IMDb is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos and video games, internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries and fan reviews and ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. A fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc. a subsidiary of Amazon. As of October 2018, IMDb has 5.3 million titles and 9.3 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users. The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site. Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors; the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast and other demographics of media product and personalities.
However, name, character name, plot summaries, title changes are screened before publication, take between 24 and 72 hours to appear. All registered users choose their own site name, most operate anonymously, they have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. Users are invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating, displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.
In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled "Those Eyes", about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists; when these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.
By late 1990, the lists included 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database". The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. In 1993, it moved onto the World Wide Web, under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database; the database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates.
However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom. Founder Col. Needham became the primary owner as well as the figurehead. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising and partnerships. In 1998, Jeff Bezos, owner, CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for $55 million and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. IMDb continued to expand its functionality. On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals.
IMDbPro was launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. It provides a variety of services including film production and box office details, as well as a company directory
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Peter Friedman is an American stage and television actor. Born in New York City, Friedman graduated from Hofstra University before making his Broadway debut in The Great God Brown in 1972. Friedman is Jewish. Friedman has appeared in thirteen Broadway productions, starting in 1972 with a revival of The Great God Brown, he appeared in a Broadway revival of The Visit as the Carpenter. He appeared in Piaf in 1981 on Broadway, A Soldier's Play Off-Broadway in 1981, he played the role of Humphrey Taylor in the Off-Broadway production of The Common Pursuit, from October 1986 to August 1987,receiving a nomination for the Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play. In his review for The New York Times, Frank Rich commented "The always impressive Mr. Friedman, as the embittered Wagnerian...allow us to empathize with characters who might otherwise be obnoxious or colorless."He appeared in both the Off-Broadway and Broadway productions of The Heidi Chronicles in 1988 and 1989 in the role of Scoop Rosenbaum.
He received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play for The Heidi Chronicles. He appeared Off-Broadway in the Manhattan Theatre Club production of the Donald Margulies play The Loman Family Picnic, from October 1993 to January 1994; the Best Plays of 1993-1994 commented "... Friedman inverting his usual dynamism to play the beleaguered father..."He played the role of Jewish immigrant "Tateh" in the musical Ragtime in the pre-Broadway tryout and on Broadway. He was nominated for the 1998 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Musical for his role in Ragtime, he appeared on Broadway in the Roundabout Theatre Company production of Twelve Angry Men from October 2004 to March 2005. For his role as "Frank" in Body Awareness, which ran Off-Broadway in 2008, Friedman received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play; the talkinbroadway.com reviewer noted that "...
Friedman milks Frank’s own self-imposed, question-mark callousness for all it’s worth." He appeared in the Williamstown Theatre Festival production of Amy Herzog's After the Revolution in July and August 2010 as "Ben", reprised his role in the Off-Broadway production at Playwrights Horizons from October to November 2010. The New York Times reviewer wrote: "Mr. Friedman burrows into Ben’s anguish at being cut off by the daughter he raised to carry on the family tradition, the wound smarting all the more because he knows his own mistakes have caused the fissure."He played the role of "Doug" in the Off-Broadway play The Great God Pan from December 2012 to January 2013, received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play. The New York Times reviewer commented: "The recollections of his parents, small roles incisively portrayed by the reliable Becky Ann Baker and Peter Friedman..." From August 2013 to September 2013 he played the role of "Meckel" in the Off-Broadway production of Lauren Yee's The Hatmaker's Wife.
