Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab, took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain. The Christian forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal, in battle against the Almohad Muslim rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula; the Caliph al-Nasir led the Almohad army, made up of people from the whole Almohad empire. Most of the men in the Almohad army came from the African side of the empire. In 1195, Alfonso VIII of Castile was defeated by the Almohads in the so-called Disaster of Alarcos. After this victory the Almohads took several important cities: Trujillo, Talavera and Uclés. In 1211, Muhammad al-Nasir crossed the Strait of Gibraltar with a powerful army, invaded Christian territory, captured Salvatierra Castle, the stronghold of the knights of the Order of Calatrava.
The threat to the Hispanic Christian kingdoms was so great that Pope Innocent III called European knights to a crusade. There were some disagreements among the members of the Christian coalition: French and other European knights did not agree with Alfonso's merciful treatment of Jews and Muslims who were defeated in the conquest of Malagón and Calatrava la Vieja, they had caused problems in Toledo, with assaults and murders in the Jewish Quarter. Alfonso crossed the mountain range that defended the Almohad camp, sneaking through the Despeñaperros Pass, being led by Martin Alhaja, a local shepherd who knew the area; the Christian coalition caught the Moorish army at camp by surprise, Alhaja was granted the hereditary title Cabeza de Vaca for his assistance to Alfonso VIII. According to legend, the Caliph had his tent surrounded with a bodyguard of slave-warriors who were chained together as a defense; the Navarrese force led by their king. The Caliph escaped; the victorious Christians seized several prizes of war: Miramamolín's tent and standard were delivered to Pope Innocent III.
Christian losses were far fewer. The losses were heavy among the Orders; those killed included Pedro Gómez de Acevedo, Alvaro Fernández de Valladares, Pedro Arias and Gomes Ramires. Ruy Díaz was so grievously wounded; the Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir himself died in Marrakech shortly after the battle, where he had fled after the defeat. The crushing defeat of the Almohads hastened their decline both in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Maghreb a decade later; that gave further impulse to the Christian Reconquest and reduced the declining power of the Moors in Iberia. Shortly after the battle, the Castilians took Baeza and Úbeda, major fortified cities near the battlefield and gateways to invade Andalusia. According to Letter from Alfonso VIII of Castile to Pope Innocent III, Baeza was evacuated and its people moved to Úbeda, here the king laid siege and put to death 60,000 muslims and enslaved many more. According to the latin chronicle of kings of Castile the number given is 100,000 Saracens, including children and women, were captured.
Thereafter, Alfonso VIII's grandson Ferdinand III of Castile took Cordova in 1236, Jaén in 1246, Seville in 1248. In 1252, Ferdinand was preparing his army for invasion of the Almohad lands in Africa, but he died in Seville on 30 May 1252, during an outbreak of plague in southern Hispania. Only Ferdinand's death prevented the Castilians from taking the war to the Almohad on the Mediterranean coast, James I of Aragon conquered the Balearic Islands and Valencia. By 1252 the Almohad empire was finished, at the mercy of another emerging African power. In 1269 a new association of African tribes, the Marinids, took control of the Maghreb, most of the former Almohad empire was under their rule; the Marinids tried to recover the former Almohad territories in Iberia, but they were definitively defeated by Alfonso XI of Castile and Afonso IV of Portugal in the Battle of Río Salado, the last major military encounter between large Christian and Muslim armies in Hispania. In 1292 Sancho IV took Tarifa, key to the control of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Granada, Almería, Málaga were the only major Muslim cities of the time remaining in the Iberian peninsula. These three cities were the core of the Emirate of Granada, ruled by the Nasrid dynasty. Granada was a vassal state of Castile, until taken by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492. Harry Harrison's 1972 alternate history/science fiction novel Tunnel Through the Deeps depicts a history where the Moors won at Las Navas de Tolosa and retained part of Spain into the 20th century. Alvira Cabrer, Martín, Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212: idea, liturgia y memoria de la batalla, Sílex Ediciones, Madrid 2012. García Fitz, Las Navas de Tolosa, Barcelona 2005. García Fitz, Was Las Navas a decisive battle?, in: Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, vol. 4, no. 1, 5–9. Nafziger, George F. and Mark W. Walton, Is
Yom Ashura or Ashura is the tenth day of Muḥarram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. For the majority of Shia Muslims Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH. Sunni Muslims have the same accounts of these events, but ceremonial mourning did not become a custom - although poems and recounting the events were and continue to be common. Mourning for the incident began immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty. In Afghanistan, Iraq, Bahrain and Pakistan, Ashura has become a national holiday, many ethnic and religious communities participate in it. In Sunni Islam, Ashura marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea, is the Islamic equivalent to Yom Kippur.
