In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
Javagal Srinath is a former Indian cricketer and an ICC match referee. He is considered among India's finest fast bowlers, is the first Indian fast bowler to take more than 300 wickets in One Day Internationals. Srinath was a frontline fast bowler for the Indian cricket team until his retirement, the second Indian pace bowler to take 200 Test wickets. After Dev, he led the Indian fast-bowling attack for over 12 years. Srinath is India's second-highest ODI wicket-taker with 315, the first bowler to take 300 ODI wickets for India, he was the fastest 100-wicket taker in ODI. He took 44 wickets in the 1996, 1999 and 2003 Cricket World Cups. Srinath is the joint highest wicket-taker for India in World Cup competition with Zaheer Khan, who took the same number of wickets in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 tournaments. Srinath is the fastest Indian bowler to take 200, 250 and 300 wickets in ODI, the second-fastest Indian to reach 150 wickets, he is the leading wicket-taker at Sharjah Cricket Stadium. Srinath is one of eleven bowlers who took 300 wickets in one-day international cricket, the only Indian fast bowler to take 300 wickets.
Srinath retired from international cricket after the 2003 World Cup in South Africa. He was in eighth place with 701 points at his retirement. Srinath will be remembered as braveheart. Many bowlers like Kumble and Prasad, immensely benefitted from him bowling at other end as batsmen took more chances with them and giving their wickets in the process. Srinath was born to a brahmin family on 31 August 1969 in Mysore district and was attracted to cricket at an early age, he attended Marimallappa High School and college in Mysore, has a Bachelor of Engineering degree in instrumentation from Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering in Mysore. Srinath spent his first two years of college at the Malnad College of Engineering in Hassan, he married Jyothsna in 1999. Srinath caught the eye of former Indian Test batsman Gundappa Viswanath, a selector for the state team, during a club match, he made his first-class debut for Karnataka against Hyderabad in 1989–90, taking a hat-trick in the first innings.
Srinath followed this with wickets off successive balls in the second innings. He finished the season with 25 wickets in six matches, took another 20 the following season, his second season involved a display of reverse swing against Maharashtra at Nehru Stadium in Pune, taking 7/93 to dismiss the home team for 311 in response to a Karnataka total of 638 on a good batting track. Srinath took over 500 first-class wickets, he took 87 wickets that season, including 9 -- 76 against Glamorgan. Srinath played English county cricket with Leicestershire and Durham. After South Africa's tour of India in late 1996, Srinath traveled to South Africa; this was the only series in his career where speed-gun readings were available before his career-threatening 1997 rotator-cuff injury. Srinath made his One Day International debut in the Wills Trophy at Sharjah in 1991, he is India's most prolific wicket-taker at the World Cup. Srinath is India's highest wicket-taker in ODI matches as a fast bowler, the only Indian fast bowler to surpass 300 wickets in ODI matches.
The only other Indian bowler to achieve this feat is spinner Anil Kumble. Srinath played 11 ODI matches and two test matches in his debut year, took 14 ODI wickets for an average of 30.00. He was selected for the Indian cricket team for its 1991–92 tour of Australia. Making his test debut against Australia at Brisbane, Srinath took 3/59 as the third fast bowler and finished the tour with ten wickets at 55.30. With an opportunity to take the new ball against South Africa in Cape Town, he took an economical 4/33 in 27 overs and ended the tour with 12 wickets at 26.08. Because the wickets in India were conducive to spin, Srinath spent seven consecutive home tests watching from the sidelines as India fielded only two fast bowlers. In late 1994, with the retirement of Kapil Dev and three years after his international debut, Srinath played his first home test against the West Indies, he took five wickets and scored 60 in the second innings to be named Man of the Match, as India won by 96 runs. Srinath's increased opportunities coincided with an improvement in his batting, he scored two half-centuries in the series.
