The Yugoslav Partisans, or the National Liberation Army the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia, was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II. It is considered to be Europe's most effective anti-Axis resistance movement during World War II compared to the Polish resistance movement, albeit the latter was a non-communist autonomous movement; the Yugoslav Resistance was led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II. Its commander was Marshal Josip Broz Tito. One of two objectives of the movement, the military arm of the Unitary National Liberation Front coalition, led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and represented by the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav wartime deliberative assembly, was to fight the occupying forces; until British supplies began to arrive in appreciable quantities in 1944, the occupiers were the only source of arms. The other objective was to create a federal multi-ethnic communist state in Yugoslavia.
To this end, the KPJ attempted to appeal to all the various ethnic groups within Yugoslavia, by preserving the rights of each group. The objectives of the rival resistance movement which emerged some weeks earlier, the Chetniks, were the retention of the Yugoslav monarchy, ensuring the safety of ethnic Serb populations, the establishment of a Greater Serbia through the ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs from territories they considered rightfully and Serbian. Relations between the two movements were uneasy from the start, but from October 1941 they degenerated into full-scale conflict. To the Chetniks, Tito's pan-ethnic policies seemed anti-Serbian, whereas the Chetniks' royalism was anathema to the communists. In the early part of the war Partisan forces were predominantly composed of Serbs. In that period names of Muslim and Croat commanders of Partisan forces had to be changed to protect them from their predominantly Serb colleagues. By late 1944, the total forces of the Partisans numbered 650,000 men and women organized in four field armies and 52 divisions, which engaged in conventional warfare.
By April 1945, the Partisans numbered over 800,000. The movement was referred to as the "Partisans" throughout the war. However, due to frequent changes in size and structural reorganizations, the Partisans throughout their history held four full official names: National Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia National Liberation Partisan and Volunteer Army of Yugoslavia National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia. From November 1942, the Partisan military as a whole was referred to as the National Liberation Army, whereas the term "Partisans" acquired a wider sense in referring to the entire resistance faction. Yugoslav Army – on 1 March 1945, the National Liberation Army was transformed into the regular armed forces of Yugoslavia and renamed accordingly; the movement was named National Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia and held that name from June 1941 to January 1942. Because of this, their short name became the "Partisans", stuck henceforward. Between January 1942 and November 1942, the movement's full official name was National Liberation Partisan and Volunteer Army of Yugoslavia.
The changes were meant to reflect the movement's character as a "volunteer army". In November 1942 the movement was renamed into the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia, a name which it held until the end of the war; this last official name is the full name most associated with the Partisans, reflects the fact that the proletarian brigades and other mobile units were organized into the National Liberation Army. The name change reflects the fact that the latter superseded in importance the partisan detachments themselves. Shortly before the end of the war, in March 1945, all resistance forces were reorganized into the regular armed force of Yugoslavia and renamed Yugoslav Army, it would keep this name until 1951. On 6 April 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded from all sides by the Axis powers by German forces, but including Italian and Bulgarian formations. During the invasion, Belgrade was bombed by the Luftwaffe; the invasion lasted little more than ten days, ending with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on 17 April.
Besides being hopelessly ill-equipped when compared to the Wehrmacht, the Army attempted to defend all borders but only managed to thinly spread the limited resources available. The terms of the capitulation were severe, as the Axis proceeded to dismember Yugoslavia. Germany occupied northern Slovenia, while retaining direct occupation over a rump Serbian state and considerable influence over its newly created puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, which extended over much of today's Croatia and contained all of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and Syrmia region of modern-day Serbia. Mussolini's Italy occupied the remainder of Slovenia and large chunks of the coastal Dalmatia region (along with nearly
Sylvia Plath was an American poet and short-story writer. Born in Boston, she studied at Smith College and Newnham College at the University of Cambridge before receiving acclaim as a poet and writer, she married fellow poet Ted Hughes in 1956, they lived together in the United States and in England. They had two children and Nicholas, before separating in 1962. Plath was clinically depressed for most of her adult life, was treated multiple times with electroconvulsive therapy, she died by suicide in 1963. Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for two of her published collections, The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel, The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published shortly before her death. In 1982, she won a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for The Collected Poems. Sylvia Plath was born on October 1932, in Boston, Massachusetts, her mother, Aurelia Schober Plath, was a second-generation American of Austrian descent, her father, Otto Plath, was from Grabow, Germany.