Ben Brantley, in his review for The New York Times wrote: "Mr. Friedman brings unblushing good will and vivacity to assignments that include walking around with a clothespin on his nose..." On television, Friedman starred as George Silver in Brooklyn Bridge (1991-1993, has made numerous guest appearances in such series as Miami Vice, NYPD Blue, Without a Trace, Ghost Whisperer, The Affair and Damages, the miniseries Perfect Murder, Perfect Town: JonBenét and the City of Boulder. He appeared in a Law & Order episode titled "Attorney Client" as defense lawyer Harold Jensen, broadcast on May 8, 2002. Early in his career he performed in several episodes of The Muppet Show in its first and third seasons, spent a brief time on Sesame Street, he appears in the HBO series Succession. Friedman's many feature film credits include Prince of the City, The Seventh Sign, Single White Female, Blink, I'm Not Rappaport, I Shot Andy Warhol,Paycheck, The Savages, I'm Not There and Breaking Upwards. Of his role in Safe, the All Movie Guide reviewer wrote: Avid filmgoers and adherents to the indie film movement that swept through America in the early to mid-'90s will invariably remember Peter Friedman as the sneaky, New Age-espousing "self-help guru" who attempts to offer ailing Julianne Moore a hand up -- but only succeeds in draining her wallet -- in Todd Haynes' harrowing drama'Safe'.
In truth, that role represented just one of many memorable cinematic contributions for the prolific versatile character actor, whose resumé reads like a best-of list of both independent film and Hollywood product. In 1990, Friedman married Joan Allen. Though they divorced in 2002, they chose to live close to one another in order to share time with their daughter, Sadie. Peter Friedman at the Internet Broadway Database Peter Friedman at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Peter Friedman on IMDb
Julianne Moore is an American actress and children's author. Prolific in film since the early 1990s, she is known for her portrayals of troubled women in both independent and Hollywood films, has received many accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actress. After studying theatre at Boston University, Moore began her career with a series of television roles. From 1985 to 1988, she was a regular in the soap opera As the World Turns, earning a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance, her film debut was in Tales from the Darkside: The Movie, she continued to play small roles for the next four years, including in the thriller The Hand That Rocks the Cradle. Moore first received critical attention with Robert Altman's Short Cuts, successive performances in Vanya on 42nd Street and Safe continued this acclaim. Starring roles in the blockbusters Nine Months and The Lost World: Jurassic Park established her as a leading lady in Hollywood. Moore received considerable recognition in the late 1990s and early 2000s, earning Oscar nominations for Boogie Nights, The End of the Affair, Far from Heaven and The Hours.
In the first of these, she played a 1970s pornographic actress, while the other three featured her as an unhappy, mid-20th century housewife. She had success with the films The Big Lebowski, Hannibal, Children of Men, A Single Man, The Kids Are All Right, Crazy, Stupid and won several awards for her portrayal of Sarah Palin in the television film Game Change. Moore went on to give an Academy Award-winning performance as an Alzheimer's patient in Still Alice and was named Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival for Maps to the Stars, she appeared in the final two films of The Hunger Games series and starred in the spy film Kingsman: The Golden Circle. In addition to acting, Moore has written a series of children's books about a character named "Freckleface Strawberry", she is married to director Bart Freundlich. Moore was born Julie Anne Smith on December 3, 1960, at the Fort Bragg army installation in North Carolina, the oldest of 3 siblings, her father, Peter Moore Smith, a paratrooper in the United States Army during the Vietnam War, attained the rank of colonel and became a military judge.
Her Scottish mother, was a psychologist and social worker from Greenock, who emigrated to the United States in 1951 with her family. Moore has a younger sister, Valerie Smith, a younger brother, the novelist Peter Moore Smith; as Moore is half-Scottish, she claimed British citizenship in 2011 to honor her deceased mother. Moore moved around the United States as a child, due to her father's occupation, she was close to her family as a result, but has said she never had the feeling of coming from one particular place. The family lived in multiple locations, including Alabama, Texas, Nebraska, New York, Virginia, Moore attended nine different schools; the constant relocating made her an insecure child, she struggled to establish friendships. Despite these difficulties, Moore remarked that an itinerant lifestyle was beneficial to her future career: "When you move around a lot, you learn that behavior is mutable. I would change, depending on where I was... It teaches you to watch, to reinvent, that character can change."When Moore was 16, the family moved from Falls Church, where Moore had been attending J.
