Sadko is the principal character in an East Slavic epic bylina. He was an adventurer and gusli musician from Novgorod. Sadko played the gusli on the shores of a lake; the Sea Tsar enjoyed his music, offered to help him. Sadko was instructed to make a bet with the local merchants about catching a certain fish in the lake. Sadko traded on the seas with his new wealth, but did not pay proper respects to the Tsar as per their agreement; the Tsar stopped Sadko's ships in the sea. He and his sailors tried to appease the Sea Tsar with gold, to no avail. Sadko's crew forced him to jump into the sea. There, he played the gusli for the Sea Tsar. On advice, he took a mermaid named Chernava, the last from all of 900 mermaids, lay down beside her, he rejoined his wife. In some variants, Sadko is chosen to jump overboard by throwing lots between the men; this motif, derived from the Biblical story of Jonah, is a widespread device, for instance, in Child ballad 57 Brown Robyn's Confession. This tale attracted the attention of several authors in the 19th century with the rise of the Slavophile movement and served as a basis for a number of derived works, most notably the poem "Sadko" by Alexei Tolstoy and the opera Sadko composed by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who wrote the libretto.
In 1953, Aleksandr Ptushko directed a film based on the opera entitled Sadko. A shortened and modified American version of this film entitled The Magic Voyage of Sinbad was spoofed on Mystery Science Theater 3000.. Sadko can be viewed as a metaphor for Yaroslav the Wise; the liberation of the Novgorodian people by Sadko can be linked to the establishment of the Novgorod Republic by Yaroslav. Sadko may be based on a certain Sedko Sitinits, mentioned in the Novgorodian First Chronicle as the patron of the stone Church of Boris and Gleb built in the Novgorodian Detinets in 1167. Sadko Sadko Jūratė and Kastytis - a similar Lithuanian legend. Sadko the bylina Prose version Sadko as collected by Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales Sadko as collected by Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales as a librivox.org audiobook
Captain Konstantin Sergeyevich Badygin was a Soviet naval officer, explorer and scientist. Konstantin Sergeyevich Badygin began his naval career in 1928 as a sailor on Soviet ships in the Pacific Ocean, he studied in the Marine Technical School at Vladivostok and became a navigator and an officer in the Soviet Navy. Between 1935 and 1936 he became the third officer aboard Icebreaker Krasin and in 1937 he became the second in command aboard Icebreaker Sedov. Badygin became renowned in 1938 as captain of icebreaker Sedov when it was transformed into a Soviet Drifting Polar Station. In 1940 Badigin was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for his work aboard the Sedov as both a naval officer and a scientist. Between 1941 and 1943 he became the Chief of the Soviet ice-breaker fleet in the White Sea as well as the director of the Ice Survey Service. In 1944 and 1945 he became the captain of merchant liner Clara Zetkin which plied the Vladivostok-Seattle route. After the end of World War II Badigin asked to be relieved of active service owing to health reasons.
He became an author and wrote three autobiographical works, as well as historical novels. He continued writing until his death in 1984. In the summer of 1937 Icebreaker Sadko sailed from Murmansk, its original goal was to sail to Henrietta and Jeanette Islands, in the De Long group and carry out scientific research. The purpose of the expedition was to find out how could the Northern Sea Route be used for regular shipping, but the Soviet naval authorities changed the plans and the ice-breaker was sent instead to help ships in distress in the Kara and Laptev Seas. The Sadko, became itself trapped in fast ice at 75°17'N and 132°28'E in the region of the New Siberian Islands. Two other Soviet icebreakers, the Sedov and the Malygin, both in the same area researching the ice conditions, became trapped by sea ice as well and drifted helplessly. Owing to persistent bad weather conditions, part of the stranded crew members and some of the scientists could only be rescued in April 1938, and only on 28 August 1938, could Yermak free two of the three ships at 83°4'N and 138°22'E.
