The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend in late May, it is contested as part of the IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel open-cockpit formula colloquially known as "Indy Car Racing". The name of the race is shortened to Indy 500, the track itself is nicknamed "the Brickyard", as the racing surfacing was paved in brick in the fall of 1909; the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world including the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, infield patrons raise the race-day attendance to 300,000; the inaugural race was won by Ray Harroun.
The event celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, the 100th running was held in 2016. Will Power is the current champion; the most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser Sr. and Rick Mears, each of whom have won the race four times. The active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three. Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six; the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 17 total wins and 17 poles. The event is steeped in tradition, in pre-race ceremonies, post-race celebrations, race procedure; the most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the 33-car field, the annual singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana," and the victory lane bottle of milk. The Indianapolis 500 is held annually at a 2.5-mile oval circuit. Technically, the track is a unique rounded-rectangle, with four distinct turns of identical dimensions, connected by four straightaways. Drivers race 200 laps, counter-clockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles.
Since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend; the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend is considered one of the most important days on the motorsports calendar, as it is the day of the Indianapolis 500, Coca-Cola 600, the Monaco Grand Prix. Practice and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race, while other preliminary testing is held as early as April. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a starting grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece; the event is contested by "Indy cars", a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, purpose-built race cars. As of 2018, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport. Dallara is at present the sole chassis supplier to the series. Firestone, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider.
The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar, one of the oldest and most important automobile races. It has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the world's largest sporting facility in terms of capacity. The total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Similar to NASCAR's Daytona 500, the Indianapolis 500 is held early in the IndyCar Series season; that is unique to most sports where major events are at the end of the respective season. The Indy 500 is the sixth event of the 17-race IndyCar schedule. From the 1970s to the 1990s, Indianapolis was the second or third race of the season, as late as the 1950s, it was sometimes the first championship event of the year. Due to the high prestige of the Indianapolis 500—rivaling or surpassing the season championship—it is not uncommon for some teams and drivers to concentrate on preparation for the 500 during the early part of the season, not focus on the championship battle until after Indy.
The traditional 33-car starting field at Indianapolis is larger than the fields at the other IndyCar races. The field at Indy consists of all of the full-time IndyCar Series entries, along with 10–15 part-time or "Indy-only" entries; the "Indy-only" entries popularly called "One-Offs", may be an extra car added to an existing full-time team, or a part-time team altogether that does not enter any of the other races. The "Indy-only" drivers may come from a wide range of pedigrees, but are experienced Indy car drivers that either lack a full-time ride, are former full-time drivers that have elected to drop down to part-time status, or occasional one-off drivers from other racing disciplines, it is not uncommon for some drivers, to quit full-time driving during the season, but race at Indy singly for numerous years afterwards before entering full retirement. Due to safety issues such as aquaplaning, the race is not held in wet conditions. In the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, the track is sufficiently dried.
If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race and declare the results official if more than half of the scheduled distance (i.e. 101 lap
A presenter is a person who introduces or hosts television programs. Nowadays, it is common for personalities in other fields to take on this role, but some people have made their name within the field of presenting within children's television series, to become television personalities; some presenters may double as an actor, singer, etc. Others may be subject matter experts, such as scientists or politicians, serving as presenters for a programme about their field of expertise; some are celebrities who have made their name in one area leverage their fame to get involved in other areas. Examples of this latter group include British comedian Michael Palin who now presents programmes about travel, American actor Alan Alda, who presented Scientific American Frontiers for over a decade. Another example would be American stand-up comedian Joe Rogan, a commentator and post-fight interviewer in UFC; the term is used in other countries including Ireland and Sri Lanka. In the US, such a person is called a host, such as in the terminology talk show host, or an MC.
In the context of TV news programs, they are known as anchors. News presenter Radio personality Horror host Sports commentator
The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Ravens compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the team is headquartered in Owings Mills. The Ravens were established in 1996, after Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced plans to relocate the franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1995; as part of a settlement between the league and the city of Cleveland, Modell was required to leave the Browns' history and records in Cleveland for a replacement team and replacement personnel that would take control in 1999. In return, he was allowed to take his own personnel and team to Baltimore, where such personnel would form an expansion team; the Ravens have qualified for the NFL playoffs eleven times since 2000, with two Super Bowl victories, two AFC Championship titles, 15 playoff victories, four AFC Championship game appearances, five AFC North division titles, are the only team in the NFL to hold a perfect record in multiple Super Bowl appearances.
