SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sacrilege

Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object, site or person. This can take the form of irreverence to sacred persons and things; when the sacrilegious offence is verbal, it is called blasphemy, when physical, it is called desecration. In a less proper sense, any transgression against what is seen as the virtue of religion would be a sacrilege, so is coming near a sacred site without permission; the term "sacrilege" originates from the Latin sacer, meaning sacred, legere, meaning to steal. In Roman times it referred to the plundering of graves. By the time of Cicero, sacrilege had adopted a more expansive meaning, including verbal offences against religion and undignified treatment of sacred objects. Most ancient religions have a concept analogous to sacrilege considered as a type of taboo; the basic idea is that sacred objects are not to be treated in the same way as other objects because they help us remember hence and we recall. The sycophant, i.e. the use of vulgarity or flattery, is to not recall and thus is harmful to ourselves.

With the advent of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, the Emperor Theodosius criminalized sacrilege in an more expansive sense, including heresy and offenses against the emperor, such as tax evasion. By the Middle Ages, the concept of sacrilege was again restricted to physical acts against sacred objects, this forms the basis of all subsequent Catholic teachings on the subject. A major offence was to tamper with a consecrated host, otherwise known as the Body of Christ. Most modern nations have abandoned laws against sacrilege out of respect for freedom of expression, except in cases where there is an injury to persons or property. In the United States, the U. S. Supreme Court case Burstyn v. Wilson struck down a statute against sacrilege, ruling that the term could not be narrowly defined in a way that would safeguard against the establishment of one church over another and that such statutes infringed upon the free exercise of religion and freedom of expression. Despite their decriminalisation, sacrilegious acts are still sometimes regarded with strong disapproval by the public by nominal or former members and non-adherents of the offended religion when these acts are perceived as manifestations of hatred toward a particular sect or creed.

According to Catholic theology a sacrilege can be local, or real. Personal sacrilege is irreverence shown to a person consecrated by holy orders. Ridiculing, mocking, or abusing members of the clergy is considered personal sacrilege, as the animosity is directed not at the person themselves but at the Church or at God whom they represent. Whenever those in religious or clerical life violate the sixth Commandment and break their vow of chastity, it is considered a personal sacrilege on their part. Laying violent hands on a cleric used to incur an automatic excommunication from the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Since 1983, only someone who physically attacks the pope is excommunicated. Local sacrilege is the desecration of sacred places and space. Robbing or vandalizing a church, oratory, convent, or monastery would be of this category, it could be committing immoral and sinful acts inside a sacred building, such as committing murder or engaging in sexual acts. The previous law considered the burial of a publicly excommunicated person in a Catholic cemetery or blessed grave to be sacrilege.

The current law makes no mention of it. Real sacrilege is the contemptuous irreverence shown for sacred things the seven sacraments or anything used for divine worship; this can happen first of all by the administration or reception of the sacraments in the state of mortal sin as receiving the Eucharist in mortal sin, as by advertently doing any of those things invalidly. Using sacred vessels for secular use, such as a chalice to drink cocktails, or using common items like paper plates and Styrofoam cups for liturgical worship, are examples of real sacrilege; the worst kind, again, is the desecration of the Blessed Sacrament, as it is the most important and most sacred item in Catholicism. Owing to the phonetic similarities between the words sacrilegious and religious, their spiritually-based uses in modern English, many people mistakenly assume that the two words are etymologically linked, or that one is an antonym of the other. Religious is derived from the Latin word religio, meaning "reverence, religion", whereas sacrilegious is derived from the Latin combining form sacr-, meaning sacred, the verb legere, meaning "to steal", "to collect", or "to read".

The Latin noun sacrilegus means "one who steals sacred things".1 In post-Reformation England, sacrilege was a criminal offence for centuries, though its statutory definition varied considerably. Most English dictionaries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries appealed to the primary sense of stealing objects from a church. Criminal law was consolidated by Peel's Acts from 1828. Of these, 7 & 8 Geo 4 c 27 repealed the provisions of 1 Ed 6 c 12 in relation to sacrilege, while two created new laws around larceny: 7 & 8 Geo 4 c 29 for England and Wales, 9 Geo 4 c 55 for Ireland. Section 10 of each was identical: That if any person shall break and enter any church or chapel, steal therein any chattel, or having stolen any chattel in any church or chapel, shall break out of the same, every such offender, being convicted thereof, shall suffer death as a felon. Both