Other commemorations include Noah leaving the Muhammad's arrival in Medina. The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages. According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending; the day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims; the Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I. After succession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge their allegiance. Husayn, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was going against the teachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad. He, accompanied by his household, his sons and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca.
On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledging to support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation and that if he found them supportive as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them because an Imam should act in accordance with the Quran and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, dedicate himself to the cause of God; the mission of Muslim was successful and according to reports, 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to deal with Ibn Aqeel. In Mecca, Husayn learned assassins had been sent by Yazid to kill him in the holy city in the midst of Hajj. Husayn, to preserve the sanctity of the city and that of the Kaaba, abandoned his Hajj and encouraged others around him to follow him to Kufa without knowing the situation there had taken an adverse turn.
On the way, Husayn found that Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the vanguard of the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam, he told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at a location that had limited access to water. Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid, he ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates. On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order; the Battle of Karbala lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680.
Husayn's small group of companions and family members fought against a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river, from which they were not allowed to get water. The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī states: … hen fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses. Once the Umayyad troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynab was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus when she was imprisoned and after a year was allowed to return to Medina. According to Ignác Goldziher, ver since the black day of Karbala, the history of this family … has been a continuous series of sufferings and persecutions; these are narrated in poetry and prose, in a richly cultivated literature of martyrologies …'More touching than the tears of the Shi'is' has become an Arabic proverb.
The first assembly of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, she is reported to have deliv
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate. He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683, his appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history and his caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna. In 676, Muawiya made him his heir apparent. A few prominent Muslims from Hejaz, including Husayn, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar, refused to accept his nomination. Following his accession after Muawiya's death in 680, Yazid demanded allegiance from these three, but only ibn Umar recognized him, while the other two refused and escaped to sanctuary of Mecca; when Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by forces of Yazid in the Battle of Karbala. Killing of Husayn led to widespread resentment in Hejaz, where Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr centered his opposition to rule of Yazid, was supported by many people in Mecca and Medina.
After failed attempts to regain confidence of ibn al-Zubayr and people of Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to end the rebellion. The army defeated Medinese in the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683 and the city was given to three days of pillage. On siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba was damaged by fire; the siege ended with death of Yazid in November 683 and the empire fell to civil war. Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, death of Husayn and attack on the city of Medina by his forces. Modern historians present a mild view him, consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father. Yazid was born in 646 CE to Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan and Maisun bint Bahdal, the daughter of powerful Kalbite leader Bahdal ibn Unayf, grew up with his maternal tribe, the Kalbites, he led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and in 670 participated in an attack on Constantinople.
He performed Hajj on several occasions. By the end of the first Islamic civil war, Muawiya became sole ruler of the empire as a result of a peace treaty with Hasan ibn Ali, who had controlled most of the empire following the murder of his father Ali a few months earlier; the terms of the treaty stipulated. However, in 676, a few years before his death, Muawiya nominated Yazid. Muawiya and the Shura decided for Yazid in Damascus, where the former had summoned influential people from all provinces to the capital and convinced them one way or the other. Muawiya ordered Marwan ibn Hakam the governor of Medina, to inform the people of Medina, of Muawiya's decision. Marwan faced resistance on this announcement from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. Muawiya himself went to Medina and began pressing against the four dissenters, who fled to Mecca. Muawiya threatened some of them with life, but got only refusal. Nonetheless he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that these four men had pledged their allegiance, received allegiance for Yazid.
On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from people of Medina as well. The opponents went into silence thereafter. German orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubts the story, while Bernard Lewis writes that the homage was arranged with mix of diplomacy and bribes and, to lesser extent, by force. Before dying, Muawiya left Yazid a will, he advised him to beware of Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, predicted that the people of Iraq will entice Husayn into rebellion and abandon him. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was grandson of Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubair, on the other hand, was to be treated harshly. Muawiya advised him to treat people of Hejaz well. Upon succession, Yazid asked the governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him; the necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country. He wrote to the governor of Medina Walid ibn Utbah ibn Abu Sufyan, informing him about the death of Muawiya, he attached a small note with the letter, asking him to secure allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar.
The note read: Seize Husayn, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance. Act so fiercely. Peace be with you. Walid sought advice of Marwan ibn Hakam on the matter. Marwan suggested that ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn should be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat; when summoned by Walid, Husayn answered the summon. When Husayn met Walid and Marwan in a semi-private meeting at night, he was informed of Muawiya's death and Yazid's accession to the caliphate; when asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, such a thing should be given in public. Walid agreed to this, but Marwan interrupted demanding that Walid imprison Husayn and not let him leave until he gives the pledge of allegiance to Yazid. At this interruption, Marwan was scolded by Husayn who exited unharmed. Husayn had his own group of armed supporters waiting nearby just in case a forcible attempt was made to apprehend him.
