Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque
Metalhead is the fourteenth studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1999. All tracks written by Pete "Biff" Byford, Paul Quinn, Doug Scarratt, Tim "Nibbs" Carter, except "Intro" by Nigel Glockler. SaxonBiff Byford - vocals, producer Paul Quinn - guitar Doug Scarratt - guitar Nibbs Carter - bass Fritz Randow - drumsAdditional musiciansNigel Glockler - written and performed "Intro" Chris Bay - additional keyboardsProductionCharlie Bauerfeind - producer, mixing Rainer Hänsel - executive producer Karo Studios, Germany – recording and mixing location
Power & the Glory
Power & the Glory is the fifth studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1983. The album sold over 1.5 million copies worldwide. This is the first Saxon studio album with new drummer Nigel Glockler and was recorded in Atlanta, Georgia in the fall of 1982; the album peaked at #15 in the UK Albums Chart. It reached No.1 in the Metal charts in Sweden, Norway and Germany selling over 1.5 million copies worldwide. It was their first album to enter the Billboard 200 in the US, peaking at #155. A retrospective AllMusic review by Eduardo Rivadavia gave the album three out of five stars. Rivadavia criticised the mixing, saying that the album "sounds as though it was recorded in a tin can, albeit a very large tin can" eliminating the "big, in-your-face, gritty" sound heard on the band's past albums, he criticised the material itself, saying that "despite a few sparks generated by "Redline," "Warrior," and the proto-thrashing "This Town Rocks," only the anthemic title track showed enough staying power to earn a frequent slot in Saxon's live repertoire".
Canadian journalist Martin Popoff writes quite the opposite and considers Power & the Glory Saxon's best album, praising the production and the contribution of "new ass-kicking drummer Nigel Glockler" to "working a metal magic, the embodiment of the NWOBHM's ideals now made real."In 2005, Power & the Glory was ranked number 376 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time. All tracks written by Paul Quinn, Graham Oliver, Steve Dawson and Nigel Glockler. "Power and the Glory" was released as a single in April 1983. It reached number 32 on the UK Singles Chart; the song is lyrics relating to war and battles. A music video was made for the song with band members running through a castle with dead dolls. Biff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Steve Dawson - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsProductionJeff Glixman - producer Jeff Glixman - engineer Cheryl Bordagary - engineer Les Horn - engineer Axis Sound Studio, Atlanta - recording and mixing location
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
Destiny (Saxon album)
Destiny is the ninth studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1988. It is the only studio album to feature the rhythm section of drummer Nigel Durham and bassist Paul Johnson on it. Biff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Paul Johnson - bass guitar Nigel Durham - drumsAdditional musiciansStephen Laws Clifford - keyboards Dave Taggart - backing vocals George Lamb - backing vocals Phil Caffrey - backing vocals Steve Mann - backing vocalsProductionStephan Galfas - producer Spencer Henderson - engineer James Allen-Jones - engineer Hook and Manor, Berkshire, UK - recording location Swanyard Studios, London - mixing location Sterling Sound, New York - mastering location
Denim and Leather
Denim and Leather is the fourth studio album by English heavy metal band Saxon released in 1981. The album was certified Gold status in the U. K; this was the last album with the classic line up of Saxon, as drummer Pete Gill would leave the band due to a hand injury joining Motörhead. The album spawned two of their most successful singles, "And the Bands Played On" and "Princess of the Night". There are nine songs on this album. "Princess of the Night" is a song about a powerful steam locomotive and "And the Bands Played On" is about 1980 Monsters of Rock Festival - name checking several of the other acts on the bill including Rainbow and Touch. Other themes for the songs include: partying, the spirit of the music, and, like many of their songs, motorcycles. "Midnight Rider" is a song about Saxon's 1980 North American tour. The name of the album and song was inspired by the popular attire of metalheads in the early 1980s, defined by either denim jeans and jackets or a leather biker jacket; the song is seen as a tribute from the band to their fans while describing the history of the sub-culture and the rise of the new wave of British heavy metal.