The Bhoys from Seville

The Bhoys from Seville is a nickname used to refer to Celtic F. C.'s team and fans during Celtic's 2002–03 UEFA Cup campaign, which culminated in their defeat in the 2003 UEFA Cup Final against F. C. Porto in Seville, Spain. Around 80,000 Celtic fans travelled to support their team in the final; the name "The Bhoys from Seville" is a play on words from the book and film The Boys from Brazil, the nickname of Celtic F. C. and the location of the final. This UEFA Cup campaign was Celtic's most successful in Europe since their run to European Cup Final in 1970, the first time in 23 years that they had remained in European competition beyond Christmas. Although they lost in the final against F. C. Porto, the team has been compared to Celtic's European Cup winning team in 1967, the Lisbon Lions; the estimated 80,000 Celtic supporters who travelled to Seville for the final received widespread praise for their exemplary conduct, were awarded Fair Play Awards from both FIFA and UEFA "for their extraordinarily loyal and sporting behaviour".

The support of the Celtic supporters and the team's performance during the campaign provided the inspiration for a number of books, television programmes and DVDs highlighting the experiences of the travelling fans. Celtic F. C.'s participation in the 2002–03 UEFA Cup came as a result of their defeat in the UEFA Champions League third qualifying round against FC Basel. During the 2003 UEFA Cup competition, Celtic goalkeeper Rab Douglas and defender Bobo Balde appeared in twelve matches, which led the team in that category, they both missed the 2nd leg of the first round against FK Sūduva. Douglas had six clean sheets. Celtic outscored opponents 27 to 12 on their run to the final. Striker Henrik Larsson scored eleven goals, including a hat-trick in the first game against FK Sūduva; the motto "V for Victory" was coined during the campaign. In another reference to the letter V, for the days leading up to the game the Daily Record, a Scottish tabloid newspaper, sent an open topped double decker bus to Seville with the slogan "Here V Go" on the side of the bus.

The first game of the campaign was against Lithuanian team FK Sūduva. Sūduva stated that they could not send a scout to Glasgow to spy on Celtic to prepare for their match, instead had to watch videotapes of their opponents. Celtic all but won the tie in the first leg at home in Celtic Park on 14 August 2002 with their 8–1 win. Henrik Larsson scored a hat-trick, while Stilian Petrov, Chris Sutton, Paul Lambert, Joos Valgaeren and John Hartson all netted a goal each. Martin O'Neill rested a number of players for the second leg, with first-team regulars such as Larsson, Lambert, Valgaeren and Neil Lennon all being left in Glasgow. Celtic won the second leg 2–0 and went through to the second round on an aggregate of 10–1; the next round caught media and football fans attention when Celtic were paired with Blackburn Rovers. The English side were enjoying a good season and finished sixth in the Premiership, their squad boasted former Man United strikers Dwight Yorke and Andy Cole as well as rising star David Thompson and Irish winger Damien Duff, who had impressed in the 2002 World Cup.

Highlighted by the media was the fact that Blackburn Rovers manager Graeme Souness had been player-manager of Celtic's city rivals Rangers. The tie was dubbed the Battle of Britain. Celtic were poor in the first leg at Parkhead, were outplayed by Blackburn for long spells of the game. A Henrik Larsson goal five minutes from full-time secured a crucial 1–0 win on the night and a narrow lead to take down to Ewood Park. In the build-up to the return match, Blackburn captain Gary Flitcroft made public that Souness had commented in the dressing room after the first game that Blackburn should have won the game and that it was like watching "men against boys." In a press conference the day before the second game, Souness stated that if Celtic scored one goal Blackburn would score three. In the second leg, Celtic scored after 14 minutes through Larsson. Celtic were now 2–0 ahead on aggregate and controlled the game after that to the joy of their 7,500 travelling fans. Former Blackburn striker Chris Sutton scored another goal for Celtic after 68 minutes and the match ended with Celtic winning 2–0 on the second leg and 3–0 on aggregate.

Celtic's third round UEFA cup opponents were Celta Vigo. In the first leg, Henrik Larsson scored the only goal of the game in Glasgow to give Celtic a slender 1–0 advantage to take to Spain; the match, was overshadowed by the eccentric refereeing of Claude Columbo, who sent Celtic's Martin O'Neill from the home dugout during the game. O'Neill received a two-game touchline ban, but this was reduced to a one match ban after an appeal; the return match saw Celta Vigo's Jesuli level the tie on aggregate after 24 minutes. Celtic rallied, on 37 minutes John Hartson used his body strength to force his way into the Spanish penalty box and score with a powerful shot. Crucially, due to the away goals rule, Celta Viga now had to score twice to avoid losing the tie. Benni McCarthy scored early in the second half for Celta Vigo but, despite a glaring miss from Jesuli near the end, Celtic held on to win the tie on away goals; the 1–2 loss on the night was the first of two defeats for Celtic on the way to the final.

