Sadri language

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Sadri
Nagpuri
Sadani
Native toIndia
RegionJharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
EthnicityNagpuria
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1] [2]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Devanagari, Eastern Nagari script, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
sck – Sadri
sdr – Oraon Sadri
Glottologsada1242[4]

Sadri (also Nagpuri) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Sadan in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.[5]

In addition to native speaker, Sadri is also used as a lingua-fraca by large number of tribal groups such as: Kharia, Munda, Bhumij, Kurukh and many of these tribal group have adopted Sadri as their first language.[6] It spoken by many Tea-tribes of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh.[7]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of Sadan/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of Northeast India. [8] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country. [9]

Geographical Distribution[edit]

Nagpuri language is chiefly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of west-central Jharkhand in districts such as Latehar, Lohardaga, Chatra, Palamu, Garhwa, Gumla, Simdega, Ranchi, Khunti, West Singhbhum, North-east Chhattisgarh in district Jashpur, Surguja, Balrampur, South-east Uttarpradesh in Sonbhadra, Northern Odisha in Sundargarh and south-west Bihar in Aurangabad district.[10] [11]

History[edit]

Nagpuri language evolved from Prakrit languages. During reign of Nagvanshi kings, It was language of royal court.

Script[edit]

Nagpuri is commonly written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and written from left to right.[12]

Vocabulary[edit]

The main source Nagpuri lexicon is Prakrit and Sanskrit. During the medieval period contact with North India resulted in introduction of some Persian words.

Example of short phrases[edit]

Phrases in Nagpuri/Transliteration English Translation
मोर नाम महेश हेके/ Mor naam Mahesh heke My name is Mahesh.
मोैं वजार जात होंं/ Moen bazar jat hon I am going to market.
मौ खा हों, मौं खालों/ Moen kha hon, Moen Khalon I have eaten.
मौं खाए रहों/ Moen Khae rohon I had eaten.
मोके भुख लागत रेहे /Moke bhukh lagot rehe I was feeling hungry.
तोयं आबे/ Toen abe You will come.
तोयं कने जात हीस् ॽ/ Toen kane jat hisॽ Where are you going?
हामे लीखत ही/ Hame likhot hi We are writing.
हामे लीख ही, हामे लीखली/ Hame likh hi, Hame likhli We have written.
उगो आवत है/ Oogo awot hai He/She is coming.
उगो आवत रेहे/ Oogo awot rehe He/She was coming.
उगो खेली/ Oogo kheli He/She will play.
उमन रोटी खा हैं/ Ooman roti kha hain They have eaten bread.
उमन गेलैं/ Ooman gelain They went.
उमन घर जाबैं/ Ooman ghar jabain They will go home.

Media[edit]

Although Sadri still lacks a standardised form, much literature have written in the language. Many Sadri magazines have published in various parts of India. Gharaiya Guith, a monthly magazine in Sadri, have published in Shillong. Johar Sahiya is now published in Ranchi. Veer Birsa, Aguwa, Nawa Parha, NIRANG PAJHRA and Adivasi Express were published in the Dooars and Tarai regions of West Bengal. Many films have been produced in Sadri language in Assam, Dooars, Jharkhand, Siliguri and in Odisha. Since 1980, many Sadri songs and videos have produced.

A vary of Sadri is Nagpuri, which taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand.

"In preparation for the January 2014 education season, the national curriculum and textbook board has already started printing books in six languages ... Chakma, Cogborok (Tripura community), Marma, Santal, Sadri (Oraon community) and Achik (Mandi community)."[13]

Alternate names[edit]

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[14][15][16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sadri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  6. ^ http://www.southasiabibliography.de/uploads/Sadri.htm
  7. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sck
  8. ^ http://www.southasiabibliography.de/uploads/Sadri.htm
  9. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127-128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  10. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sck
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  12. ^ http://www.southasiabibliography.de/uploads/Sadri.htm#rGrierson1903
  13. ^ Chowdhury, K.R. (2013-05-21). "Native tongue offers ethnic children a good start". khabarsouthasia.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  14. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  15. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  16. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-08-25.