The third ship, had to be left to drift in its icy prison and was transformed into a scientific polar station. It kept drifting northwards in the ice towards the Pole much like Fridtjof Nansen's Fram had done in 1893–96. There were 15 crew aboard, led by Captain Konstantin W. Kh. Buinitzki; the scientists aboard took 415 astronomical measurements, 78 electromagnetic observations, as well as 38 depth measurements by drilling the thick polar ice during their 812-day stay aboard the Sedov. They were freed between Greenland and Svalbard by icebreaker Joseph Stalin on 18 January 1940. Captain Badygin, as well as the crew and scientists were welcomed back in the Soviet Union as heroes. Captain Konstantin Badygin was awarded the Order of the Red Star and became a hero of the Soviet Union. Men of the Ice-breaker Sedov, London Verschollen in Grumant, Kultur und Fortschritt, Berlin 1960 812 Tage im Eis der Arktis – Die Drift des Eismeerdampfers Georgi Sedow. Vienna, Globus-Verlag, 1946. Vom Eismeer zum Pazifik, Militärverlag der DDR Berlin, 1988, ISBN 3-327-00624-5 Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations Professor Vize Icebreaker Sadko Albert Hastings Markham.
Arctic Exploration, 1895 Armstrong, T. The Russians in the Arctic, London, 1958. Early Soviet Exploration: History of Russian Arctic Exploration
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions and journeying through these perils by sight and foot has proven difficult; some scholars believe that the first attempts to penetrate the Arctic Circle can be traced to ancient Greece and the sailor Pytheas, a contemporary of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, who, in c. 325 BC, attempted to find the source of the tin that would sporadically reach the Greek colony of Massilia on the Mediterranean coast. Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and Cornwall circumnavigating the British Isles. From the local population, he heard news of the mysterious land of Thule farther to the north.
After six days of sailing, he reached land at the edge of a frozen sea, described what is believed to be the aurora and the midnight sun. Some historians claim that this new land of Thule was either the Norwegian coast or the Shetland Islands based on his descriptions and the trade routes of early British sailors. While no one knows how far Pytheas sailed, he may have crossed the Arctic Circle, his tales were regarded as fantasy by Greek and Roman authorities, such as the geographer Strabo. The first Viking to sight Iceland was Gardar Svavarsson, who lost his route due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands; this led to a wave of colonization. Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. In the 10th century, Gunnbjörn Ulfsson got lost in a storm and ended up within sight of the Greenland coast, his report spurred Erik the Red, an outlawed chieftain, to establish a settlement there in 985. While they flourished these settlements foundered due to changing climatic conditions.
They are believed to have survived until around 1450. Greenland's early settlers sailed westward, in search of better hunting grounds. Modern scholars debate the precise location of the new lands of Vinland and Helluland that they discovered; the Scandinavian peoples pushed farther north into their own peninsula by land and by sea. As early as 880, the Viking Ohthere of Hålogaland rounded the Scandinavian Peninsula and sailed to the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea; the Pechenga Monastery on the north of Kola Peninsula was founded by Russian monks in 1533. They explored north by boat, discovering the Northern Sea Route, as well as penetrating to the trans-Ural areas of northern Siberia, they founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the now famous Bering Strait between Asia. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century.
By the 17th century they established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk as far east as the mouth of Yenisey. This route, known as Mangazeya seaway, after its eastern terminus, the trade depot of Mangazeya, was an early precursor to the Northern Sea Route. Exploration to the north of the Arctic Circle in the Renaissance was both driven by the rediscovery of the Classics and the national quests for commercial expansion, hampered by limits in maritime technology, lack of stable food supplies, insufficient insulation for the crew against extreme cold. A seminal event in Arctic exploration occurred in 1409, when Ptolemy's Geographia was translated into Latin, thereby introducing the concepts of latitude and longitude into Western Europe. Navigators were better able to chart their positions, the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced; the Inventio Fortunata, a lost book, describes in a summary written by Jacobus Cnoyen but only found in a letter from Gerardus Mercator, voyages as far as the North Pole.
One disputed claim is that two brothers from Venice and Antonio Zeno made a map of their journeys to that region, which were published by their descendants in 1558. The Northwest Passage connects the Pacific Oceans via the Arctic Ocean. Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. John Cabot's initial failure in 1497 to find a Northwest Passage across the Atlantic led the British to seek an alternative route to the east. Interest re-kindled in 1564 after Jacques Cartier's discovery of the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Martin Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake the challenge of forging a trade route from England westward to India. In 1576 - 1578, he took three trips to. Frobisher Bay is named after him. In July 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had written a treatise on the discovery of the passage and was a backer of Frobisher's, claimed the territory of Newfoundland for the English crown.
