In baseball, a sacrifice fly is defined by Rule 9.08: "Score a sacrifice fly when, before two are out, the batter hits a ball in flight handled by an outfielder or an infielder running in the outfield in fair or foul territory, caught, a run scores after the catch, or is dropped, a runner scores, if in the scorer's judgment the runner could have scored after the catch had the fly ball been caught."It is called a "sacrifice" fly because the batter allows a teammate to score a run, while sacrificing his own ability to do so. Sacrifice flies are traditionally recorded in box scores with the designation "SF"; as addressed within Rule 9.02 of the Official Baseball Rules a sacrifice fly is not counted as a time at bat for the batter, though the batter is credited with a run batted in. The purpose of not counting a sacrifice fly as an at-bat is to avoid penalizing hitters for a successful action; the sacrifice fly is one of two instances in baseball where a batter is not charged with a time at bat after putting a ball in play.
But, while a sacrifice fly doesn't affect a player's batting average, it counts as a plate appearance and lowers his on-base percentage. A player on a hitting streak will have the hit streak end if he has no official at-bats but has a sacrifice fly; the reason for this is that the sacrifice fly, unlike the sacrifice bunt, is not considered a tactical maneuver. Unlike a sacrifice bunt, which may be scored if a runner advances from any base to any base, a sacrifice fly is only credited if a runner scores on the play. Therefore, when a runner on first or second base tags on a fly ball and advances no further than third base, no sacrifice is given and the batter is charged with an at-bat. If a runner tags and advances from second base all the way to home and scores the batter is credited with a sacrifice fly, as well as a second RBI if a runner on third scores. At the professional level this will only occur in unusual circumstances that prevent the defense from making an immediate throw back to the infield, such as an outfielder colliding with the wall while making a catch on the warning track.
The sacrifice fly is credited if another runner is put out so long as the run scores. The sacrifice fly is credited on a dropped ball if another runner is forced out by reason of the batter becoming a runner. On any fly ball, a runner can attempt to advance bases right as soon as a fielder touches the ball by tagging up before the fielder has full control of the ball; the most sacrifice flies by a team in one game is five. Five teams have collected three sacrifice flies in an inning: the Chicago White Sox. In these cases one or more of the flies did not result in a putout due to an error. Since the rule was reinstated in its present form in 1954, Gil Hodges of the Dodgers holds the record for most sacrifice flies in one season with 19, in 1954; as of the end of the 2018 season, players who had hit 115 or more career sacrifice flies: 1. Eddie Murray 2. Cal Ripken, Jr. 3. Robin Yount 4. Hank Aaron 4. Frank Thomas 6. George Brett 6. Rubén Sierra 8. Rafael Palmeiro 8. Daniel "Rusty" Staub 10. Andre Dawson 11.
Don Baylor Only once has the World Series been won on a sac fly. In 1912, Larry Gardner of the Boston Red Sox hit a fly ball off a pitch from the New York Giants' Christy Mathewson. Steve Yerkes tagged up and scored from third base to win game 8 in the tenth inning and take the series for the Red Sox. Batters have not been charged with a time at-bat for a sacrifice hit since 1893, but baseball has changed the sacrifice fly rule multiple times; the sacrifice fly as a statistical category was instituted in 1908, only to be discontinued in 1931. The rule was again adopted in 1939, only to be eliminated again in 1940, before being adopted for the last time in 1954. [http://mlb.mlb.com/mlb/official_info/official_rules/official_scorer_10.jsp MLB Official Rules from the Major League Baseball website Chronology that includes the chronology of the sacrifice fly rule, from baseballlibrary.com The Sacrifice Fly, from the SABR web site
Today, LGBT individuals are victimized and little has been done to resolve this issue in Guatemala, Latin America for that matter. Guatemalans who identify as queer are ostracized for struggling to conform to a heteronormative society that Guatemala has instituted. Sexual minorities are denied essential services such as education and healthcare, the Guatemalan State has done little to provide aid to LGBT individuals, insinuating that Guatemala is an anti-LGBT country; the State is portrayed as not providing enough aid to protect the well-being of the LGBT community from discriminatory rhetoric and violence. The LGBT community in Guatemala is persecuted for the sexual orientations or gender identities that are disparate from the heteronormative society of Guatemala, sexual minorities are not accepted by friends or family. Most of Latin America chooses to ostracize sexual minorities because of its strong roots to Catholicism; the Catholic Church has portrayed its distaste with the LGBT community, patently against pro-LGBT legislation.
There are unequivocal threats towards LGBT individuals transgender women. Transgender individuals are spurned from their families. In fact, the State refuses to acknowledge the identities of many transgender people under Article 1 of the Civil Code of Guatemala. Article 1 allows the State to adamantly deny providing transgender individuals with documents that allows them to identify with the gender they identify with; the State not only rejects the concept of transgender individuals as being legitimate, the country presumes and assigns the sex roles of men who have sex with men. These presumptions are made on stereotypes that have been manufactured by the heteronormative society and the patriarchal structures that have been instituted in Mesoamerica. Stephen Murray studied homosexual occupations in Mesoamerica by analyzing a man's employer; the study focused on whether a man's occupation, along with a man's personality, can determine a man's sexual preference – a pasivo or activo. Murray found that a hairdresser and ballet dancer in his sample did not portray stereotypical traits of being feminine or narcissistic.
