Yazd also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, it is 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the "City of Windcatchers" from its many examples, it is very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars, yakhchals, Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth, silk weaving, Persian Cotton Candy, its time-honored confectioneries. Yazd is known as City of Bicycles, because of its old history of bike riders, the highest amount of bicycle per capita in Iran, it is reported that bicycle culture is entered and developed from Yazd, in contacting with the European visitors and tourists in the last century. The name is derived from a Sassanid ruler of Persia; the city was a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times.
The word yazd means God. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian after its conquest, Islam only became the dominant religion in the city; because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of access, Yazd remained immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persian Empire during the Mongol invasion. In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo. In the book The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way: It is a good and noble city, has a great amount of trade, they weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can ride through.
There are wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom, called Kerman. Yazd served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq; the Friday mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans. Under the rule of the Safavid, some people migrated from Yazd and settled in an area, today on the Iran-Afghanistan border; the settlement, named Yazdi, was located in what is now Farah City in the province of the same name in Afghanistan. Today, people from this area speak with an accent similar to that of the people of Yazd. One of the notable things about Yazd is its family-centered culture. According to official statistics from Iran's National Organization for Civil Registration, Yazd is among the three cities with the lowest divorce rates in Iran.
The majority of the people of Yazd are Persians, they speak Persian with Yazdi accent different from Persian accent of Tehran. The majority of people in Yazd are Muslims. There is a sizable population of Zoroastrians in the city. In 2013, Sepanta Niknam was elected to the city council of Yazd and became the first Zoroastrian councillor in Iran. There was once a large Jewish-Yazdi community, after the creation of Israel, many have moved there for varying reasons. Former president of Israel Moshe Katsav is an example; the Pir-e-Naraki sanctuary is one the important pilgrimage destinations for Zoroastrians where an annual congregation is held and frequent visits are made during the year. The story of the last Persian prince to come to Yazd before the arrival of Islam adds to its importance; such a transformation has occurred several times. Several other city traditions are the Muslim parades and gatherings, which are processions called azadari held to commemorate the events experienced by the main Islamic martyrs and other important figures.
These huge public gatherings created a series of spaces which, since most are near important urban monuments, are used at other times as hubs from which visitors can tour the main spots in the city. According to the Iranian Census of 2011 the population of Yazd is 486,152 people from 168,528 families, which includes 297,546 men and 285,136 women. Yazd is an important centre of Persian architecture; because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world, Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran. To deal with the hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent wind towers and large underground areas; the city is home to prime examples of yakhchals, which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is one of the largest cities built entirely out of adobe. Yazd's heritage as a center of Zoroastrianism is important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, the city has an ateshkadeh which holds a fire, kept alight continuously since 470 AD.
Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 2
The Achaemenid Empire called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, the development of civil services and a large professional army; the empire's successes inspired similar systems in empires. By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the south-western portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis, which came to be their heartland. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, establishing the Achaemenid Empire.
Alexander the Great, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the empire by 330 BC. Upon Alexander's death, most of the empire's former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time; the Iranian elites of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire. The Achaemenid Empire is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon; the historical mark of the empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social and religious influences as well. Despite the lasting conflict between the two states, many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by or allied to the Persian kings; the impact of Cyrus's edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, the empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China.
The empire set the tone for the politics and history of Iran. The term Achaemenid means "of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes". Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, a vassal of Assyria. Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here....: the Pasargadae and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder -the Dai, Dropici, being nomadic; the Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The name "Persia" is a Greek and Latin pronunciation of the native word referring to the country of the people originating from Persis; the Persians were an Iranian people who arrived in what is today Iran c. 1000 BC and settled a region including north-western Iran, the Zagros Mountains and Persis alongside the native Elamites.