E. B. Stuart High School, to Frankfurt, where she attended Frankfurt American High School, she was clever and studious, a self-proclaimed "good girl", she planned to become a doctor. She had never considered performing, or attended the theatre, but she was an avid reader and it was this hobby that led her to begin acting at the school, she appeared in several plays, including Tartuffe and Medea, with the encouragement of her English teacher, she chose to pursue a theatrical career. Moore's parents supported her decision, but asked that she train at university to provide the added security of a college degree, she was accepted to Boston University and graduated with a BFA in Theatre in 1983. Moore moved to New York City after graduating, worked as a waitress. After registering her stage name with Actors' Equity, she began her career in 1985 with off-Broadway theatre, her first screen role came in an episode of the soap opera The Edge of Night. Her break came the following year. Playing the dual roles of half-sisters Frannie and Sabrina Hughes, she found this intensive work to be an important learning experience, she said of it fondly: "I gained confidence and learned to take responsibility."
Moore performed on the show until 1988, when she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Ingenue in a Drama Series. Before leaving As the World Turns, she had a role in the 1987 CBS miniseries I'll Take Manhattan. Once she had finished the soap opera, she turned to the stage to play Ophelia in a Guthrie Theater production of Hamlet opposite Željko Ivanek; the actress returned intermittently to television over the next three years, appearing in the TV movies Money, Murder, The Last to Go, Cast a Deadly Spell. In 1990, Moore began working with stage director Andre Gregory on a workshop theatre production of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya. Described by Moore as "one of the most fundamentally important acting experiences I had", the group spent four years exploring the text and giving intimate performances to friends. In 1990, Moore made her cinematic debut as a mummy's victim in Tales from the Darksid
Todd Haynes is an American independent film director and producer. He is considered a pioneer of the New Queer Cinema movement of filmmaking that emerged in the early 1990s. Haynes first gained public attention with his controversial short film Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story, which chronicles singer Karen Carpenter's tragic life and death, using Barbie dolls as actors. Haynes had not obtained proper licensing to use the Carpenters' music, prompting a lawsuit from Richard Carpenter, whom the film portrayed in an unflattering light, banning the film's distribution. Superstar became a cult classic. Haynes' feature directorial debut, Poison, a provocative, three-part exploration of AIDS-era queer perceptions and subversions, established him as a formidable talent and figure of a new transgressive cinema. Poison won the Sundance Film Festival's Grand Jury Prize and is regarded as a seminal work of New Queer Cinema. Haynes received further acclaim for his second feature film Safe, a symbolic portrait of a housewife who develops extreme allergic reactions to her suburban life.
Safe was voted the best film of the 1990s by The Village Voice Film Poll. Haynes' next feature, Velvet Goldmine, is a tribute to the 1970s glam rock era, drawing on the rock histories and mythologies of David Bowie, Iggy Pop, Lou Reed; the film received the Special Jury Prize for Best Artistic Contribution at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival and an Academy Award nomination for Best Costume Design. Haynes gained critical acclaim and a measure of mainstream success with his 2002 feature, Far from Heaven. Inspired by the cinematic language of the films of Douglas Sirk, Far From Heaven is a 1950s-set melodrama about a Connecticut housewife who discovers that her husband is gay and falls in love with her African-American gardener; the film received four Academy Award nominations, including Best Original Screenplay for Haynes. His fifth feature, marked another shift in direction. A nonlinear biopic, I'm Not There depicts various facets of Bob Dylan through seven fictionalized characters played by five actors and an actress.
I'm Not There received critical acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress for Cate Blanchett. In 2011, Haynes directed and co-wrote Mildred Pierce, a five-hour mini-series for HBO, which garnered 21 Emmy Award nominations, winning five, as well as four Golden Globe Award nominations and a win for lead actress Kate Winslet. In 2015, Haynes returned to the big screen with Carol, his sixth feature film and the first film not written by him. Based on Patricia Highsmith's seminal romance novel The Price of Salt, Carol is the story of a forbidden love affair between two women from different classes and backgrounds in early 1950s New York City; the film received critical acclaim and many accolades including a nomination for the Palme d'Or, six Academy Award nominations, five Golden Globe Award nominations, nine BAFTA Award nominations. Haynes was born January 2, 1961, in Los Angeles, grew up in nearby Encino, his father, Allen E. Haynes, was a cosmetics importer, his mother, Sherry Lynne, studied acting.