On August 8, 1585, under the employ of Elizabeth I the English explorer John Davis entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Davis rounded Greenland before dividing his four ships into separate expeditions to search for a passage
The North Pole known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole, it defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west; the North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere. While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are permanently covered with shifting sea ice; this makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole. However, the Soviet Union, Russia, constructed a number of manned drifting stations on a annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or close to the Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have annually established a base, close to the Pole.
This operates for a few weeks during early spring. Studies in the 2000s predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free because of Arctic ice shrinkage, with timescales varying from 2016 to the late 21st century or later; the sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958. The nearest land is said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 700 km away, though some semi-permanent gravel banks lie closer; the nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Canada, located 817 km from the Pole. The Earth's axis of rotation – and hence the position of the North Pole – was believed to be fixed until, in the 18th century, the mathematician Leonhard Euler predicted that the axis might "wobble" slightly. Around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent "variation of latitude," as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars.
Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole across the Earth's surface, by a range of a few metres. The wandering has an irregular component; the component with a period of about 435 days is identified with the eight-month wandering predicted by Euler and is now called the Chandler wobble after its discoverer. The exact point of intersection of the Earth's axis and the Earth's surface, at any given moment, is called the "instantaneous pole", but because of the "wobble" this cannot be used as a definition of a fixed North Pole when metre-scale precision is required, it is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates to fixed landforms. Of course, given plate tectonics and isostasy, there is no system in which all geographic features are fixed, yet the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. As early as the 16th century, many prominent people believed that the North Pole was in a sea, which in the 19th century was called the Polynya or Open Polar Sea.
It was therefore hoped. Several expeditions set out to find the way with whaling ships commonly used in the cold northern latitudes. One of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82°45′ North. In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster. Another British Royal Navy attempt on the pole, part of the British Arctic Expedition, by Commander Albert H. Markham reached a then-record 83°20'26" North in May 1876 before turning back. An 1879–1881 expedition commanded by US naval officer George W. DeLong ended tragically when their ship, the USS Jeanette, was crushed by ice. Over half the crew, including DeLong, were lost. In April 1895 the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen struck out for the Pole on skis after leaving Nansen's icebound ship Fram; the pair reached latitude 86°14′ North before they abandoned the attempt and turned southwards reaching Franz Josef Land.
In 1897 Swedish engineer Salomon August Andrée and two companions tried to reach the North Pole in the hydrogen balloon Örnen, but came down 300 km north of Kvitøya, the northeasternmost part of the Svalbard archipelago. They died there three months later. In 1930 the remains of this expedition were found by the Norwegian Bratvaag Expedition; the Italian explorer Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi and Captain Umberto Cagni of the Italian Royal Navy sailed the converted whaler Stella Polare from Norway in 1899. On 11 March 1900 Cagni led a party over the ice and reached latitude 86° 34’ on 25 April, setting a new record by beating Nansen's result of 1895 by 35 to 40 km. Cagni managed to return to the camp, remaining there until 23 June. On 16 August the Stella Polare left Rudolf Island heading south and the expedition returned to Norway; the US explorer Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole on 21 April 1908 with two Inuit men and Etukishook, but he was unable to produce convincing proof and his c
The Laptev Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the northern coast of Siberia, the Taimyr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands, its northern boundary passes from the Arctic Cape to a point with co-ordinates of 79°N and 139°E, ends at the Anisiy Cape. The Kara Sea lies to the East Siberian Sea to the east; the sea is named after the Russian explorers Dmitry Khariton Laptev. The sea has a severe climate with temperatures below 0 °C over more than 9 months per year, low water salinity, scarcity of flora and human population, low depths, it is frozen most of the time, though clear in August and September. The sea shores were inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous tribes of Yukaghirs and Evens and Evenks, which were engaged in fishing and reindeer husbandry, they were settled by Yakuts and by Russians. Russian explorations of the area started in the 17th century, they came from the south via several large rivers which empty into the sea, such as the prominent Lena River, the Khatanga, the Anabar, the Olenyok, the Omoloy and the Yana.