For a number of centuries they fell under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia. The Persians were nomadic pastoralists in the western Iranian Plateau and by 850 BC were calling themselves the Parsa and their shifting territory Parsua, for the most part localized around Persis; the Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as the Medes, another group of Iranian peoples, established a short-lived empire and played a major role in the overthrow of the Assyrian. The Achaemenids were rulers of the Elamite city of Anshan near the modern city of Marvdasht. There are conflicting accounts of the identities of the earliest Kings of Anshan. According to the Cyrus Cylinder the kings of Anshan were Teispes, Cyrus I, Cambyses I and Cyrus II known as Cyrus the Great, who created the empire. In Herodotus' Histories, he writes that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses I and Mandane of Media, the daughter of Astyages, the king of the Median Empire. Cyrus revolted against the Median Empire in 553 BC, in 550 BC succeeded in defeating the Medes, capturing Astyages and taking the Median capital city of Ecbatana.
Once in control of Ecbatana, Cyrus styled himself as the successor to Astyages and assumed control of the entire empire. By inheriting Astyages' empire, he inherited the territorial conflicts the Medes had had with both Lydia and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. King Croesus of Lydia sought to take advantage of the new international situation by advancing into what had been Median territory in Asia Minor. Cyrus led a counterattack which not only fought off Croesus' armies, but led to the capture of Sardis and the fall of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC. Cyrus placed Pactyes in charge of collecting tribute in Lydia and left, but once Cyrus had left Pactyes instigated a rebellion against Cyrus. Cyrus sent the Median general Mazares to deal with the rebellion, Pactyes was captured. Mazares, aft
Zāyandé-Rūd or Pāyanderūd spelled as Zayandeh-Rood or Zayanderood, is the largest river of the Iranian Plateau in central Iran. The Zayandeh starts in the Zard-Kuh subrange of the Zagros Mountains in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, it flows 400 kilometres eastward before ending in the Gavkhouni swamp, a seasonal salt lake, southeast of Isfahan city. The Zayandeh used to have significant flow all year long, unlike many of Iran's rivers which are seasonal, but today runs dry due to water extraction before reaching the city of Esfahan. In the early 2010s, the lower reaches of the river dried out after several years of seasonal dry-outs; the Zayandeh River basin has an area of 41,500 square kilometres, altitude from 3,974 metres to 1,466 metres, an average rain fall of 130 millimetres and a monthly average temperature of 3 °C to 29 °C. There are 2,700 square kilometres of irrigated land in the Zayandeh River basin, with water derived from the nine main hydraulic units of the Zayandeh River, wells and springs in lateral valleys.
Zayandeh River water gave life to the people of central Iran in Isfahan and Yazd provinces. Before the drying-out, water diverted per person was 240 litres per day in urban areas and 150 litres per day in villages. In the 1970s, the flow of the river was estimated at 1.2 cubic kilometres per annum, or 38 cubic metres per second. People have lived on the banks of Zayandeh River for thousands of years; the earliest evidence of human occupation along the River is found in a cave site called Qaleh Bozi near Dizicheh at SW of Isfahan. More than 40,000 years ago, groups of Paleolithic hunters used Qaleh Bozi caves as shelter for seasonal or temporary occupations and left their stone tools and bones of hunted animals. An ancient prehistoric culture, the Zayandeh River Civilization, flourished along the banks of the Zayandeh in the 6th Millennium BC. Zayandeh River crosses the city of a major cultural and economic center of Iran. In the 17th century, Shaikh Bahai and built a system of canals, to distribute Zayandeh water to Isfahan's suburbs.
Water from the Zayandeh River helped the growth of the population and the economy, helped established Isfahan as an influential center, gave a green landscape to Isfahan, a city in the middle of a desert. The Zayandeh river bed is spanned by many historical Safavid era bridges, the river used to flow through many parks. Arthur Pope and his wife Phyllis Ackerman are buried in a small tomb in pleasant surroundings in its banks. Richard Frye has requested to be buried there; until the 1960s in Isfahan Province the distribution of water followed the Tomar, a document claimed to date from the 16th Century. The Tomar divided the flow of the Zayandeh River into 33 parts which were specifically allotted to the eight major districts within the region. At the district level the water flow was divided either on a time basis, or by the use of variable weirs, so that the proportion could be maintained regardless of the height of the flow. For centuries Isfahan city had been an oasis settlement, noted for its surrounding fertile lands and prosperity.