The Ravens organization was led by general manager Ozzie Newsome from 1996 until his retirement following the 2018 season, has had three head coaches: Ted Marchibroda, Brian Billick, John Harbaugh. With a record-breaking defensive unit in their 2000 season, the team established a reputation for relying on strong defensive play, led by players like middle linebacker Ray Lewis, until his retirement, was considered the "face of the franchise." The team is owned by Steve Bisciotti and valued at $2.5 billion, making the Ravens the 27th-most valuable sports franchise in the world. The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven. Chosen in a fan contest that drew 33,288 voters, the allusion honors Poe, who spent the early part of his career in Baltimore and is buried there; as the Baltimore Sun reported at the time, fans "liked the tie-in with the other birds in town, the Orioles, found it easy to visualize a tough, menacing black bird." After the controversial relocation of the Colts to Indianapolis, several attempts were made to bring an NFL team back to Baltimore.
In 1993, ahead of the 1995 league expansion, the city was considered a favorite, behind only St. Louis, to be granted one of two new franchises. League officials and team owners feared litigation due to conflicts between rival bidding groups if St. Louis was awarded a franchise, in October Charlotte, North Carolina was the first city chosen. Several weeks Baltimore's bid for a franchise—dubbed the Baltimore Bombers, in honor of the locally produced Martin B-26 Marauder bomber—had three ownership groups in place and a state financial package which included a proposed $200 million, rent-free stadium and permission to charge up to $80 million in personal seat license fees. Baltimore, was unexpectedly passed over in favor of Jacksonville, despite Jacksonville's minor TV market status and that the city had withdrawn from contention in the summer, only to return with then-Commissioner Paul Tagliabue's urging. Although league officials denied that any city had been favored, it was reported that Taglibue and his longtime friend Washington Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke had lobbied against Baltimore due to its proximity to Washington, D.
C. and that Taglibue had used the initial committee voting system to prevent the entire league ownership from voting on Baltimore's bid. This led to public outrage and the Baltimore Sun describing Taglibue as having an "Anybody But Baltimore" policy. Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer said afterward that Taglibue had led him on, praising Baltimore and the proposed owners while working behind-the-scenes to oppose Baltimore's bid. By May 1994, Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos had gathered a new group of investors, including author Tom Clancy, to bid on teams whose owners had expressed interest in relocating. Angelos found a potential partner in Georgia Frontiere, open to moving the Los Angeles Rams to Baltimore. Jack Kent Cooke opposed the move, intending to build the Redskins' new stadium in Laurel, close enough to Baltimore to cool outside interest in bringing in a new franchise; this led to heated arguments between Cooke and Angelos, who accused Cooke of being a "carpetbagger." The league persuaded Rams team president John Shaw to relocate to St. Louis instead, leading to a league-wide rumor that Tagliabue was again steering interest away from Baltimore, a claim which Tagliabue denied.
In response to anger in Baltimore, including Governor Schaefer's threat to announce over the loudspeakers Tagliabue's exact location in Camden Yards any time he attended a Baltimore Orioles game, Tagliabue remarked of Baltimore's financial package: "Maybe can open another museum with that money." Following this, Angelos made an unsuccessful $200 million bid to bring the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to Baltimore. Having failed to obtain a franchise via the expansion, the city, despite having "misgivings," turned to the possibility of obtaining the Cleveland Browns, whose owner Art Modell was financially struggling and at odds with the city of Cleveland over needed improvements to the team's stadium. Enticed by Baltimore's available funds for a first-class stadium and a promised yearly operating subsidy of $25 million, Modell announced on November 6, 1995 his intention to relocate the team from Cleveland to Baltimore the following year; the resulting controversy ended when representatives of Cleveland and the NFL reached a settlement on February 8, 1996.