In the 1997–98 series against Australia, one of Srinath's deliveries was clocked at 149.6 kilometres per hour. According to Zimbabwe captain Alistair Campbell, Srinath was clocked at 157 kilometres per hour on 27 January 1997 in a game at Paarl between India and Zimbabwe: "We moved on to our second game against India, at Boland Bank Park. In all 236 was quite a decent score, as it wasn't the easiest of pitches to bat on, Srinath I think, bowled the quickest than any of our guys had seen, he bowled a quick spell early on quicker than Allan Donald. Grant Flower was hit on the thigh pad, when he came off he said he thought he had broken his leg". Campbell faced Lance Klusener and Alan Donald at their peak, found Srinath to be quicker, he and Grant Flower had faced Waqar Younis at his peak, Wasim Akram and the Pakistani fast bowlers before that. They played a full three-test series in January 1995, when they won their first test match (defeating Pakistan by an innings and 64 runs and scoring 544/4 decla
Robin Singh (cricketer)
Rabindra "Robin" Ramnarine Singh is a former Indian cricketer who represented India in one Test and 136 ODI between 1989 and 2001 as an all-rounder. He has coached the Indian Premier League's Mumbai Indians since 2010 and the Caribbean Premier League's Barbados Tridents since 2013, he coached the Deccan Chargers in the IPL's inaugural year. As a player, he was known for his fitness. Born in Trinidad to Indo-Trinidadian parents, Singh moved to India in 1984 and studied at Madras University during which he played club and college-level cricket, he helped Tamil Nadu win the Ranji Trophy in 1988, was one of the season's most consistent players. Tamil Nadu won the trophy after 33 long years and have not won it again since, he gave up his Trinidad and Tobago passport so he could become an Indian citizen and play for India's national cricket team. His real name is Rabindra Ramnarine Singh, he was born in Princes Town and Tobago, to Ramnarine and Savitri Singh on 14 September 1963, is of Indian descent.
His forefathers were from Ajmer. At the age of 19, Singh moved to Madras, where he earned a master's degree in economics at the University of Madras while beginning his cricket career, he resides in Chennai, with his wife Sujata and son Dhananjay, although his parents and siblings still live in Trinidad and Tobago. While in Trinidad, Singh captained the Trinidad youth cricket team in regional tournaments from 1982 to 1983, he represented the senior Trinidad cricket team in two one-day matches in 1983, during which he played alongside Phil Simmons, David Williams, Larry Gomes, Gus Logie, Rangy Nanan, Sheldon Gomes, Richard Gabriel. Singh started his first-class career for Tamil Nadu during the 1985–86 season. During his nearly two decade career, he was a genuine all-rounder for his club, making more than 6,000 runs and taking 172 wickets with his medium-fast bowling. Singh made his debut for the Indian national cricket team in a One Day International against the West Indies cricket team on 11 March 1989.
He played two one-day Internationals. The Indian team dropped Singh after the series, he played in domestic and overseas leagues for the next seven years, after which he secured a regular place on the Indian cricket team. Singh was recalled for the Titan Cup tournament in 1996, he remained a regular player in the One Day Internationals until 2001. Singh was known for his middle-to-lower order batting, medium-pace bowling, his ground fielding skills. Along with Mohammad Azharuddin he was considered as the best fielder in those times, he was known for his batting in closing overs, which made him an integral player during the 1999 Cricket World Cup. Throughout his career, Singh was considered a better fit for One Day matches. Singh began coaching soon after his retirement, his first coaching position was with the Indian under-19 cricket team. In 2004, he began coaching the Hong Kong national cricket team, helping it qualify for the 2004 Asia Cup. In 2006, Singh was appointed coach of the India A cricket team, where he coached cricketers such as Gautam Gambhir and Robin Uthappa.
Several cricketers whom Singh coached went on to play for the Indian national team. Singh was named the Indian national team fielding coach in 2007 and 2008 and was appointed the first head coach of the Deccan Chargers franchise in the Indian Premier League. Singh remained the fielding coach for the Indian national cricket team until October 2009 and is the batting coach of the Mumbai Indians, an Indian Premier League team, he helped the Mumbai Indians occupy the runner-up position during the 2010 IPL season and win the 2013 IPL season, the 2015 IPL season 2017 Indian Premier League, the 2013 Champions League Twenty20, the 2011 Champions League Twenty20. Singh coached the Khulna Division cricket team in the Bangladesh Premier League, where he helped Dwayne Smith and Andre Russell further their cricket skills. In 2012, the Uva cricket team, under Singh's coaching, won the Sri Lanka Premier League tournament, he is the coach of the Barbados Tridents. Since its inception, the Tridents have won once, have played two finals and a semifinal.