Until the 1960s industrial demand for water was minimal, which enabled the scarce water resources to be utilized for agriculture. With a growing population within the basin, rising standards of living within the city, the pressure on water resources increased until the division of water Tomar was no longer feasible; the creation of large steel works and other new industries demanded water. The Chadegan Reservoir dam project in 1972 was a major hydroelectric project to help with stabilizing water flow and generate electricity; the dam was named Shah Abbas Dam after Shah Abbas I, the most influential king of the Safavid dynasty, but it was changed to Zayandeh Dam after the Islamic revolution in 1979. Since 1972, the Chadegan Reservoir has helped prevent seasonal flooding of the Zayandeh River. Water discharge is increased during Persian New Year to allow the river to flow through Esfahan once more during the public holiday. 80% of the Zayandeh's extracted water is used for agriculture, 10% for human consumption, 7% for industry and 3% for other uses.
There have been a number of tunnel projects to redirect water to the Zayandeh. These have helped provide water for the growing population and new industries in both Isfahan and Yazd provinces. While the drying-out of the lower reaches of the Zayandeh River has been attributed to drought, the main reasons are man-made. Poor planning and populist politics have led to years of mismanagement and overuse which resulted in seasonal dry-outs and caused the river to dry out before reaching Isfahan. There are several old bridges over the Zayandeh River; the oldest, built in the 5th century AD, is still in use as a pedestrian crossing in Sharestan village. Bridges on Zayandeh River in City of Esfahan: In the section of the Zayandeh River crossing Esfahan, parks, paddle boats and traditional cafes and restaurants amongst the rest of Esfahan rich cultural heritage, are major to
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as related languages; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed to various forms of art and science, own one of the world's most prominent literatures. In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the eastern Caucasus, albeit assimilated, are referred to as Tats; however the terms Tajik and Persian were synonymous and were used interchangeably, many of the most influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran's present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.
In historical contexts in English, "Persians" may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. In the Bible, it is given as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. A Greek folk etymology connected the name to a legendary character in Greek mythology. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians themselves knew the story, as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Although Persis was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources and used as an official name for all of Iran for many years. Thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country; some medieval and early modern Islamic sources used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples, including the speakers of the Khwarezmian language, the Mazanderani language, the Old Azeri language.
10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as "descendants of the ancient Persians". On March 21, 1935, the former king of Iran, Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran, the native name of the country, in formal correspondence. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent; the earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, an Assyrian inscription from the mid-9th century BC, found at Nimrud. The inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC, settled to the northwest of modern-day Iran.
They were dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region. However, they played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the Medes, another branch of this population, founded the unified empire of Media as the region's dominant cultural and political power in c. 625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a vassal state to the central Median power. In c. 552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c. 550 BC. They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen; the Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and the opulent city of Persepolis.
The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is a reciprocal cultural exchange. Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars; the empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. During the Achaemenid era, Persian colonists settled in Asia Minor. In Lydia, near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in
Mardavij, was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935. Born to a Zoroastrian family native to Gilan, Mardavij was an anti-Muslim, who sought to revive the Sasanian Empire, conquered in the 7th century by the Muslims, he first started his career by joining the army of his kinsman Asfar ibn Shiruya. Mardavij, however betrayed and killed him, conquering much of Jibal, he set out to conquer Hamadan and Isfahan from the Abbasid Caliphate, thereafter declared himself king of Iran, making Isfahan his capital. He defeated the Daylamite military leader Makan ibn Kaki, conquered Tabaristan in 932. By 934, his authority was acknowledged as far as Ahvaz. However, his goal of recreating the Persian Empire was ruined when he was murdered by his own Turkish slaves in 935. Mardavij was born ca. in 890 in Gilan. Mardavij's mother was a sister of a Gilaki ruler. Mardavij belonged to the Arghich tribe, which claimed to be descended from Arghush Farhadan, king of Gilan who lived during the time of Kay Khosrow.