Plath's father was an entomologist and a professor of biology at Boston University who authored a book about bumblebees. On April 27, 1935, Plath's brother Warren was born, in 1936 the family moved from 24 Prince Street in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, to 92 Johnson Avenue, Massachusetts. Plath's mother, had grown up in Winthrop, her maternal grandparents, the Schobers, had lived in a section of the town called Point Shirley, a location mentioned in Plath's poetry. While living in Winthrop, eight-year-old Plath published her first poem in the Boston Herald's children's section. Over the next few years, Plath published multiple poems in regional newspapers. At age 11, Plath began keeping a journal. In addition to writing, she showed early promise as an artist, winning an award for her paintings from the Scholastic Art & Writing Awards in 1947. "Even in her youth, Plath was ambitiously driven to succeed". Plath had an IQ of around 160. Otto Plath died on November 5, 1940, a week and a half after Plath's eighth birthday, of complications following the amputation of a foot due to untreated diabetes.
He had become ill shortly. Comparing the similarities between his friend's symptoms and his own, Otto became convinced that he, had lung cancer and did not seek treatment until his diabetes had progressed too far. Raised as a Unitarian, Plath experienced a loss of faith after her father's death and remained ambivalent about religion throughout her life, her father was buried in Massachusetts. A visit to her father's grave prompted Plath to write the poem "Electra on Azalea Path". After Otto's death, Aurelia moved her children and her parents to 26 Elmwood Road, Massachusetts in 1942. In one of her last prose pieces, Plath commented that her first nine years "sealed themselves off like a ship in a bottle—beautiful inaccessible, obsolete, a fine, white flying myth". Plath attended Bradford Senior High School in Wellesley, graduating in 1950. Just after graduating from high school, she had her first national publication in the Christian Science Monitor. In 1950, Plath attended a private woman's liberal arts college in Massachusetts.
She excelled academically, wrote to her mother, "The world is splitting open at my feet like a ripe, juicy watermelon". While at Smith, she lived in Lawrence House, a plaque can be found outside of her old room, she edited The Smith Review. After her third year of college, Plath was awarded a coveted position as a guest editor at Mademoiselle magazine, during which she spent a month in New York City; the experience was not what she had hoped it would be, many of the events that took place during that summer were used as inspiration for her novel The Bell Jar. She was furious at not being at a meeting the editor had arranged with Welsh poet Dylan Thomas—a writer whom she loved, said one of her boyfriends, "more than life itself." She hung around the White Horse Tavern and the Chelsea Hotel for two days, hoping to meet Thomas, but he was on his way home. A few weeks she slashed her legs to see if she had enough "courage" to commit suicide. During this time she was refused admission to the Harvard writing seminar.
Following electroconvulsive therapy for depression, Plath made her first medically documented suicide attempt on August 24, 1953 by crawling under her house and taking her mother's sleeping pills. She survived this first suicide attempt after lying in a crawl space for three days writing that she "blissfully succumbed to the whirling blackness that I believed was eternal oblivion." She spent the next six months in psychiatric care, receiving more electric and insulin shock treatment under the care of Dr. Ruth Beuscher, her stay at McLean Hospital and her Smith Scholarship were paid for by Olive Higgins Prouty, who had recovered from a mental breakdown herself. Plath returned to college. In January 1955, she submitted her thesis, The Magic Mirror: A Study of the Double in Two of Dostoyevsky's Novels, in June graduated from Smith with highest honors, she obtained a Fulbright Scholarship to study at Newnham College, one of the two women-only colleges of the University of Cambridge in England, where she continued writing poetry and publishing her work in the student newspaper Varsity.
At Newnham, she studied with Dorothea Krook. She spent her first year spring holidays traveling around Europe. Plath first met poet Ted Hughes on February 1956, at a party in Cambridge. In a 1961 BBC interview (now held by the Brit
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Henrik Johan Ibsen was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, poet. As one of the founders of modernism in theatre, Ibsen is referred to as "the father of realism" and one of the most influential playwrights of his time, his major works include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, The Wild Duck, When We Dead Awaken, Pillars of Society, The Lady from the Sea, The Master Builder, John Gabriel Borkman. He is the most performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare, by the early 20th century A Doll's House became the world's most performed play. Several of his dramas were considered scandalous to many of his era, when European theatre was expected to model strict morals of family life and propriety. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind the façades, revealing much, disquieting to a number of his contemporaries, he had a critical eye and conducted a free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. His early poetic and cinematic play Peer Gynt, has strong surreal elements.
Ibsen is ranked as one of the most distinguished playwrights in the European tradition. Richard Hornby describes him as "a profound poetic dramatist—the best since Shakespeare", he is regarded as the most important playwright since Shakespeare. He influenced other playwrights and novelists such as George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller, James Joyce, Eugene O'Neill, Miroslav Krleža. Ibsen was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902, 1903, 1904. Ibsen wrote his plays in Danish and they were published by the Danish publisher Gyldendal. Although most of his plays are set in Norway—often in places reminiscent of Skien, the port town where he grew up—Ibsen lived for 27 years in Italy and Germany, visited Norway during his most productive years. Born into a merchant family connected to the patriciate of Skien, Ibsen shaped his dramas according to his family background, he was the father of Prime Minister Sigurd Ibsen. Ibsen's dramas have a strong influence upon contemporary culture.
