Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Grenoble Foot 38
Grenoble Foot 38, commonly referred to as simply GF38, is a French association football club based in Grenoble, a city situated at the foot of the French Alps. The original incarnation of the club was founded in 1892 and, Grenoble currently plays in CFA, the fourth level of French football, after having gone into bankruptcy and relegation to the fifth level of French football in 2011. Grenoble plays its matches at the Stade des Alpes, a recently built complex based in the heart of the city. The team is managed by Jean-Louis Garcia, the club was founded in 1892 as Football Club de Grenoble. In 1997, a merger of Olympique Grenoble Isère and Norcap Olympique led to the Grenoble Foot 38 incarnation, Olympique Grenoble Isère played in Ligue 1 in the 1960–61 and 1962–63 seasons. However, after losing their first eleven games of the season, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, below are the notable former players who have represented Grenoble and its predecessors in league and international competition since the clubs foundation in 1997. To appear in the section below, a player must have played in at least 80 official matches for the club, geraldes Bernard Simondi Alain Michel M. Westerloppe A. Michel Thierry Goudet Yvon Pouliquen Mehmed Baždarević Yvon Pouliquen Olivier Saragaglia Jean-Louis Garcia Official website
Paris Football Club is a French association football club based in Paris. The club was founded in 1969 and competes in Championnat National, Paris plays its home matches at the Stade Charléty located in the 13th arrondissement of Paris. The team is managed by Réginald Ray and captained by defender Thomas Veldemann, Paris FC was founded in 1969 and later merged with Stade Saint-Germain to form Paris Saint-Germain. The current Paris FC exists as a result of the club splitting from Paris Saint-Germain, unlike its counterpart, which has gone on to establish a solid foundation, Paris FC has struggled to establish itself, having spent the majority of its existence playing in the amateur divisions. The clubs highest honour to date was winning its group in the Championnat de France amateur in 2006, Paris FC last played in Ligue 1 in the 1978–79 season. Though Paris FC have struggled domestically, the club has served as a springboard for youth players who have gone on to have successful professional careers. Notable players who started their careers at PFC include Jean-Christophe Thouvenel, Mamadou Sakho, Tijani Belaid, Aymen Belaïd, Sakho and the Belaïd brothers have since became senior internationals for their respective national teams, while Thouvenel went on to win a gold medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics. Manager Roger Lemerre started his career with the club before leading France to titles at UEFA Euro 2000. In an effort to re-launch professional football in the city of Paris, Paris Football Club was founded on 1 August 1969, the objective of the club was to be playing in the first division by 1970. Paris Saint-Germain were, on the hand, administratively relegated to the third division. At the beginning of the 1972–73 season, Paris were playing in the first division hosting matches at the Parc des Princes. Two seasons later, the club was relegated to the division, which coincided with Paris Saint-Germains rise to top-flight. After four years of playing in Division 2, Paris returned to the first division for the 1978–79 season, however, the season was a difficult one and resulted in the club falling back to Division 2 after one season. Paris FC have since yet to return to the league of France. In 1983, Paris FC, then led by the industrialist Jean-Luc Lagardère, while Racing remained in the first division, the remaining entity that was PFC was administratively relegated to the fourth division. Due to having limited resources, Paris fell to the Division dHonneur after one season and, subsequently, another promotion the following season saw Paris earn a place in Division 3. Paris remained in the division for 12 years becoming inaugural members of the Championnat National in the process, in 2000, the club finished 17th and were relegated to the Championnat de France amateur. Paris spent six years in the league returning to National for the 2006–07 season
Chamois Niortais F.C.
Chamois Niortais Football Club is a French association football club based in the commune of Niort, in the Deux-Sèvres department of western France. It was founded in 1925 by Charles Boinot, the son of the owner of a chamois leather factory. The clubs badge shows a chamois goat standing on a football, Chamois Niortais has traditionally played in an entirely blue home strip, although away strips regularly differ. For the first 20 years of the clubs existence they played in leagues around the Centre-Ouest region. In 1945, after the Second World War, the joined the Championnat de France amateur. They achieved promotion to Division 3 in 1970 and stayed in the division for the eight seasons. Between 1980 and 1984, the played in Division 4 before winning promotion back to Division 3. The club gained professional status for the first time the year when they were promoted to Division 2. After another promotion in 1987, they played in Division 1 for the time in the 1987–88 season. Chamois Niortais were relegated to the Championnat National in 2008, and relegated again a season later, after finishing as runners-up in the Championnat National, the team were promoted back to Ligue 2 for the 2012–13 season. After the First World War, local chamois leather factory owner, Theophile Boinot, established the first sports club in Niort, soon after, the football section of the club was founded and named Étoile Sportive Niortaise. In 1923, many players were conscripted into the French army, in 1925, a number of the players returned to the town and Boinots son, Charles, set up the first proper association football team in the town, which he named Chamois Niortais Football Club. For the first season, the presidency of the club was entrusted to Jean Gavaggio, Georges Poussard, also a worker in the factory, was appointed as the clubs first secretary. The original team played in a white strip, and competed in the regional championship of the Ligue de Charentes. In 1929, the Swiss footballer Franchina was named as the clubs first manager, throughout the 1930s the club continued to grow in size, enlisting more players and members, despite the team performing relatively poorly in the league. For the 1932–33 season, Chamois Niortais joined the DH Centre-Ouest, the highest level of football in France. The side achieved consecutive sixth- and seventh-place finishes in the two seasons, before being relegated to the Promotion dHonneur in 1936. The team played in the division for three seasons, until they gained promotion back to the DH Centre-Ouest at the end of the 1938–39 campaign, in 1939, Joseph Boinot was appointed president of the club
Ligue 2, also known as Dominos Ligue 2 due to sponsorship with Dominos Pizza, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 1, the countrys top football division. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with both Ligue 1 and the third division Championnat National, seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 38 games each totaling 380 games in the season. Most games are played on Fridays and Mondays, with a few games played during weekday, play is regularly suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January. Ligue 2 was founded a year after the creation of the first division in 1933 under the name Division 2 and has served as the division of French football ever since. The name lasted until 2002 before switching to its current name, since the league is a part of the LFP, it allows clubs who are on the brink of professionalism to become so. However, if a club suffers relegation to the Championnat National, the second division of French football was established in 1933, one year after the creation of the all-professional first division. The first year of the division consisted of twenty-three clubs and were divided into two groups. Fourteen of the clubs were inserted into the Nord section, while the nine were placed in Sud. Following the season, the winner of each group faced each other to determine which club would earn promotion, on 20 May 1934, the winner of the Nord group, Red Star Saint-Ouen, faced Olympique Alès, the winner of the Sud group. Red Star were crowned the inaugural champions following a 3–2 victory. Due to several clubs merging, folding, or losing their professional status, because of World War II, football was suspended by the French government and the Ligue de Football Professionnel. Following the end of the war, the division developed stability. Due to the increase in clubs, the league intertwined professional and amateur clubs. In 2002, the changed its name from Division 2 to Ligue 2. In November 2014, the presidents of Caen and Nîmes were amongst several arrested on suspicion of match fixing, the arrests followed a 1–1 draw between Caen and Nîmes in May 2014, a result very beneficial for each club. There are 20 clubs in Ligue 2, during the course of a season, usually from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw, no points are awarded for a loss