Tagliabue promised the city of Cleveland that an NFL team would be located
Tampa is a major city in, the county seat of, Hillsborough County, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area; the bay's port is the largest in near downtown's Channel District. Bayshore Boulevard runs along the bay, is east of the historic Hyde Park neighborhood. Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; the four-county area is composed of 3.1 million residents, making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state, the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Washington, D. C. Miami, Atlanta; the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 385,430 in 2017; the Tampa Bay Partnership and U.
S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. Public Transportation in the area includes. There is the TECO Line Streetcar System; when the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", the name was shortened to "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa", in the form "Tanpa", appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida, he described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor.
The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, their locations, the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. Bahía Tampa and Bahía de Espíritu Santo were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa as early as 1695. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared on a British map of 1705, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando"; as late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm, the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language, or the Timucua language.
Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños", a term, still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, to all residents of Tampa inconsiderate of their ethnic background; the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming.
At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga, there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism.
The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entir
Panama Canal Zone
The Panama Canal Zone was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama. The zone consisted of the canal and an area extending five miles on each side of the centerline, excluding Panama City and Colón, which otherwise would have been within the limits of the Zone, its border spanned three of Panama's provinces. When reservoirs were created to assure a steady supply of water for the locks, those lakes were included within the Zone. In 1904, the Isthmian Canal Convention was proclaimed. In it, the Republic of Panama granted to the United States in perpetuity the use and control of a zone of land and land under water for the construction, operation and protection of the canal. From 1903 to 1979, the territory was controlled by the United States, which had purchased the land from the private and public owners, built the canal and financed its construction; the Canal Zone was abolished as a term of the Torrijos -- Carter Treaties two years earlier.
S.–Panamanian control until it was turned over to Panama in 1999. Proposals for a canal across the Isthmus of Panama date back to 1529, soon after the Spanish conquest. Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón, a lieutenant of conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa, suggested four possible routes, one of which tracks the present-day canal. Saavedra believed. Although King Charles I was enthusiastic and ordered preliminary works started, his officials in Panama soon realized that such an undertaking was beyond the capabilities of 16th-century technology. One official wrote to Charles, "I pledge to Your Majesty that there is not a prince in the world with the power to accomplish this"; the Spanish instead built a road across the isthmus. The road came to be crucial to Spain's economy, as treasure obtained along the Pacific coast of South America was offloaded at Panama City and hauled through the jungle to the Atlantic port of Nombre de Dios, close to present day Colón. Although additional canal building proposals were made throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, they came to naught.
The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw a number of canals built. The success of the Erie Canal in the United States and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an interoceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granadan officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. In 1836 U. S. statesman Charles Biddle reached an agreement with the New Granadan government to replace the old road with an improved one or a railroad, running from Panama City on the Pacific coast to the Chagres River, where a steamship service would allow passengers and freight to continue to Colón. His agreement was repudiated by the Jackson administration.
In 1841, with Panama in rebellion again, British interests secured a right of way over the isthmus from the insurgent regime and occupied Nicaraguan ports that might have served as the Atlantic terminus of a canal. In 1846 the new US envoy to Bogotá, Benjamin Bidlack, was surprised when, soon after his arrival, the New Granadans proposed that the United States be the guarantor of the neutrality of the isthmus; the resulting Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty allowed the United States to intervene militarily to ensure that the interoceanic road would not be disrupted. New Granada hoped that other nations would sign similar treaties, but the one with the United States, ratified by the US Senate in June 1848 after considerable lobbying by New Granada, was the only one; the treaty led the U. S. government to contract for steamship service to Panama from ports on both coasts. When the California Gold Rush began in 1848, traffic through Panama increased, New Granada agreed to allow the Panama Railroad to be constructed by American interests.
This first "transcontinental railroad" opened in 1850. There were riots in Panama City in 1856. US warships landed Marines, who occupied the railroad station and kept the railroad service from being interrupted by the unrest; the United States demanded compensation from New Granada, including a zone 20 miles wide, to be governed by US officials and in which the United States might build any "railway or passageway" it desired. The demand was dropped in the face of resistance by New Granadan officials, who accused the United States of seeking a colony. Through the remainder of the 19th century, the United States landed troops several times to preserve the railway connection. At the same time, it pursued a canal treaty with Colombia. One treaty, signed in 1868, was rejected by the Colombian Senate, which hoped for better terms from the incoming Grant administration. Under this treaty, the canal would have been in the middle of a 20-mile zone, under American management but Colombian sovereignty, the canal would revert to Colombia in 99 years.