Robin Singh is the Head Coach and Mentor of City Kaitak, which finished as the runners-up of the 2017 edition of Hong Kong T20 Blitz. He was the Head Coach of Karaikudi Kaalai, in the Tamil Nadu Premier League, between 2016 and 2017, he coached the Kerala Kings, who were crowned as the Champions of the inaugural edition of the T10 League. He moved teams in 2018 to a new franchise, Northern Warriors for the second edition of the T10 League and took that team to Victory in the tournament, making it back to back titles albeit with 2 different teams!! Singh has helped coach the senior and junior USA cricket teams. In 2011, Singh coached the United States women's cricket team at the World Cup Qualifier Tournament in Bangladesh. Robin Singh launched his academy, Robin Singh Sports Academy in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which aims at providing state of the art facilities for the youngsters; the mission of his academy is to be a one-stop destination for all sports in the UAE expanding to cover the GCC and to help identify and nurture sportsmen and women to become champions and ambassadors for their country, contribute towards a healthier community.
Robin Singh at ESPNcricinfo Robin Singh at CricketArchive
Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar is a former Indian international cricketer and a former captain of the Indian national team, regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. He is the highest run scorer of all time in International cricket. Tendulkar took up cricket at the age of eleven, made his Test debut on 15 November 1989 against Pakistan in Karachi at the age of sixteen, went on to represent Mumbai domestically and India internationally for close to twenty-four years, he is the only player to have scored one hundred international centuries, the first batsman to score a double century in a ODI, the holder of the record for the most number of runs in both Test and ODI, the only player to complete more than 30,000 runs in international cricket. He is colloquially known as Little Master or Master Blaster, referred to as the God of Cricket by Indian cricket followers. In 2001, Sachin Tendulkar became the first batsman to complete 10,000 ODI runs in his 259 innings. In 2002, halfway through his career, Wisden Cricketers' Almanack ranked him the second greatest Test batsman of all time, behind Don Bradman, the second greatest ODI batsman of all time, behind Viv Richards.
In his career, Tendulkar was a part of the Indian team that won the 2011 World Cup, his first win in six World Cup appearances for India. He had been named "Player of the Tournament" at the 2003 edition of the tournament, held in South Africa. In 2013, he was the only Indian cricketer included in an all-time Test World XI named to mark the 150th anniversary of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack. Tendulkar received the Arjuna Award in 1994 for his outstanding sporting achievement, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in 1997, India's highest sporting honour, the Padma Shri and Padma Vibhushan awards in 1999 and 2008 India's fourth and second highest civilian awards. After a few hours of his final match on 16 November 2013, the Prime Minister's Office announced the decision to award him the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, he is the youngest recipient to date and the first sportsperson to receive the award. He won the 2010 Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy for cricketer of the year at the ICC awards.
In 2012, Tendulkar was nominated to the upper house of the Parliament of India. He was the first sportsperson and the first person without an aviation background to be awarded the honorary rank of group captain by the Indian Air Force. In 2012, he was named an Honorary Member of the Order of Australia. In 2010, Time magazine included Sachin in its annual Time 100 list as one of the "Most Influential People in the World". In December 2012, Tendulkar announced his retirement from ODIs, he retired from Twenty20 cricket in October 2013 and subsequently retired from all forms of cricket on 16 November 2013 after playing his 200th Test match, against the West Indies in Mumbai's Wankhede Stadium. Tendulkar played 664 international cricket matches in scoring 34,357 runs. Tendulkar was born at Nirmal Nursing Home in Dadar, Bombay on 24 April 1973 to a Maharashtrian Rajapur Saraswat Brahmin family, his father, Ramesh Tendulkar, was a well-known Marathi novelist & poet and his mother, worked in the insurance industry.
Ramesh named Tendulkar after Sachin Dev Burman. Tendulkar has three elder siblings: two half-brothers Nitin and Ajit, a half-sister Savita, they were Ramesh's children by his first wife. Tendulkar spent his formative years in the Sahitya Sahawas Cooperative Housing Society in Bandra; as a young boy, Tendulkar was considered a bully, picked up fights with new children in his school. He showed an interest in tennis, idolising John McEnroe. To help curb his mischievous and bullying tendencies, Ajit introduced the young Sachin to cricket in 1984, he introduced him to Ramakant Achrekar, a famous cricket coach and a club cricketer of repute, at Shivaji Park, Dadar. In the first meeting, the young Sachin did not play his best. Ajit told Achrekar that he was feeling self-conscious due to the coach observing him, was not displaying his natural game. Ajit requested the coach to give him another chance at playing, but watch while hiding behind a tree; this time, Sachin unobserved, played much better and was accepted at Achrekar's academy.