Haynes is Jewish on his mother's side. His younger sister is Gwynneth Haynes of the band Sophe Lux. Haynes developed an interest in film at an early age, produced a short film, The Suicide, while still in high school, he studied semiotics at Brown University, where he directed his first short film Assassins: A Film Concerning Rimbaud, inspired by the French poet Arthur Rimbaud. Haynes studied art and semiotics at Brown University prior to his bigger roles on the big screen. At Brown, he met Christine Vachon. After graduating with a BA in Arts and Semiotics, Haynes moved to New York City and became involved in the independent film scene, launching Apparatus Productions, a non-profit organization for the support of independent film. According to Cinematic/Sexual: An Interview with Todd Haynes, Haynes responded to Justin Wyatt's question, asking whether his academic background affected his film-making practice. Haynes replied saying his high school teacher taught him a valuable lesson that Reality can’t be a criterion for judging the success or failure of a film, or its effect on you.
It was a simple, but eye-opening, way of approaching the film." This shaped Haynes' style within his professional career. In 1987, while an MFA student at Bard College, Haynes made a short, Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story, which chronicles the life of American pop singer Karen Carpenter, using Barbie dolls as actors; the film presents Carpenter's struggle with anorexia and bulimia, featuring several close-ups of Ipecac. Carpenter's chronic weight loss was portrayed by using a "Karen" Barbie doll with the face and body whittled away with a knife, leaving the doll looking skeletonized; the film is notable for staged dream sequences in which Karen, in a state of deteriorating mental health, imagines being spanked by her father. Superstar featured extensive use of Carpenter songs. Haynes failed to obtain proper licensing to use the music, prompting a lawsuit from Karen's brother Richard for copyright infringement. Carpenter was also offended by Haynes' unflattering portrayal of him as a narcissistic bully, along with several broadly dropped suggestions that he was gay and in the closet.
Carpenter won his lawsuit, Superstar was removed from public distribution.
Box Office Mojo
Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic, algorithmic way. The site was founded in 1999, was bought in 2008 by IMDb, which itself is owned by Amazon; the website is used within the film industry as a source of data. From 2002–11, Box Office Mojo maintained popular forums on its website. Brandon Gray began the site in 1999. In 2002, Gray grew the site to nearly two million readers. In July 2008, the company was purchased by Amazon.com through its subsidiary, the Internet Movie Database. From 2002–11, Box Office Mojo had forums, which were a popular place for box office "fanatics", the site at one time was home to several popular movie games and quizzes, until these were summarily canceled for undisclosed reasons. Box Office Mojo had forums with more than 16,500 registered users. On November 2, 2011 the forums were closed along with any user accounts, users were invited to join IMDb's message boards though not all the same features were available there; the IMDB forums were subsequently closed February 20, 2017.
Tracking still follows to the day by day, actual tabulation of distributors, making it possible to see the general trend of a film's "earnings trajectory". On October 10, 2014, all traffic to Box Office Mojo was redirected to IMDb's box office page, before returning the following day. Queries about the closure to IMDb and Amazon representatives were met with no response. Neither Brandon Gray, who founded the website but left several years ago after its sale to Amazon, nor Ray Subers, the operator at that time, would respond either. On Ray Subers' Twitter account, he revealed the website's return, but stated he would not answer any questions pertaining to closure. Subers subsequently left the website seven months later; the international section covers the weekly box office of 50 countries and includes historical box office information from three more, as well as provides information for box office results for individual films from up to 107. The site creates an overall weekend chart, combining all box office returns from around the world, excluding the United States and Canada.
The overall weekend chart tracks the Top 40 films as well as fifty additional films with no ranking. Box Office Mojo International reports the release schedule of upcoming films for Australia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Norway and the CIS, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, India; the site additionally has yearly and all time features for its various territories. However, Box Office Mojo does not include all the international films some with high international box office, in the Mojo Yearly and All Time Worldwide Box Office Charts. Official website