Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
1975 BRDC International Trophy
The 1975 BRDC International Trophy, formally known as the 27th Daily Express International Trophy, was a non-championship Formula One race held at Silverstone Circuit on 13 April 1975. It was organised by the circuit owners, the British Racing Drivers' Club, as a "curtain raiser" for the European portion of the 1975 Formula One season. James Hunt, driving for the small Hesketh Racing team, set the fastest lap time in practice and took pole position for the start. In the race he continued to run at the front, heading the leading pack for many laps and setting fastest lap of the race on lap 14. Third-place runner, McLaren driver Emerson Fittipaldi, equalled his time on lap 23. However, Hunt's engine failed at the start of lap 26 and the lead was inherited by second-place runner Niki Lauda in his Ferrari. Lauda held the lead for the remainder of the race, despite Fittipaldi "pull out the stops" to try and pass him. At the finishing flag, Fittipaldi was only one-tenth of a second behind Lauda, with Mario Andretti in a Parnelli taking the last podium position in third.
Citations Other sourcesRace results at ChicaneF1.com
The Ford GT40 is a high-performance endurance racing car with the Mk I, Mk II, Mk III model cars being based upon the British Lola Mk6, were designed and built in England, while the GT40 Mk IV model was designed and built in the United States. The range was powered by a series of American-built engines modified for racing; the GT40 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans four consecutive times, from 1966 to 1969, including a 1-2-3 finish in 1966. In 1966, with Henry Ford II in attendance at Le Mans, the Mk II GT40 provided Ford with the first overall Le Mans victory for an American manufacturer, the first victory for an American manufacturer at a major European race since Jimmy Murphy´s triumph with Duesenberg at the 1921 French Grand Prix; the Mk IV GT40 that won Le Mans in 1967 is the only car designed and built in the United States to achieve the overall win at Le Mans. The GT40 was produced to win long-distance sports car races against Ferrari. Ford/Shelby chassis #P-1075, which won in 1968 and 1969, is the first car in Le Mans history to win the race more than once, using the same chassis.
Using an American Ford V-8 engine of 4.7-liter displacement capacity, it was enlarged to the 4.9-liter engine, with custom designed alloy Gurney–Weslake cylinder heads. The car was named the GT with the 40 representing its overall height of 40 inches as required by the rules. Large-displacement Ford V8 engines were used, compared with the Ferrari V12, which displaced 3.0 liters or 4.0 liters. Early cars were named "Ford GT"; the name "GT40" was the name of Ford's project to prepare the cars for the international endurance racing circuit, the quest to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The first 12 "prototype" vehicles carried serial numbers GT-101 through GT-112; the "production" began and the subsequent cars—the MkI, MkII, MkIII, MkV —were numbered GT40P/1000 through GT40P/1145, thus "GT40s". The name of Ford's project, the serial numbers dispel the story that "GT40" was "only a nickname." The contemporary Ford GT is a modern homage to the GT40. Henry Ford II had wanted a Ford at Le Mans since the early 1960s.
In early 1963, Ford received word through a European intermediary that Enzo Ferrari was interested in selling to Ford Motor Company. Ford spent several million dollars in an audit of Ferrari factory assets and in legal negotiations, only to have Ferrari unilaterally cut off talks at a late stage due to disputes about the ability to direct open wheel racing. Ferrari, who wanted to remain the sole operator of his company's motor sports division, was angered when he was told that he would not be allowed to race at the Indianapolis 500 if the deal went through since Ford fielded Indy cars using its own engine, didn't want competition from Ferrari. Enzo cut the deal off out of spite and Henry Ford II, directed his racing division to find a company that could build a Ferrari-beater on the world endurance-racing circuit. To this end Ford began negotiation with Lotus and Cooper. Cooper had no experience in GT or prototype and its performances in Formula One were declining. Lotus was a Ford partner for their Indy 500 project, but Ford executives doubted the ability of Lotus to handle this new project.