The album peaked at #9 in the UK Albums Chart. The album is regarded as a classic in the band's discography, has been received positively by critics and fans. Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic called the opening track "Princess of the Night" an "infectiously anthemic opening statement", whilst praising the title track for being an "unqualified classic", he considered "Out of Control" and "Rough and Ready" to be strong tracks, whilst regarding "Fire in the Sky", "Midnight Rider", "And The Bands Played On" as "spectacular". Canadian journalist Martin Popoff had mixed feelings about Denim and Leather, which he considered "Saxon's stadium rock album... boppier and sillier than Wheels of Steel, but still catchy", denouncing "the band's progressively feeble song skills while gaining points for conviction." All tracks written by Saxon. Bonus tracks 12-18 recorded live on the Denim and Leather Tour, 1981. Biff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Steve Dawson - bass guitar Pete Gill - drumsProductionNigel Thomas - producer Andy Lydon - engineer Aquarius Studios, Geneva - recording location Polar Studios, Stockholm - additional recording location, mixing location
Call to Arms (Saxon album)
Call To Arms is the nineteenth studio album by British heavy metal band Saxon. Call to Arms was released 3 June in Europe, it was due to be released on 23 May 2011. The album was released on 27 September in North America by EMI. Current Deep Purple keyboardist Don Airey made a guest appearance on the album. Saxon frontman Biff Byford stated that the band wanted to "get back to roots," and aimed for a "more working-class sound" with the album. While recording the album in February 2011, the band posted a message to its fans, calling on them to visit the band at the studio on the evening of 10 February; the reason for the appeal was that the band needed a chorus for the track "Back in'79", decided to offer its fans the chance to be a part of the recording. Saxon were supposed to appear at the Soundwave festival in Australia, but were forced to cancel their appearance due to delays during recording; the band issued a statement apologizing to fans for the cancellation. Two of the tracks on the album were written by Saxon for the movie Hybrid Theory.
The album artwork is derived from Lord Kitchener Wants You, a World War I-era British Army recruitment poster. Call to Arms debuted at number 6 on the UK Rock Albums chart. In the US, the album sold about 700 copies in its first week of release and managed to debut at number 51 on the US "Heatseekers" chart. A digipack version of the album for the North American market featured a seven track bonus disc containing most of Saxon's performance at Castle Donington in 1980. To promote the album, Saxon have embarked on the "Call to Arms World Tour"; the band headlined shows in Europe and South America, Japan. Anvil and Crimes of Passion opened for Saxon in Europe, while the North American shows were opened by Borealis. HammerFall appeared as special guests at the UK shows, while Vanderbuys were presented as special guests at shows in Spain."Hammer of the Gods" was released as a single to promote Call to Arms on 18 March 2011. In addition two music videos were made to promote the album. Call to Arms has received positive reviews from critics.
AllMusic rated the album as 3.5/5 stars. Reviewer Eduardo Rivadavia commented. Rivadavia stated that "Surviving Against the Odds", "Chasing the Bullet" and "Ballad of the Working Man" were "refreshingly raw and direct", he compared "Hammer of the Gods" and "Afterburner" to proto-thrash. Rivadavia said that Call to Arms can be seen as an "aesthetic cousin" to Denim and Leather from 1981. Music news website Blabbermouth.net, posted a favorable review for the album. Reviewing the North American digipack edition, reviewer Scott Alisoglu called the album "highly recommended" and said that the album would not disappoint any Saxon fan, he further described the album's title track as "epic" and called the 7-track bonus live CD "a high value bonus". Reviewer Andy Lye, on behalf of Jukebox: Metal, gave the album 3 out of 5 stars, he opined that Saxon sound like "a band out of ideas" on the album, but at the same time he praised the album's last three tracks, "No Rest for the Wicked," "Ballad for the Working Man" and the orchestral version of the title track.
Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles reviewer Mark Gromen commended that Call to Arms "isn't much of a metal record" but rather ", bluesy hard rock" instead. Gromen compared the album's opening track, "Hammer of the Gods", to "Dogs of War" form the 1995 album of the same name, he compared Don Airey's keyboard parts on "When Doomsday Comes" to the patterns used on Deep Purple's 1984 album Perfect Strangers. Gromen rated the album at 7.5 out of 10. SaxonBiff Byford - lead vocals Paul Quinn - guitar Doug Scarratt - guitar Nibbs Carter - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsAdditional musiciansDon Airey - keyboardsProductionBiff Byford - producer Toby Jepson - producer Video for "Call to Arms" on YouTube