The sea contains several dozen islands. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Laptev Sea as follows: On the West; the eastern limit of Kara Sea. On the North. A line joining Cape Molotov to the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island. On the East. From the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island – through Kotelni Island to Cape Madvejyi. Through Malyi Island, to Cape Vaguin on Great Liakhov Island. Thence to Cape Sviatoy Nos on the main land. Using current geographic names and transcription this definition corresponds to the area shown in the map; the sea's border starts at Arctic Cape on Komsomolets Island at 81°13′N 95°15′E and connects to Cape Rosa Luxemburg, the southeastern cape of the island. The next segment crosses Red Army Strait and leads to Cape Vorochilov on October Revolution Island and afterwards through that island to Cape Anuchin at 79°39′37″N 100°21′22″E. Next, the border crosses Shokalsky Strait to Cape Unslicht at 79°25′04″N 102°31′00″E on Bolshevik Island.
It goes further through the island to Cape Yevgenov at 78°17′N 104°50′E. From there, the border goes through Vilkitsky Strait to Cape Pronchishchev at 77°32′57″N 105°54′4″E on the Tamyr peninsula; the southern boundary is the shore of the Asian mainland. Prominent features are the delta of the Lena River. In the east, the polygon crosses the Dmitry Laptev Strait, it connects Cape Svyatoy Nos at 72.7°N 141.2°E / 72.7. Next, the Laptev Sea border crosses Eterikan Strait to Little Lyakhovsky Island at 74.0833°N 140.5833°E / 74.0833. There is a segment through Kotelny Island to Cape Anisy, its northernmost headland 76°10′N 138°50′E; the last link reaches from there back to Arctic Cape. The Lena River, with its large delta, is the biggest river flowing into the Laptev Sea, is the second largest river in the Russian Arctic after Yenisei. Other important rivers include the Khatanga, the Anabar, the Olenyok or Olenek, the Omoloy and the Yana; the sea shores are form gulfs and bays of various sizes. The coastal landscape is diverse, with small mountains near the sea in places.
The main gulfs of the Laptev Sea coast are the Khatanga Gulf, the Olenyok Gulf, the Buor-Khaya Gulf and the Yana Bay. There are several dozens of islands with the total area of 3,784 km2 in the western part of the sea and in the river deltas. Storms and currents due to the ice thawing erode the islands, so the Semenovsky and Vasilievsky islands which were discovered in 1815 have disappeared; the most significant groups of islands are Severnaya Zemlya, Komsomolskaya Pravda and Faddey, the largest individual islands are Bolshoy Begichev, Maly Taymyr, Stolbovoy and Peschanyy. More than half of the sea rests on a continental shelf with the average depths below 50 meters, the areas south from 76°N are shallower than 25 m. In the northern part, the sea bottom drops to the ocean floor with the depth of the order of 1 kilometer. There it is covered with silt, mixed with ice in the shallow areas; the climate of the Laptev Sea is Arctic continental and, owing to the remoteness from both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is one of the most severe among the Arctic seas.
Polar night and midnight sun last about 3 months per 5 months on the north. Air temperatures stay below 0 ° С 11 months a year on 9 months on the south; the average temperature in January varies across the sea between −31 °C and −34 °C and the minimum is −50 °C. In July, the temperature rises to 0 °С (maximum 4
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
John Ross (Royal Navy officer)
Sir John Ross was a British Royal Navy officer and Polar explorer. He was the uncle of Sir James Clark Ross, who explored the Arctic with him, led expeditions to Antarctica. John Ross was born in Balsarroch, West Galloway, Scotland, on 24 June 1777, the son of the Reverend Andrew Ross of Balsarroch, Minister of Inch in Wigtownshire, Elizabeth Corsane, daughter of Robert Corsane, the Provost of Dumfries, his family home was at Stranraer. In 1786, aged only nine, Ross joined the Royal Navy as a first-class volunteer and was assigned to HMS Pearl, it soon sailed to the Mediterranean Sea, where it remained until 1789. He served aboard HMS Impregnable for several months before a transfer to the merchant marine for eight years. In September 1799 he was recalled to the Navy and appointed midshipman on HMS Weazel, which shortly joined in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. Short periods of service on HMS Clyde and HMS Diligence followed, during which he acted as a lieutenant. From 1803, he served on various vessels.