Mardavij grew up in an environment where memories of the glories of the Persian Empire were alive in the Iranian culture. According to the 10th-century Arab historian al-Masudi, most of the Daylamite and Gilaki leaders, who were Zoroastrian and pagan, had become atheists. Mardavij was one of the many Gilaki leaders that entered into the service of the Alids, after establishing their rule over Tabaristan and Daylam. Around 913, Mardavij joined the army of Asfar ibn Shiruya, a military leader from Lahijan, who served the Zaydids of Tabaristan. In 930, Asfar invaded the domains of the Zaydi Abu Muhammad Hasan ibn Qasim. During the invasion, Mardavij managed to wound Abu Muhammad near Amol, thus avenging his maternal uncle Harusindan, killed by the hands of the Alids; the army of Asfar marched towards Ray, where they defeated the Daylamite general Makan ibn Kaki, who fled to Daylam. Asfar managed to conquer Tabaristan, captured Qazvin and Zanjan, he appointed Mardavij as the governor of Zanjan. In 930, Mardavij along with Asfar's brother, were ordered to capture Tarom, the capital of the Sallarid ruler Muhammad bin Musafir.
During the siege, Mardavij, on the urging of Makan and Muhammad, betrayed Asfar by revolting against him. With the aid of Muhammad and Makan, Mardavij defeated and killed Shirzad, including other members of his tribe, he marched towards Qazvin, the residence of Asfar. However, Asfar managed to flee. Mardavij thus founded the Ziyarid dynasty, became ruler of Asfar's former territories, which included, he is said to have worn a "crown of Anushirvan" at his court. In the same year, Makan managed to defeat Mardavij, recover Tabaristan. Makan extended his rule over most of Gurgan and take possession of Nishapur in western Khurasan, which he was forced to abandon in 931, bowing to pressure by the Samanid ruler Nasr II. In 931, Mardavij sent an army against Makan, but the latter defeated Mardavij's forces in a first engagement in 931. After Makan's return to Tabaristan from Nishapur, Mardavij launched an attack that conquered Tabaristan. Mardavij aggressively began expanding his domains, by attacking Asfar, now residing in Hamadan after his disastrous defeat.
In 931, Mardavij managed to kill Asfar. He began capturing the Abbasid cities of Hamadan and Kashan, in Isfahan, which became his capital, he appointed his brother Vushmgir as the governor of Amol. Mardavij planned to conquer Baghdad, remove the caliphate, be crowned in Ctesiphon and restore the Persian empire. Just after Mardavij's victory, Ali ibn Buya, along with his two brothers Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya, managed defect to Mardavij's side just as he was preparing to undertake the conquest to the south of the Alborz mountains as far as Qazvin. Not long afterwards Mardavij granted Ali administrative rule over Karaj, a strategically important town situated near modern Bahramabad. While making a stop in Ray on his way to Karaj, Ali was warned by Mardavij's vizier al-'Amid that Mardavij was planning to eliminate him. Hurriedly leaving Ray, he took over Karaj. In 933, Mardavij made peace treaty with the Samanid ruler Nasr II. Mardavij began to focus on western Iran, where his troops managed to conquer as far as Ahvaz, forced Ali, now in Shiraz, to once again acknowledge his authority.
Mardavij had a golden throne with jewels, a tunic, a golden crown made. His crown was the same shape of the crown of the Sasanian king Khosrow I, he had a few silver thrones made for his best generals. Rumours had spread that Mardavij was planning to march to Baghdad and destroy the Abbasid Caliphate, that he had made an alliance with the Qarmatians of Bahrain. In January 935, shortly before Nowruz festivities, Mardavij was assassinated by his Turkish slaves, whom he had treated badly, while favoring his Daylamite/Gilaki troops. After his assassination, many of his troops entered the service of the Abbasids, while some others joined Ali, who founded the Buyid dynasty, had taken over Mardavij possessions in central and southern Iran. Mardavij's brother Vushmgir succeeded him in northern Iran. Mardavij was buried in Gonbad-e Mardaviz, a place located in the north east of Amin Abbad Borough in the city of Rey, south of Tehran. Madelung, W.. "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge Hi