Ibsen was born to Knud Ibsen and Marichen Altenburg, into a well-to-do merchant family, in the small port town of Skien in Telemark county, a city, noted for shipping timber. As he wrote in an 1882 letter to critic and scholar Georg Brandes, "my parents were members on both sides of the most respected families in Skien", explaining that he was related with "just about all the patrician families who dominated the place and its surroundings", mentioning the families Paus, von der Lippe and Blom. Ibsen's grandfather, ship captain Henrich Ibsen, had died at sea in 1797, Knud Ibsen was raised on the estate of ship-owner Ole Paus, after his mother Johanne, née Plesner, remarried. Knud Ibsen's half-brothers included lawyer and politician Christian Cornelius Paus and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus, lawyer Henrik Johan Paus, who grew up with Ibsen's mother in the Altenburg home and after whom Henrik Ibsen was named. Knud Ibsen's paternal ancestors were ship captains of Danish origin, but he decided to become a merchant, had some initial success.
His marriage to Marichen Altenburg, a daughter of ship-owner Johan Andreas Altenburg and Hedevig Christine Paus, was a successful match. Theodore Jorgenson points out that "Henrik's ancestry reached back into the important Telemark family of Paus both on the father's and on the mother's side. Hedvig Paus must have been well known to the young dramatist, for she lived until 1848." Henrik Ibsen was fascinated by his parents' "strange incestuous marriage," and would treat the subject of incestuous relationships in several plays, notably his masterpiece Rosmersholm. When Henrik Ibsen was around seven years old, his father's fortunes took a significant turn for the worse, the family was forced to sell the major Altenburg building in central Skien and move permanently to their small summer house, Venstøp, outside of the city. Henrik's sister Hedvig would write about their mother: "She was a quiet, lovable woman, the soul of the house, everything to her husband and children, she sacrificed herself time again.
There was no bitterness or reproach in her." The Ibsen family moved to a city house, owned by Knud Ibsen's half-brother, wealthy banker and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus. His father's financial ruin would have a strong influence on Ibsen's work. Ibsen would both name characters in his plays after his own family. A central theme in Ibsen's plays is the portrayal of suffering women, echoing his mother Marichen Altenburg. At fifteen, Ibsen was forced to leave school, he began writing plays. In 1846, when Ibsen was 18, he had a liaison with Else Sophie Jensdatter Birkedalen which produced a son, Hans Jacob Hendrichsen Birkdalen, whose upbringing Ibsen paid for until the boy was fourteen, though Ibsen never saw Hans Jacob. Ibsen went to Christiania intending to matriculate at the university, he soon rejected the idea (his earlier attempts at entering university were blocked as he did not pass all
Sarajevo War Theatre
The Sarajevo War Theatre is a theatre in Sarajevo and Herzegovina. It was founded on 17 May 1992 on the initiative of Dubravko Bibanović, Gradimir Gojer, Đorđe Mačkić and Safet Plakalo during the infamous Siege of Sarajevo, it was a gathering place for theatre professionals and Academy of Performing Arts students for the duration of the war. Today, it is the premium experimental showcase in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is one of the venues for the MESS International Theatre Festival and the sole venue for the Open University of Sarajevo. With the start of the Siege of Sarajevo the city's cultural life was halted. Actors and associates of the three existing professional theatres in Sarajevo, which had ceased all activities at the beginning of the Bosnian war, gathered around the concept of an ad-hoc war-time experimental theatre. After SARTR was established they proceeded to give numerous performances during the four years of siege; the theatre was formed around a grass roots concept of showcasing anti-war pieces that were directed by students of the Academy of Performing Arts.
In January 1993, SARTR was recognised by the Sarajevo City Assembly as a public institution of special significance for the defence of Sarajevo. SARTR's founding director, Safet Plakalo, has spoken of SARTR as Sarajevo's spiritual weapon against the surrealism of war, summarising its charter in the catch-cry Theatre Against Death; the theatre's first war-time production was Shelter, headlined by acclaimed Bosnian actress Jasna Diklić, which had a theatrical run of 97 showings throughout the siege. SARTR was the first Bosnian theatre to leave the country during the war and showcase its productions abroad, visiting the Avignon Festival in 1994. With the end of the conflict, SARTR continued operating as a public theatre. In 1997 the Sarajevo Canton took over the position of founder. A new team of young theatre professionals, including Nihad Kreševljaković and Aleš Kurt, took over the management positions and started expanding SARTRs programme and reach. Apart from having a professional weekly programme, the theatre still showcases student productions from the Academy of Performing Arts and hosts numerous festivals and engaged projects such as the Open University of Sarajevo.
