Gall and Gall Goidel were used for the people of Norse descent in Ireland and Scotland, who assimilated into the Gaelic culture. Dubliners called them Ostmen, or East-people, the name Oxmanstown comes from one of their settlements; the Slavs, Muslims and other peoples of the east knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs derived from various uses of rōþs-, i.e. "related to rowing", or from the area of Roslagen in east-central Sweden, where most of the Vikings who visited the Slavic lands originated. After the Rus' established Kievan Rus' and merged with the Slavic population, the North Germanic people in the east become known as Varangians, after the bodyguards of the Byzantine known as the Varangian Guard; the Battle Axe culture emerged in the southern Scandinavia in the early 3rd millennium BC. The Proto-Germanic language is thought to have emerged from this culture through is superimposition upon the earlier megalithic cultures of the area; the Germanic tribal societies of Scandinavia were thereafter stable for thousands of years.
Scandinavia is considered the only area in Europe where the Bronze Age was delayed for a whole region. The period was characterized by the independent development of new technologies, with the peoples of southern Scandinavia developing a culture with its own characteristics, indicating the emergence of a common cultural heritage; when bronze was introduced, its importance was established, leading to the emergence of the Nordic Bronze Age. During the Iron Age the peoples of Scandinavia were engaged in the export of slaves and amber to the Roman Empire, receiving prestige goods in return; this is attested by artifacts of gold and silver that have been found at rich burials from the period. North Germanic tribes, chiefly Swedes, were engaged as middlemen in the slave trade along the Baltic coast between Balts and Slavs and the Roman Empire; the North Germanic tribes at the time were skilled metal and leather workers, which supplemented their trade in iron and amber. In his book Germania, the Roman histor
Zealand, at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper. Zealand has a population of 2,302,074, it is the 13th-largest island in the 4th most populous. It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located on the eastern shore of Zealand and on the island of Amager. Other cities on Zealand include Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør. Despite their identical names, the island is not connected to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, named after the Dutch province of Zeeland; the exact origin of the Danish name "Sjælland" is controversial. Sjæl in Danish today means "soul". A derivation derived from siô / sæ corresponding to the English name is today rejected– but it may be that the English name predated Danish research on its origin, compared with the current understanding.
The prevailing view today is: The Old Danish form "Siâland" comes from a composition of the word *selha- with the ending *wundia-. The latter means "indicates, resembles"; the word *selha- can have two different meanings: it can mean on the one hand "seal" and on the other hand mean "deep bay, fjord". Since the main settlement on Zealand was Roskilde, only accessible by sea through the narrow Roskilde Fjord, it is assumed that the sailors named the island after this. In Norse mythology as told in the Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi, the king of Sweden, she transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area became Mälaren. However, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun. Zealand is the most populous Danish island, it is irregularly shaped, is north of the islands of Lolland, Møn. The small island of Amager lies east. Copenhagen is on Zealand but extends across northern Amager.
A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, connected to Scania in Sweden by the Øresund Bridge via the artificial island of Peberholm. Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, Funen is connected by bridges to the country's mainland, Jutland. On June 5, 2007, the regional subsidiary of national broadcaster DR reported that Kobanke in the southeast near the town Rønnede in Faxe Municipality, with a height of 122.9 metres, was the highest natural point on Zealand. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, but, due to a man-made hill from the 17th century and its highest natural point is only 121.3 metres. Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10,000+ inhabitants: North Zealand New Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage