Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continually-operating law school in the United States and is considered to be one of the most prestigious in the world. The school is ranked third by the U. S. News & World and its acceptance rate was 15. 4% in the 2013–14 admissions cycle, and its yield rate of 66. 2% was the second-highest of any law school in the United States. It is ranked first in the 2016 QS World University Rankings, Harvard Law admitted 16. 5% of applicants in its most recent class, compared to 9. 2% at Yale and 11. 2% at Stanford. With a current enrollment of 1,990, HLS has about as many students as its three closest-ranked peer institutions, first-ranked Yale, second-ranked Stanford, and fourth-ranked Chicago, combined. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of approximately 80 students, Harvards uniquely large class size and its prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world.
According to Harvard Laws 2015 ABA-required disclosures,95. 33% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law Schools founding is linked to the funding of Harvards first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world, the current dean of Harvard Law School is Martha Minow, who assumed the role on July 1,2009. The law school has 328 faculty members, Harvard Law Schools founding is traced to the establishment of a law department at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation, William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920. The University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, and closed during the Civil War. Or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best.
”The value of the land, when fully liquidated in 1809, was $2,938, the Harvard Corporation allocated $400 from the income generated by those funds to create the Royall Professorship of Law in 1815. The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan, royalls Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States. The Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto, in March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling, nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college, endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called Dane Law School, in 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice, at Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools
Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the business school of the University of Pennsylvania, a private Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Wharton was established in 1881 through a donation from Joseph Wharton and is the world’s first collegiate school of business, Wharton offers a Ph. D. program and houses or co-sponsors several diploma programs either alone or in conjunction with the other schools at the university. Whartons MBA program is ranked No.1 in the according to Business Insider and is tied with Harvard Business School for the No.1 rank in the United States according to U. S. News & World Report. Meanwhile, Whartons MBA for Executives and undergraduate programs are ranked No.1 in the United States by the same publication. According to U. S. News & World Report, MBA graduates of Wharton earn an average $158,058 first year compensation, according to the same publication, Wharton produces the most CEOs of the 100 top companies on the Fortune 500 list.
Joseph Wharton, a native Philadelphian, was a leader in industrial metallurgy who built his fortune through the American Nickel Company and Bethlehem Steel Corporation. After two years of planning, Wharton in 1881 founded the Wharton School of Finance and Economy through a $100,000 initial pledge, the school was meant to train future leaders to conduct corporations and public organizations in a rapidly evolving industrial era. The school was renamed the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, in 1902, early on, the Wharton School faculty was tightly connected to an influential group of businessmen and lawyers that made up the larger Philadelphia School of Political Economy. The faculty incorporated social sciences into the Wharton curriculum, as the field of business was still under development, Albert S. Bolles, a lawyer, served as Whartons first professor, and the schools Industrial Research Unit was established in 1921. Wharton professor George W. Taylor is credited with founding the field of study known as industrial relations.
He served in several capacities in the government, most notably as a mediator and arbitrator. During his career, Taylor settled more than 2,000 strikes, Wharton professor Wroe Alderson is widely recognized as the most important marketing theorist of the twentieth century and the father of modern marketing. Wharton professor Paul Green is considered to be the “father of conjoint analysis” for his discovery of the tool for quantification of market research. Wharton professor Solomon S. Huebner is known widely as the father of insurance education and he originated the concept of human life value, which became a standard method of calculating insurance value and need. In 1946, after ENIAC was created at Penn, Wharton created the first multidisciplinary programs in management with the School of Engineering. The Wharton Schools first business professor was an attorney, Albert Bolles, at the time, there were no other business schools and no business professors could be recruited elsewhere. Bolles, a lawyer by education and training, and business journalist by career, Bolles started his career as a lawyer in Connecticut in the second half of the 19th century.
After resigning from his law firm, he started pursuing a new career in journalism and was promoted to the editor role of Bankers Magazine
Ralph Johnson Bunche was an American political scientist and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Israel. He was the first African American to be so honored in the history of the prize and he was involved in the formation and administration of the United Nations. In 1963, he was awarded the Medal of Freedom by President John F. Kennedy, for more than two decades, Bunche served as chair of the Department of Political Science at Howard University, where he taught generations of students. Bunche was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1903 or 1904 and his father Fred Bunche was a barber and his mother, Olive Agnes, was an amateur musician, from a large and talented family. Her siblings included Charlie and Ethel Johnson and his maternal grandfather, Thomas Nelson Johnson, was mixed-race African American, the son of Eleanor Madden and her husband. Eleanor was the daughter of an African-American slave mother and Irish planter father. Thomas Nelson Johnson graduated from Shurtleff College in Alton, Illinois in 1875, in September 1875 he married Lucy Taylor, one of his students.
Genealogist Paul Heinegg thinks that Fred Bunche were probably descended from the South Carolina branch of the family and he said that the censuses of 1900 and 1910 for Detroit list several members of the Bunch family who were born in South Carolina, but Fred Bunch was not among them. He believes that Bunche was descended from Bunch ancestors established as people of color in Virginia before the American Revolution. There were men of the Bunch surname in South Carolina by the end of the 18th century, the Bunch/Bunche surname was extremely rare. Several generations of the Bunch men, free men of color, married white women colonists from the British Isles, when Ralph was a child, his family moved to Toledo, where his father looked for work. They returned to Detroit in 1909 after his sister Grace was born, with the help of their maternal aunt and their father did not live with the family again after Ohio and had not been a good provider. But he followed them when they moved to New Mexico, because of the declining health of his mother and uncle, Ralph moved with his maternal grandmother, Lucy Taylor Johnson, to Albuquerque, New Mexico in 1915.
His mother died in 1917, his uncle committed suicide three months later, in 1918, Lucy Taylor Johnson moved with the two Bunche grandchildren to the South Central neighborhood of Los Angeles, which was mostly white. Fred Bunche remarried, and Ralph never saw him again, Bunche was a brilliant student, a debater, and the valedictorian of his graduating class at Jefferson High School. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, and graduated cum laude. Using the money his community raised for his studies and a scholarship at Harvard University. To help with living expenses at Harvard, Bunche sought a job at a local bookstore, the owner offered him a part-time job, and Bunche ran the store to his employers satisfaction
W. E. B. Du Bois
William Edward Burghardt W. E. B. Du Bois was an American sociologist, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909, Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation and he referred to this group as the Talented Tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership. Racism was the target of Du Boiss polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws. His cause included people of color everywhere, particularly Africans and Asians in colonies and he was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for independence of African colonies from European powers.
Du Bois made several trips to Europe and Asia, after World War I, he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread bigotry in the United States military. Du Bois was a prolific author and he wrote one of the first scientific treatises in the field of American sociology, and he published three autobiographies, each of which contains insightful essays on sociology and history. In his role as editor of the NAACPs journal The Crisis, Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, and he was generally sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life. He was an ardent peace activist and advocated nuclear disarmament, the United States Civil Rights Act, embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life, was enacted a year after his death. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23,1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, to Alfred, Mary Silvina Burghardts family was part of the very small free black population of Great Barrington and had long owned land in the state.
She was descended from Dutch and English ancestors, William Du Boiss maternal great-great-grandfather was Tom Burghardt, a slave, who was held by the Dutch colonist Conraed Burghardt. Tom briefly served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and his son Jack Burghardt was the father of Othello Burghardt, who was the father of Mary Silvina Burghardt. William Du Boiss paternal great-grandfather was James Du Bois of Poughkeepsie, New York, One of James mixed-race sons was Alexander. He traveled and worked in Haiti, where he fathered a son, Alexander returned to Connecticut, leaving Alfred in Haiti with his mother. Sometime before 1860, Alfred Du Bois emigrated to the United States and he married Mary Silvina Burghardt on February 5,1867, in Housatonic. Alfred left Mary in 1870, two years after their son William was born, Mary Burghardt Du Bois moved with her son back to her parents house in Great Barrington until he was five. She worked to support her family, until she suffered a stroke in the early 1880s, Great Barrington had a majority European American community, who treated Du Bois generally well
Frederick Douglass was an African-American social reformer, orator and statesman. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders arguments that slaves lacked the capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave. After the Civil War, Douglass remained an active campaigner against slavery and wrote his last autobiography, First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, it covered events during and after the Civil War. Douglass actively supported womens suffrage, and held public offices. Douglass was a believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, Native American. He was a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, one biographer argues, The most influential African American of the nineteenth century, Douglass made a career of agitating the American conscience. He spoke and wrote on behalf of a variety of causes, womens rights, peace, land reform, free public education.
But he devoted the bulk of his time, immense talent and these were the central concerns of his long reform career. Douglass understood that the struggle for emancipation and equality demanded forceful, and he recognized that African Americans must play a conspicuous role in that struggle. Less than a month before his death, when a black man solicited his advice to an African American just starting out in the world, Douglass replied without hesitation. Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, the plantation was between Hillsboro and Cordova, his birthplace was likely his grandmothers shack east of Tappers Corner, and west of Tuckahoe Creek. The exact date of his birth is unknown, and he chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14. In his first autobiography, Douglass stated, I have no knowledge of my age. Douglass was of mixed race, which likely included Native American on his mothers side and he was given his name by his mother, Harriet Bailey.
After escaping to the North years later, he took the surname Douglass and he wrote of his earliest times with his mother, The opinion was. Whispered that my master was my father, but of the correctness of this opinion I know nothing and my mother and I were separated when I was but an infant. It common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, … I do not recollect ever seeing my mother by the light of day
University of Pennsylvania Law School
The University of Pennsylvania Law School, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the law school of the University of Pennsylvania. A member of the Ivy League, it is among the most prestigious, selective and it is currently ranked 7th overall by U. S. News & World Report. It offers the degrees of Juris Doctor, Master of Laws, Master of Comparative Laws, the entering class typically consists of approximately 250 students, and admission is highly competitive. For the class entering in the fall of 2014, 16% out of 5859 applicants were offered admission, the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2014 entering class were 164 and 170, with a median of 169. The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.52 and 3.95, Penn Laws July 2012 Pennsylvania Bar Examination passage rate was 96. 08%. The Law School is one of the T14 law schools, that is, the school prides itself on its collegiality and the importance it places on diversity. Over a third of students identify as persons of color, although well known for its corporate and criminal law faculty, the Law School offers an extensive curriculum and hosts various student groups, research centers and activities.
Students publish the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the oldest law journal in the country, according to Penns 2014 ABA-required disclosures,94. 24% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. The law school was ranked #2 of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of sending the highest percentage of 2015 graduates to the largest 100 law firms in the US. Penn began offering a program in law in 1850, under the leadership of George Sharswood. William Draper Lewis was named dean in 1896, in 1900, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania approved a move to the Law Schools current location at the intersection of 34th and Chestnut. Under Lewis deanship, the law school was one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, as legal education became more formalized, the school initiated a three-year curriculum and instituted stringent admissions requirements.
After 30 years with the law school, Lewis eventually founded the American Law Institute, in 1925, the ALI was chaired by another of Penn Laws Deans, Herbert Funk Goodrich. Two years before Goodrich was named Dean, the Law School graduated with a J. D. Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, the first African-American woman to ever receive a Ph. D. in the United States. The first woman to join the faculty was Martha Field in 1969, now a professor at Harvard Law School, the University of Pennsylvania campus covers over 269 acres in a contiguous area of West Philadelphias University City district. All of Penns schools, including the Law School, and most of its research institutes are located on this campus, the Law School consists of four interconnecting buildings around a central courtyard. Directly opposite is Tanenbaum Hall, home to the Biddle Law Library several law journals, administrative offices, the law library houses 1,053,824 volumes and volume equivalents making it the 4th largest law library in the country.
Gittis Hall sits on the side and has new classrooms and new
Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta is a not-for profit Greek-lettered sorority of college-educated women dedicated to public service with an emphasis on programs that target the African American community. DST was founded on January 13,1913, by 22 collegiate women at Howard University in Washington, membership is open to any woman who meets the requirements, regardless of religion, race, or nationality. Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university, the current 25th national president is Dr. Paulette Camille Walker. The first public act of Delta Sigma Theta was the Womens Suffrage March in Washington D. C. on March 3,1913, today, it is the largest African-American Greek-lettered organization. Since its founding, DST has been at the forefront of creating programming to improve political, education, in addition to establishing independent programming, the sorority consistently collaborates with community organizations and corporations to further its programming goals. The new initiates wanted to establish an organization, enlarge the scope of the sororitys activities.
They felt Alpha Kappa Alpha was solely a derivative of the Beta Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity with no individual meaning and were not Greek distinctive letters. They wanted to change the symbols, change the sorority colors, in 1912, these 22 undergraduates voted to change the organizations name to Delta Sigma Theta. This new name was to reflect the desire to change the direction of the group. The 22 undergraduate Alpha Chapter students sought to move towards social activism and greater public service, according to Delta Sigma Thetas historian Paula Giddings, the 22 young women were concerned that since Alpha Kappa Alpha was not incorporated, there was no legal entity. Since there was no charter, there was no authority to other chapters. The 22 declined and unanimously voted to reorganize, even prior to Delta Sigma Theta being approved by the Howard University administration, thus Delta Sigma Theta was founded on January 13,1913, by the 22 students. On January 20,1930, the organizations Grand Chapter was nationally incorporated, Delta Sigma Theta was one of the key African American organizations to participate in the Womens Suffrage March on March 3,1913.
Immediately following the founding, Delta Sigma Theta members quickly mobilized to build and develop infrastructure, one of the first orders of business was to have an oath, which was written by Mary Church Terrell in 1914. In the early years, individual chapters would implement various programs to meet the needs of their local communities, the 1920s began a decade of significant development within Delta Sigma Theta. The organization began to develop uniformity in programming and communication between the chapters of the sorority, in 1920, May Week was inaugurated and the Official Publication of the Sorority was established as The Delta. Also in 1920, Omega Chapter was established to recognize deceased Sorors, Alexander was voted first Honorary Grand President of Delta Sigma Theta. The Official Delta Sigma Theta Hymn, written by Florence Cole Talbert, regions were established in 1925, and the Jabberwock was established as the scholarship fundraiser
Virginia State University
Virginia State University, known as Virginia State, is a historically black public land-grant university located north of the Appomattox River in Petersburg. Founded on March 6,1882, Virginia State developed as the United Statess first fully state-supported four-year institution of learning for black Americans. The university is a school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. The new line extended from Norfolk to Bristol, after the AM&O struggled to operate for several years under receiverships, the railroad was sold at auction in 1881 and became part of the Norfolk and Western Railway. Mahone, a former Confederate general, led Virginias Readjuster Party and he was a major proponent of public schools for the education of freedmen and free blacks. Elected by the legislature as a United States Senator from Virginia. Alfred W. Harris, an attorney who was a state delegate. In 1882, the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute at Ettrick was established, the next morning I asked my father about the school for coloured people, which was being projected under the influence of General Mahone at Petersburg, now a State Normal School.
He told me much about it and it was to open the following fall. The Hon. John M. Langston, he said, a man who was as well educated as any white person that he knew of, was to be the president. He said I might go if I wished and that he would do what he could to help me, Virginia States first president was John Mercer Langston, former dean of Howard Universitys law school, and elected to Congress as the first African-American Representative from Virginia. The board of trustees was composed of prominent African-American men, with one seat for a white man, until the mid-1960s, following federal civil rights legislation that ended racial segregation, the faculty of the collegiate program and the normal school was exclusively African American. In response to the 1890 Amendments to the federal Morrill Act, the United States Congress required that states either open their land-grant colleges to all races or else establish additional land-grant educational facilities for blacks. In 1902, the legislature revised the charter and renamed it the Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute.
With expansion of programs and a curriculum, in 1930 the college was renamed Virginia State College for Negroes. In 1979, the addition of more departments and graduate programs was recognized in a change of name to Virginia State University. In 2003, the university accepted its first students in its first Ph. D. program, on July 1,2010, President Keith T. Miller was named as the 13th president of Virginia State University. He previously served as President of Lock Haven University, Miller earned his bachelor and doctoral degrees from the University of Arizona
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States, assuming the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II. In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelts New Deal, but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them. He used weapons to end World War II, desegregated the U. S. armed forces, supported a newly independent Israel. Truman was born in Lamar and spent most of his youth on his familys 600-acre farm near Independence, in the last months of World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he owned a haberdashery in Kansas City and joined the Democratic Party. Truman was first elected to office as a county official in 1922. After serving as a United States Senator from Missouri and briefly as Vice President, he succeeded to the presidency on April 12,1945, upon the death of Franklin D.
Roosevelt. Germany surrendered on Trumans 61st birthday, just a few weeks after he assumed the presidency, but the war with Imperial Japan raged on and was expected to last at least another year. Although this decision and the issues that arose as a result of it remain the subject of debate to this day. Truman presided over a surge in economic prosperity as America sought readjustment after long years of depression. His presidency was a point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy. Truman helped found the United Nations in 1945, issued the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to contain Communism and his political coalition was based on the white South, labor unions, ethnic groups, and traditional Democrats across the North. Truman was able to rally groups of supporters during the 1948 presidential election. The Soviet Union became an enemy in the Cold War, Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949, but was unable to stop Communists from taking over China.
When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he sent U. S. troops, after initial successes in Korea, the UN forces were thrown back by Chinese intervention, and the conflict was stalemated throughout the final years of Trumans presidency. Scholars, starting in 1962, ranked Trumans presidency as near great, Harry S. Truman was born on May 8,1884, in Lamar, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman. His parents chose the name Harry after his mothers brother, Harrison Harry Young, while the S did not stand for any one name, it was chosen as his middle initial to honor both of his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. The initial has been written and printed followed by a period
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood, Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop in shepherding a flock, the earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In, we see a system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just. In, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia, in Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more clearly defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church, Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general oversight, telling him to rebuke with all authority.
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches, eventually, as Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to each congregation. Around the end of the 1st century, the organization became clearer in historical documents. While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who dont recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city, plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6,1.
Your godly bishop — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2,1, therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7,1. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13,2. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3,1. Follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles, and to the deacons pay respect, as to Gods commandment — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8,1. He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God, he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9,1
Henry Ossawa Tanner
Henry Ossawa Tanner was an American artist and the first African-American painter to gain international acclaim. Tanner moved to Paris in 1891 to study, where he continued to live after being accepted in French artistic circles and his painting entitled Daniel in the Lions Den was accepted into the 1896 Salon, the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. After his own self-study in art as a man, Tanner enrolled in 1879 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. As the only student, he became a favorite of the painter Thomas Eakins. Tanner made other connections among artists, including Robert Henri, in the late 1890s he was sponsored for a trip to Palestine by Rodman Wanamaker, who was impressed by his paintings of biblical themes. Tanner was born in Pittsburgh, the first of seven children and his middle name commemorated the struggle at Osawatomie between pro- and anti-slavery partisans. His father Benjamin Tucker Tanner was a bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, being educated at Avery College and Western Theological Seminary in Pittsburgh, he developed a literary career.
In addition, he was a political activist and his mother Sarah Tanner was born into slavery in Virginia but had escaped to the North via the Underground Railroad. She was mixed race, and Tanner himself was either a quadroon or an octoroon, the family moved to Philadelphia when Tanner was young. There his father became a friend of Frederick Douglass, sometimes supporting him, although many artists refused to accept an African-American apprentice, in 1879 Tanner enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, becoming the only black student. His decision to attend the school came at a time in the history of artistic institutional training. Art academies had long relied on tired notions of study devoted almost entirely to plaster cast studies and this changed drastically with the addition of Thomas Eakins as “Professor of Drawing and Painting” to the Pennsylvania Academy. Eakins’s progressive views and ability to excite and inspire his students would have an effect on Tanner.
The young artist proved to be one of Eakins’ favorite students, at the Academy Tanner befriended artists with whom he kept in contact throughout the rest of his life, most notably Robert Henri, one of the founders of the Ashcan School. Although he gained confidence as an artist and began to sell his work and it had traditionally had strong ties to the South through numerous planter families and commercial ties, in addition, planters had sent their daughters to Philadelphia academies. Although painting became a source of release for Tanner, the lack of acceptance in society was painful. Every time any one of these disagreeable incidents came into my mind, my heart sank, in an attempt to gain artistic acceptance, Tanner left America for France in late 1891. Except for occasional brief returns home, he spent the rest of his life there, after a photography studio in Atlanta had been unsuccessful, Tanner taught drawing at Clark College which is now called Clark Atlanta University for a short period
Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, United States. It was established by Booker T. Washington, the campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service and is the only one in the U. S. to have this designation. The university was home to scientist George Washington Carver and to World War IIs Tuskegee Airmen, the university is home to over 3,100 students from the U. S. and 30 foreign countries. Tuskegee University is ranked among the 2015 Best 379 Colleges and Universities by the Princeton Review, the universitys campus was designed by architect Robert Robinson Taylor, the first African American to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The school was founded on July 4,1881, as the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers and this was a result of an agreement made during the 1880 elections in Macon County between a former Confederate Colonel, W. F. Foster who was running on the ticket and a local Black Leader and Republican.
At the time the majority of Macon County population was Black, Adams succeeded and Foster followed through with the school. A teachers’ school was the dream of Lewis Adams, a slave, and George W. Campbell, a banker and former slaveholder. Despite lacking formal education, Adams could read, and he was an experienced tinsmith, harness-maker, and shoemaker and was a Prince Hall Freemason, an acknowledged leader of the African-American community in Macon County, Alabama. Adams and Campbell had secured $2,000 from the State of Alabama for teachers salaries but nothing for land, swanson formed Tuskegees first board of commissioners. Campbell wrote to the Hampton Institute, a black college in Virginia. Armstrong, the Hampton principal and a former Union general, recommended 25-year-old Booker T. Washington, as the newly hired principal in Tuskegee, Booker Washington began classes for his new school in a rundown church and shanty. The following year, he purchased a plantation of 100 acres in size. The earliest campus buildings were constructed on property, usually by students as part of their work-study.
By the start of the 20th century, the Tuskegee Institute occupied nearly 2,300 acres, based on his experience at the Hampton Institute, Washington intended to train students in skills and religious life, in addition to academic subjects. Washingtons second wife Olivia A. Davidson, was instrumental to the success, gradually, a rural extension program was developed, to take progressive ideas and training to those who could not come to the campus. Tuskegee alumni founded smaller schools and colleges throughout the South, they continued to emphasize teacher training, as a young free man after the Civil War, Washington sought a formal education. He worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute and attended college at Wayland Seminary in Washington and he returned to Hampton as a teacher