In 2003 the theatre received the Sixth April Award of Sarajevo - the highest decoration given by the city. Despite limited resources, SARTR is today a successful professional theatre company with a number of international co-productions and awards under its belt. Official website
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy. The term sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto. By the thirteenth century it signified a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure. Conventions associated with the sonnet have evolved over its history. Writers of sonnets are sometimes called "sonneteers"; the sonnet was created by Giacomo da Lentini, head of the Sicilian School under Emperor Frederick II. Guittone d'Arezzo rediscovered it and brought it to Tuscany where he adapted it to his language when he founded the Siculo-Tuscan School, or Guittonian school of poetry, he wrote 250 sonnets. Other Italian poets of the time, including Dante Alighieri and Guido Cavalcanti, wrote sonnets, but the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. Other fine examples were written by Michelangelo; the structure of a typical Italian sonnet of the time included two parts that together formed a compact form of "argument". First, the octave, forms the "proposition", which describes a "problem", or "question", followed by a sestet, which proposes a "resolution".
The ninth line initiates what is called the "turn", or "volta", which signals the move from proposition to resolution. In sonnets that don't follow the problem/resolution structure, the ninth line still marks a "turn" by signaling a change in the tone, mood, or stance of the poem; the ABBA ABBA pattern became the standard for Italian sonnets. For the sestet there were two different possibilities: CDE CDE and CDC CDC. In time, other variants on this rhyming scheme were introduced, such as CDCDCD. Petrarch used an ABBA ABBA pattern for the octave, followed by either CDE CDE or CDC CDC rhymes in the sestet; the Crybin variant of the Italian sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABBA CDDC EFG EFG. In English, both the English or Shakespearean sonnet, the Italian Petrarchan sonnet are traditionally written in iambic pentameter; the first known sonnets in English, written by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, used the Italian, Petrarchan form, as did sonnets by English poets, including John Milton, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
Early twentieth-century American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay wrote Petrarchan sonnets. On His Blindness by Milton, gives a sense of the Petrarchan rhyme scheme: Most Sonnets in Dante's La Vita Nuova are Petrarchan. Chapter VII gives sonnet "O voi che per la via", with two sestets and two quatrains, Ch. VIII, "Morte villana", with two sestets and two quatrains; the sole confirmed surviving sonnet in the Occitan language is confidently dated to 1284, is conserved only in troubadour manuscript P, an Italian chansonnier of 1310, now XLI.42 in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence. It is addressed to Peter III of Aragon, it employs the rhyme scheme ABAB ABAB CDCDCD. This poem is interesting for its information on north Italian perspectives concerning the War of the Sicilian Vespers, the conflict between the Angevins and Aragonese for Sicily. Peter III and the Aragonese cause was popular in northern Italy at the time and Paolo's sonnet is a celebration of his victory over the Angevins and Capetians in the Aragonese Crusade: An Occitan sonnet, dated to 1321 and assigned to one "William of Almarichi", is found in Jean de Nostredame and cited in Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni's, Istoria della volgar poesia.
It congratulates Robert of Naples on his recent victory. Its authenticity is dubious. There are two poorly regarded sonnets by the Italian Dante de Maiano. In the 16th century, around Ronsard ), Joachim du Bellay and Jean Antoine de Baïf, there formed a group of radical young noble poets of the court, who began writing in, amongst other forms of poetry, the Petrarchan sonnet cycle; the character of La Pléiade literary program was given in Du Bellay's manifesto, the "Defense and Illustration of the French Language", which maintained that French was a worthy language for literary expression and which promulgated a program of linguistic and literary production and purification. By the late 17th century poets on relied on stanza forms incorporating rhymed couplets, by the 18th century fixed-form poems – and, in particular, the sonnet – were avoided; the resulting versification – less constrained by meter and rhyme patterns than Renaissance poetry – more mirrored prose. The Romantics were responsible for a return to many of the fixed-form poems used during the 15th and 16th centuries, as well as for the creation of new forms.
The sonnet however was little used until the Parnassians brought it back into favor, the sonnet would subsequently find its most significant practitioner in Charles Baudelaire. The traditional French sonnet form was however modified by Baudelaire, who used 32 different forms of sonnet with non-traditional rhyme patterns to great effect in his Les Fleurs du mal; when English sonnets were introduced by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century, his sonnets and those of his contemporary the Earl of Surrey were chiefly translations from the Italian of Petrarch and the French of Ronsard and others. While Wyatt introduced the