Following Husayn's exit, Marwan admonished Walid, who in turn rebutted Marwan, justifying his refusal to harm Husayn by s
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Hasan ibn Ali
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib known as Hasan or Hassan, was the eldest son of Ali and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, was the older brother of Husayn. Muslims respect him as a grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Among Shia Muslims, Hasan is revered as the second Imam. Hasan was elected for the caliphate after his father's death, but abdicated after six or seven months to Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty to end the First Fitna. Al-Hasan was known for donating to the poor, his kindness to the poor and bondmen, for his knowledge and bravery. For the rest of his life, Hasan lived in Medina, until he died at the age of 45 and was buried in the Jannat al-Baqi cemetery in Medina, his wife, Ja'da bint al-Ash'at, is accused of having poisoned him. When Al-Hasan was born in the year 624 CE, Muhammad slaughtered a ram for the poor on the occasion of his birth, chose the name "Al-Ḥasan" for him. Fatimah shaved his head and gave the weight of his hair in silver as alms. According to Shi'ite belief, theirs was the only house that archangel Gabriel allowed to have a door to the courtyard of al-Masjid an-Nabawi.
Both Shi‘ite and Sunni Muslims consider Al-Hasan to belong to the Bayt of Muhammad, Ahl al-Kisa’, participants of the Event of Mubahalah. There are many narrations showing the respect of Muhammad toward his grandsons, including the statements that his two grandsons would be "sayyedā šabāb of Paradise", that they were Imams "whether they stand up or sit down", he reportedly predicted that Hasan would make peace between two factions of Muslims. In the year AH 10 a Christian envoy from Najran came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning ‘Isa. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation,—who was born to neither a mother nor a father — and when the Christians did not accept the Islamic doctrine about Jesus, Muhammad was instructed to call them to Mubahalah where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families. "If anyone dispute with you in this matter after the knowledge which has come to you, say: Come let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women and yourselves let us swear an oath and place the curse of God on those who lie."
Except for al-Tabari, who did not name the participants, Sunni historians mention Muhammad, Fatimah, Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn as having participated in the Mubahalah, some agree with the Shi'ite tradition that ‘Ali was among them. Accordingly, in the Shi'ite perspective, in the verse of Mubahalah, the phrase "our sons" would refer to Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn, "our women" refers to Fatimah, "ourselves" refers to ‘Ali, it is said that one day, the ‘Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid questioned the seventh Twelver Shi‘ite Imam, Musa al-Kadhim, saying why he had permitted people to call him "Son of the Apostle of Allah", while he and his forefathers were Muhammad's daughter's children, that "the progeny belongs to the male and not to the female". In response al-Kadhim recited the verses Quran, 6:84 and Quran, 6:85 and asked "Who is Jesus' father, O Commander of the faithful?". "Jesus had no father", said Harun. Al-Kadhim argued that God, in these verses, had ascribed Jesus to descendants of Prophets, through Mary, saying "similarly, we have been ascribed to the descendants of the Prophet through our mother Fatimah".
It is related that Harun asked Musa to give him more evidence and proof. Al-Kadhim thus recited the verse of Mubahalah, argued "None claims that the Prophet made someone enter under the cloak when he challenged the Christians to a contest of prayer to God, except ‘Ali, Fatimah, Al-Hasan, Al-Husayn. So in the verse,'Our sons' refers to Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn." Al-Hasan was one of the guards defending ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan when the attackers went round the latter and killed him. During the reign of ‘Ali, he was a participant in the Battles of Siffin and Jamal. According to Donaldson there was not a significant difference between the idea of Imamate, or divine right, expressed by each Imam designating his successor and other ideas of succession at first. ‘Ali had failed to nominate a successor before he died, however, on several occasions expressed his idea that "only the Prophet's Bayt were entitled to rule the Community", Hasan, whom he had appointed his inheritor, must have been the obvious choice, as he would be chosen by people to be the next caliph.