Colin Chapman had similar views as he asked a high price for his contribution and insisted that the car should be named a Lotus-Ford. The Lola proposal was chosen, since Lola had used a Ford V8 engine in their mid-engined Lola Mk6, it was one of the most advanced racing cars of the time, made a noted performance in Le Mans 1963 though the car did not finish, due to low gearing and slow revving out on the Mulsanne Straight. However, Eric Broadley, Lola Cars' owner and chief designer, agreed on a short-term personal contribution to the project without involving Lola Cars; the agreement with Broadley included a one-year collaboration between Ford and Broadley, the sale of the two Lola Mk 6 chassis builds to Ford. To form the development team, Ford hired the ex-Aston Martin team manager John Wyer. Ford Motor Co. engineer Roy Lunn was sent to England. Despite the small engine of the Mustang I, Lunn was the only Dearborn engineer to have some experience with a mid-engined car. Overseen by Harley Copp, the team of Broadley and Wyer began working on the new car at the Lola Factory in Bromley.
At the end of 1963 the team moved near Heathrow Airport. Ford established Ford Advanced Vehicles Ltd, a new subsidiary under the direction of Wyer, to manage the project; the first chassis built by Abbey Panels of Coventry was delivered on 16 March 1963, with fibre-glass mouldings produced by Fibre Glass Engineering Ltd of Farnham. The first "Ford GT" the GT/101 was unveiled in England on 1 April and soon after exhibited in New York. Purchase price of the completed car for competition use was £5,200, it was powered by the 4.7 L 289 cu in Fairlane engine with a Colotti transaxle, the same power plant was used by the Lola GT and the single-seater Lotus 29 that came in a controversial second at the Indy 500 in 1963. The Ford GT40 was first raced in May 1964 at the Nürburgring 1000 km race where it retired with suspension failure after holding second place e
Tony Trimmer is a British former racing driver from England, who won the Shell British Formula Three Championship and E. R. Hall Trophy in 1970, he was born in Berkshire. Tony Trimmer won the prestigious Monaco F3 Race in 1970 driving a Brabham BT-28 and finished runner-up to Patrick Depailler in the 1972 edition. Trimmer entered six Formula One World Championship Grands Prix with uncompetitive teams, firstly Maki for four races in 1975 and 1976, resulting in four failures to qualify, he entered the 1977 British Grand Prix and the 1978 British Grand Prix, with the Melchester Racing Team, driving a Surtees TS19 and a McLaren M23 respectively. However driving the Melchester McLaren, he finished a superb third in the rain-soaked 1978 BRDC International Trophy non-Championship race at Silverstone, coming home ahead of many of the greats of Formula One; that year he won the British Aurora F1 Championship. Trimmer was one of the few people to drive the Connew Formula One car, in its last race in 1973.
However the car collided with a barrier at Brands Hatch. Other than World Championship races, Trimmer raced in many non-championship F1 races and is one of the drivers who drove the greatest variety of Formula One cars ever; the list includes the great Lotus 72 at the 1971 Race of Champions, the March 701, a Lotus 49, Fittipaldi F8 and the one-off Safir RJ-02, accessing from the old times "tubby" Lotus 49 up to a real wing-car Fittipaldi F8. Footnotes
1975 Race of Champions
The 1975 Race of Champions was a non-championship Formula One race held at Brands Hatch on March 16, 1975. Weather conditions were inhospitable, with strong winds, heavy rain and snow showers during the weekend. There was some pre-race controversy about the decision to top up the grid with Formula 5000 cars-eventually a compromise was reached where only those drivers with Formula 1 experience would be permitted to start; the most vehement protester against the Formula 5000 drivers– Emerson Fittipaldi– was to qualify only 17th, some four rows behind the fastest Formula 5000 driver Tom Belsø. Roelof Wunderink made his début in the Ensign, whilst Tony Trimmer qualified well in the new Safir car and Maurizio Flammini was a non-starter after crashing in practice. Tom Pryce dominated in appalling weather conditions from Jody Scheckter, giving the crowd a home driver to cheer in the absence of James Hunt; the start was delayed as snow fell and teams had to decide which type of tyres to use, but when the flag fell, Jacky Ickx surged through from the second row to lead.
In midfield, Belso was hit and spun taking out Jochen Mass, who retired despite having minimal damage to the car. As a result of this incident, the decision was taken to bar Formula 5000 cars from future Formula 1 races. Scheckter took the lead at the end of lap 1 on dry tyres and Pryce was soon catching him, having passed Ronnie Peterson and Ickx after a bad start on the damp side of the track. In third place, with a strong home following was John Watson in the Surtees who gained the place having taken Peterson when they were passing backmarkers at Druids Bend. http://www.silhouet.com/motorsport/archive/f1/nc/1975/1975.html#roc 1976 John Player Grand Prix Year Book, Autocourse 1975 Media related to 1975 Race of Champions at Wikimedia Commons