This included a period on HMS Grampus and HMS Victory, the flagship of the commander of the Baltic fleet, Rear Admiral James Saumarez. During his service, Ross was wounded several times, the most severe of these being in 1806 when boarding a Spanish vessel. In late 1808, Ross was seconded to the Swedish Navy. In 1812, he was promoted to commander. In 1818, Ross received the command of an Arctic expedition organised by the British Admiralty, the first of a new series of attempts to solve the question of a Northwest Passage; this entailed sailing to the Bering Strait. He was to note the currents, the state of ice and magnetism and to collect specimens he found on the way; the expedition left London in April, with Ross commanding HMS Isabella and accompanied by HMS Alexander under Lieutenant William Edward Parry. He sailed counter-clockwise around Baffin Bay repeating the observations made by William Baffin two hundred years before. In August, he entered Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island.
He sailed a number of miles west but went no further, for he was misled by a mirage which appeared to show mountains at the end of the strait. He named the apparent mountains "Croker Mountains", in honour of John Wilson Croker first secretary of the Admiralty, he returned to England despite the protests of several of his officers, including Parry and Edward Sabine who thought he should have more examined the "mountains". The account of his voyage published a year brought to light their disagreement, the ensuing controversy over the existence of Croker Mountains ruined his reputation; this expedition failed to discover much, new. Its main effect was to open a route for whale ships to the northern Baffin Bay and provoke Parry to re-explore Lancaster Sound and find a major portion of the Northwest Passage. Ross attained the rank of captain on his return to Scotland and about this time built the house North West Castle, in Stranraer, south-west Scotland. In 1829, his lieutenant on the previous expedition, returned to the Arctic and sailed 600 miles west beyond the "Croker Hills", thereby discovering the Parry Channel—the main axis of the Northwest Passage.
To redeem his reputation Ross proposed to use a shallow-draft steamship to break through the ice. The Admiralty was not interested, but he was able to convince the gin-magnate Felix Booth to finance a second expedition, his ship was Victory, a side-wheel steamer with paddles that could be lifted away from the ice and an experimental high-pressure boiler built by John Ericsson.(The engine caused trouble and during the first winter, it was dumped on the shore. It carried four officers: John Ross, James Clark Ross, William Thom, surgeon George McDiarmid and 19 men; the goal was Prince Regent Inlet at the west end of Baffin Island where Parry had lost his ship in 1825. Ross left the Thames on 23 May 1829. Baffin Bay was unusually ice-free and on 6 August, he passed the point where he had turned back 10 years before. On 11 August he turned south into Prince Regent Inlet, on 13 August reached Fury Beach where Parry had abandoned his ship; the hulk was gone but there were heaps of stores on the beach, some of which he took.
Continuing south he became the first European in the Gulf of Boothia, but by the end of September, he was blocked by ice 200 miles south of Fury Beach. He took winter quarters at Felix Harbour at the eastern tip of the Boothia Peninsula. In January 1830 a group of Netsilik Inuit provided food and information. For one of them, the ship's carpenter made a wooden leg. In the spring of 1830, James Clark Ross made several trips west into the interior. On 9 April, he reached the west side of the Boothia Peninsula and in May crossed over ice to the northwest shore of King William Island, assuming it was part of the mainland, it was mid-September. The crew sawed through the shore ice and warped the ship into open water, but it was soon caught in the ice. October was spent warping and sawing the ship into Sheriff Bay where they spent their second winter only 3 miles from Felix Harbour. No Inuit arrived until the following April 1831. James Clark Ross crossed the Boothia Peninsula and on 1 June 1831, became the first European to reach the North Magnetic Pole.
In August, the ship only got four miles before being trapped in Victoria Harbour. By January 1832 it was clear. Ross's plan was to drag the ship's boa