The Grant administration did little to pursue a treaty and, in 1878, the concession to build the canal fell to a French firm. The French efforts failed, but with Panama unavailable, the United States considered possible canal sites in Mexico and Nic
Carmel is a city north of Indianapolis in Indiana. Home to 92,198 residents, the city spans 47 square miles across Clay Township in Hamilton County, is bordered by the White River to the east. Although Carmel had one of the nation's first stoplights, it is now known as the "Roundabout Capital of the U. S." because it has more roundabouts than any city in America. Carmel has a educated and affluent population whose households have average median income levels of $109,201 and the median average price of a home is $320,400, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, it is cited as one of the Best Places to Live in America by Money magazine and other surveys such as Wallet Hub and SafeWise. The City has been honored for being one of the safest in America, best place to launch a career and to raise a family. Carmel was called "Bethlehem", it was platted and recorded in 1837 by Daniel Warren, Alexander Mills, John Phelps, Seth Green. The original settlers were predominantly Quakers. Today, the plot first established in Bethlehem, located at the intersection of Rangeline Road and Main Street, is marked by a clock tower, donated by the local Rotary Club in 2002.
A post office was established as "Carmel" in 1846 because Indiana had a post office called Bethlehem. The town of Bethlehem was renamed "Carmel" in 1874, due to the need of a post office, at which time it was incorporated. In 1924, one of the first automatic traffic signals in the U. S. was installed at the intersection of Rangeline Road. The signal was the invention of Leslie Haines and is in the old train station on the Monon Trail; the Carmel Monon Depot, John Kinzer House, Thornhurst Addition are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Carmel occupies the southwestern part of Hamilton County, adjacent to Indianapolis and, with the annexation of Home Place in 2018, is now coextensive with Clay Township, it is bordered to the north by Westfield, to the northeast by Noblesville, to the east by Fishers, to the south by Indianapolis in Marion County, to the west by Zionsville in Boone County. The center of Carmel is 15 miles north of the center of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, Carmel has a total area of 48.545 square miles, of which 47.46 square miles is land and 1.085 square miles is water.
Major east-west streets in Carmel end in a 6 and include 96th Street, 106th, 116th, 126th, 131st, 136th, 146th. The numbering system is aligned to that of Hamilton counties. Main Street runs east-west through Carmel's Design District. North-south streets are not numbered and include Michigan, Towne, Spring Mill, Guilford, Keystone, Gray, Hazel Dell, River; some of these roads are continuations of corresponding streets in Indianapolis. Towne Road replaces the name Township Line Road at 96th Street, while Westfield Boulevard becomes Rangeline north of 116th Street. Meridian Street and Keystone Parkway are the major thoroughfares, extending from 96th Street in the south and merging just south of 146th Street; the City of Carmel is nationally noted for having over 100 roundabouts within its borders, with more presently under construction or planned. According to a 2017 estimate, the median household income in the city was $109,201; the median home price between 2013-2017 was $320,400. As of the census of 2010, there were 79,191 people, 28,997 households, 21,855 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,668.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,738 housing units at an average density of 647.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.4% White, 3.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 8.9% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 28,997 households, of which 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.6% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.6% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.18. The median age in the city was 39.2 years. 29.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.3 % female. The government consists of a city council; the current mayor is James Brainard.
The city council consists of seven members. Five are elected from individual districts and two are elected at-large. In mid-2017, the city council was considering a multimillion-dollar bond issue that would cover the cost of roundabouts, roadwork, land acquisition by the Carmel Redevelopment Commission and the purchase of an antique carousel. A 1907 carousel ride had been purchased from Centreville Amusement Park in Toronto, Ontario for delivery in late 2017; the ride will be installed in the Arts & Design District, Midtown or City Center. Made by the Dentzel Carousel Company, it is believed to be one of 150 of this
University of South Florida
The University of South Florida is a public research university in Tampa, Florida. It is a member institution of the State University System of Florida. Founded in 1956, USF is the fourth-largest public university in the state of Florida, with an enrollment of 50,755 as of the 2018–2019 academic year; the USF system has three institutions: USF St. Petersburg and USF Sarasota-Manatee; each institution is separately accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The university is home to 14 colleges, offering more than 80 undergraduate majors and more than 130 graduate and doctoral-level degree programs. USF is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". In its 2011 ranking, the Intellectual Property Owners Association placed USF 10th among all universities worldwide in the number of US patents granted; the university has an annual budget of $1.5 billion and an annual economic impact of over $3.7 billion. In a ranking compiled by the National Science Foundation, USF ranks 43rd in the United States for total research spending among all universities and private.