These misconceptions of men who have sex with men are made because the society of Mesoamerica presume that men who work in “feminine” occupations are notably feminine or vain. Furthermore, it is presumed that because they are perceived feminine, they are regarded as being pasivo. However, the hairdresser and ballet dancer classified themselves as internacional. Furthermore, men who work in stereotypically “masculine” jobs such as a truck driver or a construction worker are not activo; these misconceptions of men who have sex with men are based on the traditional views on gender roles and how men who have ‘flamboyant’ jobs are feminized. Based on two studies and Horridge, the neoliberalization that occurred in Guatemalan politics benefited gay and lesbian adopters. In Guatemala, a neoliberalization of child welfare occurred because state provisions failed and as a result had to abandon services such as subsidized health care and staple foods. In other words, because Guatemala was suffering to come up with funds to support programs that aided impoverished families with children, the children were instead placed in privatized families.
The state is deemed as being desperate to conserve funds, rather than funding programs that help support impoverished families, but gay and lesbian couples planning to adopt could take advantage of the increased neoliberalization. However, because gay and lesbian couples were matched with adoptees rather than providing aid to impoverished families, the neoliberalization did not help resolve issues such as race and gender inequalities. There have been numerous attacks against the LGBT community in Guatemala and the State has done little to intervene with the issue, it was reported from 1996 to 2006. From 2009 to just 2010 a startling number of at least thirty transgender people were murdered. However, these statistics are deemed to be inaccurate because the family members of LGBT victims did little to intervene or properly report the hate crimes made towards the sexual minorities. Furthermore, gay or heterosexual, experience physical violence from organized gangs for various motives. However, gay individuals are more to be targeted by groups because sexual minorities can be attacked or killed with near-impunity by state prosecution.
Because Guatemala is a country, known to portray anti-gay views, it is acceptable for gangs to portray and act upon anti-gay discrimination and anti-gay violence. Providing healthcare to the LGBT community homosexual and bisexual men, has always been an unwarranted issue in Guatemala. Guatemala struggles with a prevailing HIV epidemic due to the lack of services that should be provided. Nearly thirty people in Guatemala contract HIV every day and men who have sex with men have the highest incidence rate in contracting HIV. Testing resources are limited to sexual minorities in Guatemala, therefore LGBT individuals are more vulnerable and disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections. Guatemala not only provides limited testing resources, but fails to provide an extensive sexual education program, a program that would regard homosexuality and transsexuality. Sexually transmitted infections HIV, is a problematic issue in Guatemala because LGBT individuals are engaging in sexual activity without a rudimentary sexual education.
Therefore, the proliferation of sexually transmitted diseases inc
Ballyclare Comrades Football Club is a semi-professional, Northern Irish football club playing in the NIFL Championship. The club plays its home matches at Dixon Park. Club colours are white; the club's rivals are Carrick Rangers and Larne and games between the three clubs are referred to as "The East Antrim Derbies". The club was founded in 1919 by veterans of the First World War, most of them from "C" Company of the 12th Royal Irish Rifles – a battalion made up of East Antrim men, who fought at the Somme and in many other famous First World War battles. From 1990 until 2003, the club enjoyed senior status, but reverted to intermediate status when the Irish Premier League was established and the number of senior clubs was reduced; the club's reserve team play in the NIFL Development League for under 20s. The club has a partnership with local youth club Ballyclare Colts, whose sides provide players to progress to Comrades' own youth sides at under-17 and under-18 level; the under-18 side play in the IFA Youth League.
The club was relegated to IFA Championship 2 in the 2010–11 season and finished in 6th place in the 2011–12 season, but the following season brought promotion back to Championship 1 after finishing as runners-up behind Championship 2 winners Knockbreda. One of the clubs most famous products was Northern Ireland and Sunderland defender Paddy McNair who attends games when possible. Gareth McAuley, now of Rangers, Michael Smith both played for the Comrades before switching to professional football; the club finished an impressive 3rd in the 2016/17 season, losing out in a promotion playoff to Institute. The club continues with the ambition of getting back into the NIFL Premiership. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Ulster Cup: 1 1997–98 Irish League B Division: 6 1960–61, 1962–63, 1973–74, 1977–78, 1979–80, 1988–89 IFA Intermediate League Second Division: 1 2006–07 Irish Intermediate Cup: 9 1925–26, 1949–50, 1950–51, 1953–54, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1989–90 B Division Knock-out Cup: 2 1983–84, 1988–89 George Wilson Cup: 4 1955–56, 1960–61, 1962–63, 1993–94† Steel & Sons Cup: 6 1943–44, 1960–61, 1974–75, 1981–82, 1984–85, 1986–87 McElroy Cup: 1 1941–42 Clarence Cup: 3 1980–81†, 1982–83†, 1983–84†† Won by reserve team Ballyclare Comrades F.
C. Website Irish Football Club Project nifootball.co.uk