Achrekar was impressed with Tendulkar's talent and advised him to shift his schooling to Sharadashram Vidyamandir High School, a school at Dadar which had a dominant cricket team and had produced many notable cricketers. Prior to this, Tendulkar had attended the Indian Education Society's New English School in Bandra, he was coached under the guidance of Achrekar at Shivaji Park in the mornings and evenings. Tendulkar would practice for hours on end in the nets. If he became exhausted, Achrekar would put a one-rupee coin on the top of the stumps, the bowler who dismissed Tendulkar would get the coin. If Tendulkar passed the whole session without getting dismissed, the coach would give him the coin. Tendulkar now considers the 13 coins he won as some of his most prized possessions, he moved in with his aunt and uncle, who lived near Shivaji Park, during this period, due to his hectic schedule. Meanwhile, at school, he developed a reputation as a child prodigy, he had become a common conversation point in local cricketing circles, where there were suggestions that he would become one of the greats.
Sachin featured in the school team in the Matunga Gujarati Seva Mandal Shield. Besides school cricket, he played club cricket representing John Bright Cricket Club in Bombay's premier club cricket tournament, the Kanga League, went on to play for the Cricket Club of India. In 1987, at the
Adyar or Adayar is a large neighbourhood in south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is located on the southern banks of the Adyar River, it is bounded by the Buckingham Canal to the west, Tiruvanmiyur to the south, Besant Nagar to the east. Adyar is one of the costliest areas in Chennai with property values four times the value of similar sized properties in the northern part of Chennai; the neighborhood gets its name from the Adyar River. Adyar and the neighbouring Guindy had been used as hunting grounds by British officials of Fort St. George from the 1680s onwards though Adyar is first mentioned as a suburb of Madras only in a map from the year 1740 when the British purchased the village and integrated it with the Madras Presidency. Adyar started to grow at the turn of the 20th century following the founding of the headquarters of the Theosophical Society by Mrs. Helena Blavatsky here in 1883. Following the establishment of the Theosophical Society headquarters, the Kalakshetra, a cultural organisation to promote traditional arts and culture was established by Rukmini Devi Arundale at Adyar in 1936.
The 1931 census records Adyar as a zamindari village in Kancheepuram district. Adyar was included within the Chennai Corporation limits in 1948. A typical scene of charming Adyar, 1905. "Courtesy of Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries." As of 2018, Adyar zone had a green cover of 30.1 percent, as against the city's 14.9 percent average. This was the highest green cover recorded in the city; the Mass Rapid Transit System runs through Adyar and has three stations within the neighbourhood - Kasturbai Nagar, Indira Nagar and Thiruvanmiyur. Adyar has a bus depot operating inter-city buses; the Theosophical Society, is headquartered in Adyar. The campus, located on the south bank of the Adyar river provides a calm environment for quiet contemplation on comparative religion; the Adyar estuary has been home to over a hundred species of birds but has been affected by urbanization. The Adyar Eco Park was set up by the Government of Tamil Nadu in January 2011 to restore this fragile eco-system to its natural state.
The Elliot's beach in nearby Besant Nagar is the nearest point to the sea, a popular recreation spot. Adyar is home to Adyar Cancer Institute and Central Leather Research Institute, the world's largest leather research institute. Fortis Malar, one of the best speciality hospitals in Chennai, is located in Adyar. IIT Madras, Anna University, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Asian College of Journalism and the Technical Teachers Training Institute are all located in adjacent neighbourhoods. Schools in the neighbourhood include the oldest and a big campus school in Adyar St Patrick's Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School, started in 1875, St Michael's Academy Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bala Vidya Mandir, The Hindu Senior Secondary School, Bharath Senior Secondary School, Sri Sankara Senior Secondary School, Sishya, St Johns English School & Junior College, The School K. F. I. Maple Bear Canadian Preschool, Indus Early Learning Centre, The Chennai School; the École Franco-Indienne Sishya is co-located with Sishya.