USF was the first independent state university conceived and built during the 20th century. Former U. S. Representative Samuel Gibbons was instrumental in the school's creation when he was a state representative and is considered by many to be the "Father of USF." Although founded in 1956, the university was not named until the following year, classes did not begin until 1960. The university was built off Fowler Avenue on the site of Henderson Air Field, a World War II airstrip. Before Henderson Field, the area was part of the 1920s 5,000-acre temple orange grove, the largest citrus grove in the world at the time, which gave the nearby City of Temple Terrace its name. In 1957, the Florida Cabinet approved the name "University of South Florida." At the time, USF was the southernmost university in the state university system. In 1962, the official USF mascot was unveiled as the "Golden Brahman." In the late 1980s, the mascot evolved into the "Bulls."The university grew under the leadership of John S. Allen, who served as its first president from 1956 until his retirement in 1971.
During this time, the university expanded due in part to the first master's degree programs commencing in 1964. Allen was known for his opposition to college sports in favor of an environment more academically-centered. Allen's ultimate legacy was to be the first person to build a modern state university from scratch: "As a new and separate institution, the University of South Florida became the first new institution of its kind to be conceived and built in the United States in the 20th century." Today the John and Grace Allen Administration Building, named after the university's founding president and his wife, houses vital Tampa campus departments including Student Affairs, the Admissions Welcome Center, the Controller's Office. In 1970, M. Cecil Mackey became the university's second president. During his time at USF, Mackey opened the university's medical school, School of Nursing, first-ever Ph. D. program. Additionally, Mackey worked to strengthen the St. Petersburg campus, while opening new satellite campuses in Sarasota and Fort Myers.
While serving as university president, Mackey continued to teach economics courses in a conference room across from his office. Mackey first coined a new descriptor for USF: "a metropolitan university." The term is still used to describe USF today. USF emerged as a major research institution during the 1980s under the leadership of the university's third president John Lott Brown. During his tenure, the USF Graduate School was established in 1980. In 1986, Brown oversaw the opening of the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute on the USF Tampa campus. USF became the first university in the nation to offer a Ph. D. in applied anthropology and the first in the State University System of Florida to offer a degree program in women's studies. In January 1988, USF Lakeland opened. On February 15, 1988, Francis T. Borkowski was inaugurated as the university's fourth president, he served as president for five years, laying the groundwork for the university's football program, establishing on-campus housing for the USF president at the Lifsey House, merging several colleges into the College of Arts and Sciences.
Betty Castor became the university's fifth president and first female president when she was inaugurated in January 1994. She served as USF president for six years until 1999. During this time, USF grew to be one of the largest universities in the nation in terms of enrollment; the Florida Board of Regents named USF a "Research 1" University in 1998. In 1997, the university began its inaugural season of NCAA football. Two years the Herd of Thunder marching band debuted. In 2006, Castor returned to USF to lead the Dr. Kiran C. Patel Center for Global Solutions. Castor stepped down from her position as director in 2009; the university is led by its sixth president, Dr. Judy Genshaft, who took office in July 2000, she serves as the president of the USF System. Under Genshaft's leadership, the university has emerged as a top research university and major economic engine with an annual economic impact of $3.7 billion. The university has expanded its global reach, with the opening of the first Confucius Institute in Florida in 2008 and the creation of the Genshaft/Greenbaum Passport Scholarship Fund in 2011, which provides financial support to USF students who want to study abroad.
Under Genshaft, USF has continuously been ranked among the top veteran friendly universities in the country. In 2009, USF became the first university in the nation to partner with the United States Departme