Sunnis, on the other hand, reject Imamate on the basis of their interpretation of verse 33:40 of the Qur'an which says that Muhammad, as the Khatam an-Nabiyyin, "is not the father of any of your men". This is why Muhammad did not nominate a successor, as he wanted to leave the succession to be resolved "by the Muslim Community on the basis of the Qur’anic principle of consultation"; the question Madelung proposes here is why the family members of Muhammad should not inherit other aspects of Muhammad's character such as Hukm and Imamah. Since the Sunni concept of the "true caliphate" itself defines it as a "succession of the Prophet in every respect except his prophethood", Madelung further asks "If God wanted to indicate that he should not be succeeded by any of his family, why did He not let his grandsons and other kin die like his sons?" A
Muḥarram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year, it is held to be the second holiest month, after Ramaḍān. Since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar; the tenth day of Muharram is known as the Day of Ashura, part of the Mourning of Muharram for Shia Muslims and a day of fasting for Sunni Muslims. The practice of fasting during Ashura stems from the hadith that Musa and his people obtained a victory over the Egyptian Pharaoh on the 10th day of Muharram. Shia Muslims mourn the death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honoring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until zawal to show their sympathy with Husayn. In addition there is the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date; the sighting of the new moon ushers in the Islamic New Year.
The first month, Muharram, is one of the four sacred months mentioned in the Quran, along with the seventh month of Rajab, the eleventh and twelfth months of Dhu al-Qi'dah and Dhu al-Hijjah immediately preceding Muharram. During these sacred months, warfare is forbidden. Before the advent of Islam, the Quraish and Arabs forbade warfare during those months. Muharram is a month of remembrance and modern Shia meditation, considered synonymous with Ashura. Ashura, which means the "Tenth" in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram, it is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the murder of Ḥusayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad. Shia's begin mourning from the first night of Muharram and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura; the last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura are the most important because these were the days in which Husayn and his family and followers were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Husayn and 72 of his followers were killed by the army of Yazid I at the Battle of Karbala on Yazid's orders.
The surviving members of Husayn’s family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, imprisoned there. The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 10 to 11 days shorter than the solar year, Muharram migrates throughout the solar years; the estimated start and end dates for Muharram are as follows: 1 Muharram: Seizure of the Grand Mosque in 1400 AH. 1 Muharram: Death anniversary of Umar ibn al-Khat'tab 2 Muharram: Husayn ibn Ali enters Karbala and establishes camp. Yazid's forces are present. 61 AH. 5 Muharram: Death anniversary of Baba Farid, a Punjabi Sufi saint, in 665 AH. His urs is celebrated for six days in Pakpattan, Pakistan. 7 Muharram: Access to water was banned to Husayn ibn Ali by Yazid's orders. 61 AH. 10 Muharram: Referred to as the Day of Ashurah, the day on which Husayn ibn Ali was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Shia Muslims spend the day in mourning, while Sunni Muslims fast on this day, commemorating the rescue of the people of Israel by Musa from Pharaoh.
Many Sufi Muslims fast for the same reason as the Sunnis mentioned above, but for the martyred dead in Karbala. 15 Muharram: Birth of Muhammad Sirajuddin Naqshbandi in 1297 AH. 25 Muharram: Zayn al-‘Ābidīn, fourth Shia Imam was martyred by Marvanian in 95 AH. 28 Muharram: Death anniversary of Ashraf Jahangir Semnani, an Indian Sufi saint, in 808 AH. In Islamic eschatology: Abu Hurairah relayed that the Prophet said: There will be an Ayah in Ramadan. There will'isabah in Shawwal. There will be fighting in Dhu al-Qi'dah; the pilgrim will be robbed in Dhu al-Hijjah. The prohibitions will be violated in al-Muharram. There will be sound in Safar the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal & Rabi' al-thani; the most amazing thing will happen between Jumada and Rajab. A well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress sheltering a thousand. Islamic Calendar Day of Ashura Day of Tasu'a Hosay Rawda Khwani Chelkowski, Peter J. ed. 1979. Ta’ziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran. New York: New York University Press.
Cole, Juan. 1988. Roots of North Indian Shiism in Iran and Iraq: Religion and State in Avadh, 1722-1859. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Kartomi, Margaret. 1986. ‘Tabut - a Shia Ritual Transplanted from India to Sumatra’, in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Indonesia: Essays in Honour of Professor J. D. Legge, edited by David P. Chandler and M. C. Ricklefs, Australia: Monash University, Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, 141-162. Mason, P. H. Fight-dancing and the Festival: Tabuik in Pariaman and Iemanjá in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Martial Arts Studies Journal, 2, 71-90. DOI: 10.18573/j.2016.10065 Pinault, David. 1992. The Shiites: Ritual and Popular Piety in a Muslim Community. London: I. B. Tauris. Commemoration of Muharram is permissible Optional prayers for Muharram Qalbi Zikr Muharram Quotes and Wishes Matam in Muharram "Muharram". New International Encyclopedia. 1997. AllahabadAzadari.com A day of mourning