Sub-localities of Adyar include Gandhi Nagar, Kasturibai Nagar, Nehru Nagar, Indira Nagar, Venkatarathnam Nagar, Padmanabha Nagar, Bhaktavatsalam Nagar, Parameshwari Nagar, Jeevaratnam Nagar, Shastri Nagar, Karpagam Gardens, Besant Nagar and Urban Palette
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
History of cricket in India from 2000–01
This article describes the history of cricket in India from the 2000–01 season to the present. The BCCI tinkered with the Duleep Trophy in the 2002–03 season; the original zonal teams were replaced by five new teams called Elite A, Elite B, Elite C, Plate A and Plate B. These teams were constructed from the new Elite Group and Plate Group divisions, introduced into the Ranji Trophy that season. However, this format lasted for only one season as it was felt that the new teams lacked a sense of identity. From the 2003–04 season, the five original zonal teams competed along with a sixth guest team, a touring foreign team; the first guest team was England A in 2003–04. The Indian Premier League has become popular in India since its inaugural in 2008. Mumbai has continued its dominance of the domestic scene into the 21st century by winning the Ranji Trophy five times in the first decade. Noted Indian cricketers in the 21st century include Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Rahul Dravid, Sourav Ganguly, Anil Kumble, Virender Sehwag, Sachin Tendulkar, Yuvraj Singh, VVS Laxman, Gautam Gambhir and Virat Kohli.
India won the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 in 2007. India was the first Sub-continental team to win a Test match at the WACA in January 2008 against Australia. Indian cricket team under the leadership of Mahendra Singh Dhoni and brilliant performances from Gautam Gambhir & Yuvraj Singh went on to win the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 and became the first team in history to win the Cup at home. 2000–01 – Baroda 2001–02 – Railways 2002–03 – Mumbai 2003–04 – Mumbai 2004–05 – Railways 2005–06 – Uttar Pradesh 2006–07 – Mumbai 2007–08 – Delhi 2008–09 – Mumbai 2009–10 – Mumbai 2010–11 – Rajasthan 2011–12 – Rajasthan 2012–13 – Mumbai 2013–14 – Karnataka 2014–15 – Karnataka 2000–01 – North Zone 2001–02 – West Zone 2002–03 – Elite C 2003–04 – North Zone 2004–05 – Central Zone 2005–06 – West Zone 2006–07 – North Zone 2007–08 – North Zone 2008–09 – West Zone 2009–10 – West Zone 2010–11 – South Zone 2011–12 – East Zone 2012–13 – East Zone 2013–14 – North Zone & South Zone Shared 2014–15 – Central Zone 1st Test at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi – India won by 7 wickets 2nd Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – match drawn 1st Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – Australia won by 10 wickets 2nd Test at Eden Gardens, Calcutta – India won by 171 runs 3rd Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – India won by 2 wickets 1st Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – India won by 10 wickets 2nd Test at Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad – match drawn 3rd Test at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore – match drawn 1st Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – India won by an innings and 101 runs 2nd Test at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi – India won by 4 wickets 1st Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – India won by an innings and 112 runs 2nd Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – India won by 8 wickets 3rd Test at Eden Gardens, Kolkata – match drawn 1st Test at Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad – match drawn 2nd Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – match drawn 1st Test at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore – Australia won by 217 runs 2nd Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – match drawn 3rd Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – Australia won by 342 runs 4th Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – India won by 13 runs 1st Test at Modi Stadium, Kanpur – match drawn 2nd Test at Eden Gardens, Kolkata – India won by 8 wickets 1st Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – match drawn 2nd Test at Eden Gardens, Kolkata – India won by 195 runs 3rd Test at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore – Pakistan won by 168 runs Limited overs tour only.
1st Test at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai – match drawn 2nd Test at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi – India won by 188 runs 3rd Test at Sardar Patel Stadium, Ahmedabad – India won by 259 runs 1st Test at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur – match drawn 2nd Test at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali – India won by 9 wickets 3rd Test at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai – England won by 212 runs Limited overs tour only. Limited overs tour only. CricketArchive – Itinerary of Events in India