Sadri language

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Sadri
Nagpuri
Sadani
Native toIndia
RegionJharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
EthnicityNagpuri people
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1] [2]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Early form
Devanagari, Kaithi, Eastern Nagari, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
sck – Sadri
sdr – Oraon Sadri
Glottologsada1242[3]

Sadri (Nagpuri) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. It is sometimes considered one of the Hindi dialect.[4] It is the native language of the Sadan or Nagpuri people, an ethino-linguistic group of the Chota Nagpur region.[2] In addition to native speaker, Sadri is also used as a Lingua franca by large number of tribal groups such as: Kharia, Munda, Bhumij, Kurukh and many of these tribal group have adopted Sadri as their first language.[4] It spoken by many Tea-tribes of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh.[5] According to 2011 Cencus, There are "5108691" speaker of Nagpuri language, including "4345677" "Sadan/Sadri" and "763014" "Nagpuria". [1]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of Sadani/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [4] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country. [6]

Geographical Distribution[edit]

Nagpuri language is chiefly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of west-central Jharkhand in districts such as Latehar, Lohardaga, Chatra, Palamu, Garhwa, Gumla, Simdega, Ranchi, Khunti, West Singhbhum, North-east Chhattisgarh in district Jashpur, Surguja, Balrampur, South-east Uttarpradesh in Sonbhadra, Northern Odisha in Sundargarh and south-west Bihar in Aurangabad district.[5] [2]

History[edit]

Nagpuri language evolved from Prakrit languages. Its literary tradition started around 17th century. During reign of Nagvanshi and kings of Ramgarh, several Nagpuri poems written in Devanagari and Kaithi script. [7]

Script[edit]

In past, either Devanagari or Kaithi script were use in writing Nagpuri poems. [7] In present, Nagpuri is commonly written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and written from left to right.[8]

Vocabulary[edit]

The main source Nagpuri lexicon is Prakrit and Sanskrit. During the medieval period contact with North India resulted in introduction of some Persian words.

Media[edit]

Literature[edit]

During reign of Nagvanshi Kings and kings of Ramgarh several Nagpuri poems written in Devanagari and Kaithi script. [7]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand. Many Sadri magazines have published in various parts of India including in Ranchi, Shillong, Dooars and Tarai regions of West Bengal.

Sample phrases[edit]

Phrases Transliteration English Translation
मोर नाम महेश हेके। Mor naam Mahesh heke My name is Mahesh.
तोयं कैसन आहीस्? Toen kaiisan aahis? How are you ?
मौं ठीक आहों। Moen thik aahon I am fine.
हं Hon Yes
नीहीं Nihin No
का? Ka? What?
के? Ke? Who?
काकरे? Kakare? Why?
कैसन? Kaisan? How?
कोन? Kon? Which?
कतई खने? Katai khane? When?
हीयां आओ Hian aao Come here
मोैं घर जात होंं। Moen ghar jat hon I am going to home.
मौं खा हों। Moen khaa hon I have eaten.
मौं खाए रहों। Moen Khae rohon I had eaten.
तोयं आबे। Toen aabe You will come.
हामे लीखत ही। Hame likhot hi We are writing.
हामे लीख ही। Hame likh hi We have written.
उगो आवेला। Oogo aawela He/She come.
उ छोणा गो आवत हे। Oo Chhonra go aawot he That boy is coming.
उगो आवत रेहे। Oogo aawot rehe He/She was coming.
उगो खेली। Oogo kheli He/She will play.
उमन रोटी खा हैं। Ooman roti khha hain They have eaten bread.
उमन गेलैं। Ooman gelain They went.
उमन घर जाबैं। Ooman ghar jabain They will go home.

Alternate names[edit]

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[9][10][11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sadri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b c "Sadani / Sadri". www.southasiabibliography.de.
  5. ^ a b "Sadri". Ethnologue.
  6. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127-128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  7. ^ a b c "Giant new chapter for Nagpuri poetry". www.telegraphindia.com.
  8. ^ "Sadani / Sadri". www.southasiabibliography.de.
  9. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  10. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  11. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-08-25.