This was the first time that Celtic had knocked out a Spanish club in European com

Photic sneeze reflex

The photic sneeze reflex is a reflex condition that causes sneezing in response to numerous stimuli, such as looking at bright lights or periocular injection. The condition affects 18–35% of the world's population, but its exact mechanism of action is not well understood; the photic sneeze reflex manifests itself in the form of uncontrollable sneezing in response to a stimulus which would not produce a sneeze in people without the trait. The sneezes occur in bursts of 1 to 10 sneezes, followed by a refractory period that can be as long as 24 hours. A photic sneeze results from exposure to a bright light and is the most common manifestation of the photic sneeze reflex; this reflex seems to be caused by a change in light intensity rather than by a specific wavelength of light. A study conducted by the School of Optometry at the University of Alabama at Birmingham found that females represent 67% of photic sneezers, Caucasians represent 94%; the study found statistically significant correlations between photic sneezing and the presence of a deviated nasal septum.

Further studies have revealed this mechanism to be inherited. During surgeries in and around the eye, such as corneal transplant surgery, the patient requires injection of a local anesthetic into the eye. In patients who show the photic sneeze reflex, an injection into the eye, such as that undergone in a retrobulbar or peribulbar block, can elicit a sneeze from the patient. During these procedures, the patient may be sedated prior to the periocular injection; the patient begins to sneeze just as the needle is inserted into the eye resulting in the anesthesiologist having to remove the needle before injecting the local anesthetic in order to avoid damaging the patient's eye. A condition called gustatory rhinitis can cause some individuals to sneeze after eating after the consumption of spicy foods. Stomach fullness is another example of a stimulus; those who exhibit this symptom or disorder, called snatiation, undergo uncontrollable fits of 3–15 sneezes after eating large meals that fill the stomach, regardless of the type of food eaten.

Snatiation is not believed to be an allergic reaction of any kind. Less well understood than photic sneezing and sneezing in response to periocular injection, the trait appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Sneezing does not present any particular risks to the individual, is more an annoyance than a risk of injury; the fits of sneezing brought about by the photic sneeze reflex can, have dangerous implications during certain scenarios and activities, such as operating a vehicle, or while undergoing operations and having bright lights directed towards the patient's face. The most universal risk of sneezing is the spread of disease. Bacterial infections can spread to susceptible uninfected people via the spread of microscopic organisms suspended in the droplets expelled by a sneeze. Bacteria which spread by sneezing include bacterial meningitis, strep throat, tuberculosis. Viral infections can be spread by sneezing; when a virus is expelled by a sneeze, its mucous membrane evaporates, the virus becomes a droplet nucleus which can be inhaled by another person, thus spreading the virulent infection.

Examples of virulent infections that spread by sneezing include measles, mumps and influenza. A fit of sneezing while operating a vehicle can cause the operator to lose control of that vehicle, resulting in injury to the person, damage to the vehicle and/or surroundings. In particular, photic sneezing poses a considerable risk to pilots, due to the frequent presence of bright sunlight and the precise reactions needed to control the aircraft. For the pilot of a fighter aircraft, if an uncontrollable fit of sneezing were to occur during aerial combat, the pilot could be incapacitated when his or her situational awareness needs to be greatest. A plane landing on an aircraft carrier or shoreline requires precise movements and quick reflexes; the reflection of the sun from surrounding water has a high probability of producing at least one photic sneeze for pilots who have the reflex. Any amount of sneezing while attempting to land could cause the pilot to lose control resulting in disaster. Uncontrollable fits of sneezing are common in patients under propofol sedation who undergo periocular or retrobulbar injection.

A sneeze by a sedated patient occurs upon insertion of a needle into or around their eye. The violent and uncontrollable movement of the head during a reflexive sneeze has potential to cause damage within the patient's eye if the needle is not removed before the sneeze occurs. There is much debate about the true cause and mechanism of the sneezing fits brought about by the photic sneeze reflex. Sneezing occurs in response to irritation in the nasal cavity, which results in an afferent nerve fiber signal propagating through the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve to the trigeminal nerve nuclei in the brainstem; the signal is interpreted in the trigeminal nerve nuclei, an efferent nerve fiber signal goes to different parts of the body, such as mucous glands and the thoracic diaphragm, thus producing a sneeze. The most obvious difference between a normal sneeze and a photic sneeze is the stimulus: normal sneezes occur due to irritation in the nasal cavity, while the photic sneeze can result from a wide variety of stimuli.

Some theories are below. There is a genetic factor that increases the probability of photic sneeze reflex; the C allele on the rs10427255 SNP is particularl